Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America 110 kilometres north of the Canada–United States border; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.
The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.
The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.
On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.
Province of Canada
The Province of Canada was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham in the Report on the Affairs of British North America following the Rebellions of 1837–1838; the Act of Union 1840, passed on 23 July 1840 by the British Parliament and proclaimed by the Crown on 10 February 1841, merged the Colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada by abolishing their separate parliaments and replacing them with a single one with two houses, a Legislative Council as the upper chamber and the Legislative Assembly as the lower chamber. In the aftermath of the Rebellions of 1837–1838, unification of the two Canadas was driven by two factors. Firstly, Upper Canada was near bankruptcy because it lacked stable tax revenues, needed the resources of the more populous Lower Canada to fund its internal transportation improvements. Secondly, unification was an attempt to swamp the French vote by giving each of the former provinces the same number of parliamentary seats, despite the larger population of Lower Canada.
Although Durham's report had called for the Union of the Canadas and for responsible government, only the first of the two recommendations was implemented in 1841. For the first seven years, the government was led by an appointed governor general accountable only to the British Crown and the Queen's Ministers. Responsible government was not to be achieved until the second LaFontaine–Baldwin ministry in 1849, when Governor General James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin agreed to request a cabinet be formed on the basis of party making the elected premier the head of the government and reducing the Governor General to a more symbolic role; the Province of Canada ceased to exist at Canadian Confederation on 1 July 1867, when it was divided into the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Ontario included the area occupied by the pre-1841 British colony of Upper Canada, while Quebec included the area occupied by the pre-1841 British colony of Lower Canada. Upper Canada was English-speaking, whereas Lower Canada was French-speaking.
The Province of Canada was divided into two parts: Canada West. Canada East was what became of the former colony of Lower Canada after being united into the Province of Canada, it became the province of Quebec after Confederation. Canada West was what became of the former colony of Upper Canada after being united into the Province of Canada, it became the province of Ontario after Confederation. The location of the capital city of the Province of Canada changed six times in its 26-year history; the first capital was in Kingston. The capital moved to Montreal until rioters, spurred by a series of incendiary articles published in The Gazette, protested against the Rebellion Losses Bill and burned down Montreal's parliament buildings, it moved to Toronto. It moved to Quebec City from 1852 to 1856 Toronto for one year before returning to Quebec City from 1859 to 1866. In 1857, Queen Victoria chose Ottawa as the permanent capital of the Province of Canada, initiating construction of Canada's first parliament buildings, on Parliament Hill.
The first stage of this construction was completed in 1865, just in time to host the final session of the last parliament of the Province of Canada before Confederation. The Governor General remained the head of the civil administration of the colony, appointed by the British government, responsible to it, not to the local legislature, he was aided by the Legislative Council. The Executive Council aided in administration, the Legislative Council reviewed legislation produced by the elected Legislative Assembly. Sydenham came from a wealthy family of timber merchants, was an expert in finance, having served on the English Board of Trade which regulated banking, he was promised a barony if he could implement the union of the Canadas, introduce a new form of municipal government, the District Council. The aim of both exercises in state-building was to strengthen the power of the Governor General, to minimise the impact of the numerically superior French vote, to build a "middle party" that answered to him, rather than the Family Compact or the Reformers.
Sydenham was a Whig who believed in rational government, not "responsible government". To implement his plan, he used widespread electoral violence through the Orange Order, his efforts to prevent the election of Louis LaFontaine, the leader of the French reformers, were foiled by David Willson, the leader of the Children of Peace, who convinced the electors of the 4th Riding of York to transcend linguistic prejudice and elect LaFontaine in an English-speaking riding in Canada West. Bagot was appointed after the unexpected death of Thomson, with the explicit instructions to resist calls for responsible government, he arrived in the capital, Kingston, to find that Thomson's "middle party" had become polarised and he therefore could not form an executive. The Tories informed Bagot he could not form a cabinet without including LaFontaine and the French Party. LaFontaine demanded four cabinet seats, including one for Robert Baldwin. Bagot became ill thereafter, Baldwin and Lafontaine became the first real premiers of the Province of Canada.
However, to take office as ministers, the two had to run for re-election. While LaFontaine was re-elected in 4th York, Baldwin lost his seat in Hastings as a result of Orange Order violence, it was now that the pact between the two men was completel
Sir Rodmond Palen Roblin, was a businessman and politician in Manitoba, Canada. Roblin was born in Prince Edward County, Canada West; the Roblin family was established in Sophiasburgh by Loyalist farmers Philip and Elizabeth Roblin from Smith's Clove in Orange County, New York. He was educated at Albert College in Belleville, arrived in Winnipeg in 1877, worked as a grain merchant. Roblin served as reeve of Dufferin for five years and as warden for two, was a school trustee in the community, he entered provincial politics in the 1886 Manitoba election, running as a Liberal Party candidate against Conservative cabinet minister David H. Wilson in the constituency of Dufferin North, he lost this race by five votes, but won a subsequent by-election held on May 12, 1888. The by-election took place shortly after Thomas Greenway was inaugurated as Manitoba's first Liberal premier. Roblin was a supporter of Greenway in this period, was re-elected by acclamation when the new premier called another provincial election for July 1888.
