History of copyright law
The history of copyright law starts with early privileges and monopolies granted to printers of books. The British Statute of Anne 1710, full title "An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by vesting the Copies of Printed Books in the Authors or purchasers of such Copies, during the Times therein mentioned", was the first copyright statute. Copyright law only applied to the copying of books. Over time other uses such as translations and derivative works were made subject to copyright and copyright now covers a wide range of works, including maps, paintings, sound recordings, motion pictures and computer programs. Today national copyright laws have been standardised to some extent through international and regional agreements such as the Berne Convention and the European copyright directives. Although there are consistencies among nations' copyright laws, each jurisdiction has separate and distinct laws and regulations about copyright; some jurisdictions recognize moral rights of creators, such as the right to be credited for the work.
Copyrights are exclusive rights granted to the author or creator of an original work, including the right to copy and adapt the work. Copyright does not protect ideas, only their fixation. In most jurisdictions copyright does not need to be registered. Copyright owners have the exclusive statutory right to exercise control over copying and other exploitation of the works for a specific period of time, after which the work is said to enter the public domain. Uses which are covered under limitations and exceptions to copyright, such as fair use, do not require permission from the copyright owner. All other uses require permission and copyright owners can license or permanently transfer or assign their exclusive rights to others; the earliest recorded historical case-law on the right to copy comes from ancient Ireland. The Cathach is the oldest extant Irish manuscript of the Psalter and the earliest example of Irish writing, it contains a Vulgate version of Psalms XXX to CV with an interpretative rubric or heading before each psalm.
It is traditionally ascribed to Saint Columba as the copy, made at night in haste by a miraculous light, of a Psalter lent to Columba by St. Finnian. In the 6th century, a dispute arose about the ownership of the copy and King Diarmait Mac Cerbhaill gave the judgement "To every cow belongs her calf, therefore to every book belongs its copy." The Battle of Cúl Dreimhne was fought over this issue. Modern copyright law has been influenced by an array of older legal rights that have been recognized throughout history, including the moral rights of the author who created a work, the economic rights of a benefactor who paid to have a copy made, the property rights of the individual owner of a copy, a sovereign's right to censor and to regulate the printing industry; the origins of some of these rights can be traced back to ancient Greek culture, ancient Jewish law, ancient Roman law. In Greek society, during the sixth century B. C. E. There emerged the notion of the individual self, including personal ideals and creativity.
The individual self is important in copyright because it distinguishes the creativity produced by an individual from the rest of society. In ancient Jewish Talmudic law there can be found recognition of the moral rights of the author and the economic or property rights of an author. Prior to the invention of movable type in the West in the mid-15th century, texts were copied by hand and the small number of texts generated few occasions for these rights to be tested. During the Roman Empire, a period of prosperous book trade, no copyright or similar regulations existed, copying by those other than professional booksellers was rare; this is because books were copied by literate slaves, who were expensive to buy and maintain. Thus, any copier would have had to pay much the same expense as a professional publisher. Roman book sellers would sometimes pay a well regarded author for first access to a text for copying, but they had no exclusive rights to a work and authors were not paid anything for their work.
Martial, in his Epigrams, complains about receiving no profit despite the popularity of his poetry throughout the Roman Empire. The origin of copyright law in most European countries lies in efforts by the church and governments to regulate and control the output of printers. Before the invention of the printing press, a writing, once created, could only be physically multiplied by the laborious and error-prone process of manual copying by scribes. An elaborate system of censorship and control over scribes did not exist, as scribes were scattered and worked on single manuscripts. Printing allowed for multiple exact copies of a work, leading to a more rapid and widespread circulation of ideas and information. In 1559 the Index Expurgatorius, or List of Prohibited Books, was issued for the first time. In Europe printing was invented and established in the 15th and 16th centuries. While governments and church encouraged printing in many ways, which allowed the dissemination of Bibles and government information, works of dissent and criticism could circulate rapidly.