Although Greenway's Liberals won this election with a landslide majority, the new premier was unable to fulfill a campaign promise for the development of local railways. The Canadian Pacific Railway had lost its formal monopoly in the region, but it was still the dominant line and transportation costs remained high. Confronted with Greenway's failure, Roblin abandoned the government in 1889 and caucused with the small Conservative opposition. With the death of John Norquay in the same year, he emerged as the party's leading spokesman. Roblin was the Conservative Party's de facto leader in the legislature between 1890 and 1892. In opposition, Roblin spoke against Greenway's proposed education reforms. After his failure to reform the provincial railway system, Greenway repudiated an earlier pledge and withdrew state support for Manitoba's Catholic and francophone education system, his reforms triggered a national political crisis, known as the Manitoba Schools Question. While many Canadian francophones regarded Greenway's policy as discriminatory, it was popular with Manitoba's anglophone and Protestant majority.
Greenway's government was re-elected in the 1892 election, Roblin was defeated in the rural constituency including the town of Morden. Greenway won another landslide victory in the 1896 election, although Roblin was this time returned to the legislature for the constituency of Woodlands, he became the parliamentary leader of the Conservatives for a second time, but stood aside to allow Hugh John Macdonald to become the official leader of the party in 1897. The 1899 provincial election different from the previous two campaigns; the schools question was resolved in 1896, Greenway was forced to defend a mediocre record on other issues against a more organized opposition. The result was a narrow victory for Macdonald's Conservatives. Macdonald was inaugurated as premier early in 1900. Roblin, re-elected in Woodlands and was the main architect of the Conservative victory, was left out of cabinet. Macdonald resigned as premier on October 29, 1900, to run for the Conservative Party of Canada against Clifford Sifton in the federal riding of Brandon.
Roblin became premier in his place, took the powerful cabinet position of Railway Commissioner. In December, he appointed himself as Minister of Agriculture as well; this consolidation of power reflected Roblin's personal authority over both the government and the provincial Conservative Party: his control over both would be unquestioned for the next fourteen years. While Greenway had won elections on single-issue populism, Roblin relied on "machine politics" for his electoral success. Despite some coercion, he was able to dispense patronage and could rely on the support of many loyal followers at the community level. Roblin's Conservatives won thirty-one seats in the 1903 election, against nine for Greenway's Liberals; the extent of this victory may be credited to Greenway's leadership of the Liberal Party—he was uninterested in provincial politics, was spending much of his time looking for a federal patronage appointment. Roblin's machine coasted to easy victories in 1907 and 1910, winning twenty-eight of forty-one seats on both occasions.
Roblin played a crucial role in the 1911 federal election on reciprocity, by putting his electoral machine at the disposal of the federal Conservative Party. In so doing, Roblin helped to put Robert Borden in power. Borden, in turn, enacted legislation to expand Manitoba's boundaries to their current limit. Like his counterpart James Whitney in Ontario, Roblin expanded the role of government in Manitoba and promoted many initiatives that would be regarded today as progressive; as railway commissioner, he reached an agreement with Canadian Northern Railways to build an alternate route to the lakehead, put control of the rates into the hands of the province. His government promoted significant expansions in health and road services, all of which were required to service Manitoba's increasing population. Roblin's Tories created Manitoba's first crown corporations, expropriating Bell's telephone services to create a state-owned system—the first effective public utilities system in Canada; the government started a state-owned system of grain elevators to assist farmers, but this was less successful.
A scandal involving these elevators weakened his government's hold on power in the early 1910s. Roblin was more conservative on social issues, he is remembered today for his opposition to women's suffrage, for clashing with Nellie McClung on the issue
Hastings County is located in the province of Ontario, Canada. Geographically, it is located on the border of Central Ontario. Hastings County is the second largest county in Ontario; the county seat is Belleville, independent of Hastings County. Hastings County has trademarked the moniker "Cheese Capital of Canada"; the 14 local municipalities within Hastings County are: Town of Bancroft Town of Deseronto Municipality of Centre Hastings Municipality of Hastings Highlands Municipality of Tweed Municipality of Marmora and Lake Township of Carlow/Mayo Township of Faraday Township of Limerick Township of Madoc Township of Stirling-Rawdon Township of Tudor and Cashel Township of Tyendinaga Township of WollastonThe Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory is within the Hastings census division but is independent of the county. The cities of Belleville and Quinte West are separated municipalities, falling within the boundaries of the county and included in the Hastings census division, but not under the administration of the county government.