As a consequence, governments established controls over printers across Europe, requiring them to have official licences to trade and produce books. The licenses gave printers the exclusive right to print particular works for a fixed period of years, enabled the printer to prevent others from printing the same work during that period; the licenses could only grant rights to print in the territory of the state that had granted them, but they did prohibit the import of foreign printing. The republic of Venice granted its first privilege for a particular book
Cliveden is a National Trust-owned estate in Buckinghamshire, on the border with Berkshire. The Italianate mansion, known as Cliveden House, crowns an outlying ridge of the Chiltern Hills close to the hilltop village of Taplow, just 2 miles from the riverside town of Maidenhead; the mansion sits on banks 40 metres above the River Thames, its grounds slope down to the river. Cliveden has been home to an earl, three countesses, two dukes, a Prince of Wales and the Viscounts Astor. Over the past decade, Cliveden has become one of the National Trust's most popular pay-for-entry visitor attractions, hosting 487,679 visitors in 2017; as home of Nancy Astor, Cliveden was the meeting place of the Cliveden Set of the 1920s and 30s—a group of political intellectuals. During the early 1960s, it became the setting for key events of the notorious Profumo Affair. During the 1970s, it was occupied by Stanford University. Today the house is leased by the National Trust as a five-star hotel. Cliveden means "valley among cliffs" and refers to the dene which cuts through part of the estate, east of the house.
Cliveden has been spelled differently over the centuries, some of the variations being Cliffden, Clifden and Clyveden. The 375 acres gardens and woodlands are open to the public, together with parts of the house on certain days. There have been three houses on this site: the first, built in 1666, burned down in 1795 and the second house was destroyed by fire, in 1849; the present Grade I listed house was built in 1851 by the architect Charles Barry for The 2nd Duke of Sutherland. Designed by Charles Barry in 1851 to replace a house destroyed by fire, the present house is a blend of the English Palladian style and the Roman Cinquecento; the Victorian three-storey mansion sits on a 400-foot long, 20-foot high brick terrace or viewing platform which dates from the mid-17th century. The exterior of the house is rendered in Roman cement, with terracotta additions such as balusters, capitals and finials; the roof of the mansion is meant for walking on, there is a circular view, above the tree-line, of parts of Buckinghamshire and Berkshire including Windsor Castle to the south.
Below the balustraded roofline is a Latin inscription which continues around the four sides of the house and recalls its history. On the west front it reads: POSITA INGENIO OPERA CONSILIO CAROLI BARRY ARCHIT A MDCCCLI, which translated reads: "The work accomplished by the brilliant plan of architect Charles Barry in 1851." The main contractor for the work was Lucas Brothers. In 1984–86 the exterior of the mansion was overhauled and a new lead roof installed by the National Trust, while interior repairs were carried out by Cliveden Hotel. In 2013, restoration work on the main house was carried out including the restoration of 300 sash windows and 20 timber doors; the interior of the house today is different from its original appearance in 1851–52. This is due to the 1st Lord Astor, who radically altered the interior layout and decoration c.1894–95. Whereas Barry's original interior for the Sutherlands had included a square entrance-hall, a morning room and a separate stairwell, Lord Astor wanted a more impressive entrance to Cliveden so he had all three rooms knocked into one large one.
His aim was to make the interior as much like an Italian palazzo as possible, which would complement the exterior. The ceiling and walls were panelled in English oak, with Corinthian columns and swags of carved flowers for decoration, all by architect Frank Pearson; the staircase newel posts are ornamented with carved figures representing previous owners by W. S. Frith. Astor installed a large 16th-century fireplace, bought from a Burgundian chateau, being pulled down. To the left of the fireplace is a portrait of Nancy, Lady Astor by the American portraitist John Singer Sargent; the room was and still is furnished with 18th-century suits of armour. The floor was covered with Minton encaustic tiles but Nancy Astor had them removed in 1906 and the present flagstones laid. Above the staircase is a painted ceiling by French artist Auguste Hervieu which depicts the Sutherlands' children painted as the four seasons; this is the only surviving element of Barry's 1851–52 interior and it is believed that Lord Astor considered it too beautiful to remove.
The French Dining Room is so-called because the 18th-century Rococo panelling came from the Château d'Asnières near Paris, a château, leased to Louis XV and his mistress Madame de Pompadour as a hunting lodge. When the panelling came up for sale in Paris in 1897, the 1st Lord Astor recognised that it would fit this room at Cliveden; the gilded panelling on a turquoise ground contains carvings of hares, hunting dogs and rifles. The console tables and buffet were made in 1900 to match the room; the main dining room of the house until the 1980s, today it is a private dining room with views over the Parterre and Thames. The second largest room on the ground floor, after the Great Hall, was the original drawing room which today is used as the hotel's main dining room and has river views. On the ground floor is the library, panelled in cedar wood, which the Astors used to call the "cigar box", next door, Nancy Astor's boudoir. Upstairs there are a total of 10 bedroom suites divided over two floors.