The first boundaries of Hastings County was organized for electoral purposes in 1792, was described as being: bounded on the east by the westernmost boundary of the county of Lenox, on the south by the bay of Quinte, until it meets a boundary on the easternmost line of the river Trent, thence along the river until it intersects the rear of the ninth concession, thence by a line running north sixteen degrees west until it intersects the river Ottawa or Grand river, thence descending the said river until it meets the northwesternmost boundary of the county of Addington. For the initial elections to the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, it was united with Northumberland County and most of Lennox County for purposes of returning one member, it was situated within the Mecklenburg District, renamed the "Midland District" in 1792. In 1798, the Parliament of Upper Canada passed legislation to provide, that, at the beginning of 1800:... the townships of Sidney, the tract of land occupied by the Mohawks, Huntingdon and Rawdon, do constitute and form the county of Hastings.
The territory withdrawn from the County continued to form part of the Midland District. In 1821, the newly surveyed townships of Elzevir and Marmora were added to the County. While in this time agriculture was the most important industry in Hastings County, by 1822 mining was playing an more important role in the area's economy. Prominent citizens of Hastings County and Ameliasburgh Township unsuccessfully petitioned the provincial government for district status during 1817, 1818, 1823 and 1825. After Prince Edward County achieved its own government in 1831, Hastings County continued to send petitions throughout the 30s before achieving the status of a separate district in March 1837, it was constituted as the District of Victoria in 1839. By 1845, the County was declared to consist of the following townships: Belleville, after an abortive attempt two years was organized as a municipality with its own Board of Police in 1836, was designated as the district seat in 1837, it was constituted as a town under the Baldwin Act in 1850, became a city in 1877.
Edward Fidlar became the first warden of Hastings County with their first meeting on January 28, 1850. By this time the Hastings County Council was interested in education and the building of the railroad. On October 27, 1856 the first railroad train arrived in Belleville and by 1864 around 100 people were employed by the railroad. In August 1866, discovery of gold at Eldorado, near Madoc, caused great excitement throughout Hastings County as people flooded to the area from all over North America. According to Barnes, "gold has been found in twenty-seven locations spread over nine townships." The railroads and 170 miles of good gravel roads opened these areas to settlement by 1880. In 1889 the Belleville Waterworks was created as a private company, bought by the city of Belleville in 1889. In 1911, Hastings County was the first in the province to appoint a reforestation committee, instrumental in passing laws around county forests. Postal service began in the area in 1913; the figures below are for the Hastings census division, which combines Hastings County and Quinte West, along with the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory.
Historic populations: Population in 2001: 125,915 Population in 1996: 126,099 The county is served by Highway 401 in the south, Highway 7, a leg of the Trans-Canada Highway, in the central region, Highways 62 and 37 travelling north to south, Highway 28 travelling east to west in the northern region, Highway 127 travelling north from Maynooth in the northern region. Warden: Rick Phillips Town of Bancroft: Bernice Jenckins Hastings Highlands: Vivian Bloom Township of Carlow/Mayo: Bonnie Adams Municipality of Centre Hastings: Owen Ketcheson Town of Deseronto: Norm Clark Township of Faraday: Carl Tinney Township of Limerick: David Golem Township of Madoc: Bob Sager Municipality of Marmora & Lake: Terry Clemens Township of Stirling/Rawdon: Rodney Cooney Municipality of Tweed: Jo-Anne Albert Township of Tudor & Cashel: Wanda Donaldson Township of Tyendinaga: Rick Phillips Township of Wollaston: Dan McCaw Currently Hastings & Prince Edward District School Board operates public schools. Hastings County Board of Education operated public schools.
There are 5 EMS stations in Hastings County with Has
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba and the Queen of Canada in Right of Manitoba, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba form the legislature of the Canadian province of Manitoba. Fifty-seven members are elected to this assembly in provincial general elections, all in single-member constituencies with first-past-the-post voting; the Manitoba Legislative Building is located in central Winnipeg, at the meeting point of the Wolseley and Fort Rouge constituencies. The Premier of Manitoba is Brian Pallister and the current Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba is Myrna Driedger; the Legislature of Manitoba had another chamber, the Legislative Council of Manitoba, but this was abolished in 1876, just six years after the province was formed. Members in bold are in the Cabinet of Manitoba† Speaker of the Assembly The seating arrangement is viewable at the official website. Official site Legislative tour