The East wing was and still is guest accommodation, whereas the West wing was domestic offices that were converted into more bedrooms in 1994. The nearby 100-foot
Gottfried van Swieten
Gottfried, Freiherr van Swieten was a Dutch-born Austrian diplomat and government official who served the Austrian Empire during the 18th century. He was an enthusiastic amateur musician and is best remembered today as the patron of several great composers of the Classical era, including Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven. Van Swieten was born Godefridus Bernardus "Godfried" van Swieten in Leiden and grew up in the Dutch Republic to the age of 11, his father Gerard van Swieten was a physician who achieved a high reputation for raising standards of scientific research and instruction in the field of medicine. In 1745, the elder van Swieten agreed to become personal physician to the Austrian Empress Maria Theresa, moved with his family to Vienna, where he became the director of the court library and served in other government posts; the young van Swieten was educated for national service in the Theresianum. According to Heartz, the young van Swieten had "excelled in his studies" and was fluent in many languages.
Thus it was natural. His first posting was to Brussels Paris, to the court of Frederick the Great of Prussia in Berlin; the last posting involved serious responsibility. Frederick had defeated Austria in the War of the Austrian Succession, seizing from her the territory of Silesia. Van Swieten was ambassador during the First Partition of Poland, in which much of the territory of this nation was annexed by the more powerful neighboring empires of Austria and Prussia. Austria rather unrealistically wanted Silesia back as part of the terms of the partition, it was van Swieten's "thankless task" to negotiate on this basis. Van Swieten shifted the negotiations to his backup plan and the Partition went forward with Silesia remaining Prussian. During this period of his career, van Swieten assiduously cultivated his musical interests, his supervisor in Brussels, Count Cobenzl, reported in 1756 that "music takes up the best part of his time." In Berlin, van Swieten studied with Johann Philipp Kirnberger, a former pupil of J. S. Bach, was part of the musical circle of Princess Anna Amalia, where the music of Bach and Handel was played and admired.
On his return to Vienna in 1777 van Swieten was appointed as the Prefect of the Imperial Library, a post, vacant for five years since the father's death. Van Swieten remained imperial librarian for the rest of his life; as librarian, van Swieten introduced the world's first card catalog. Libraries had had catalogs before, in the form of bound volumes. Van Swieten's innovation of using cards permitted new entries to be added in a conveniently searchable order. Card catalogs were soon adopted notably in Revolutionary France. Van Swieten expanded the library's collection, notably with books on science, as well as older books from the libraries of monasteries, dissolved under the decrees of Emperor Joseph II. In 1780, when Joseph II came to the throne, Swieten's career reached its peak of success, he was appointed a Councillor of State and Director of the State Education Commission in 1781 also as Director of a new Censorship Commission in 1782. Van Swieten was sympathetic to the program of reforms which Joseph sought to impose on his empire, his position in government was a critical one, considered by Braunbehrens to be the equivalent of being minister of culture.
Edward Olleson describes the political situation: "The projected reforms of the educational system... were the most fundamental of all. Joseph's goal of building up a middle class with a political responsibility towards the State depended on great advances in elementary education, on the universities. Van Swieten's liberal views fitted him to the task of implementing the Emperor's plans." Olleson adds that, because Joseph's reforms increased the freedom of the press, a "flood of pamphlets" was published critical of the Imperial government—thus increasing van Swieten's responsibilities in supervising the censorship apparatus of the government. His letters of the time report an heavy workload. In 1784, van Swieten proposed. Van Swieten's suggestion was overruled by the Emperor. Nicholas Till suggests that had van Swieten's law been implemented, the career of his protégé Mozart as an independent musician might have gone much more successfully. Van Swieten's rise to power met with obstacles and trouble.
In 1787, the Emperor launched a "disastrous and costly" war against the Turks, which put Austrian society in turmoil and undermined his earlier efforts at reform. Till writes: Joseph attempted to pass the blame for events on to... van Swieten. As President of the Censorship Commission, had been more liberal than Joseph was willing to countenance.... As Minister for Education had aimed to strip education of any religious character, but his reforms, which indicated a far more radic
Earl of Haddington
Earl of Haddington is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1627 for judge Thomas Hamilton, 1st Earl of Melrose, he was Lord President of the Court of Session from 1616 to 1625. Hamilton had been created Lord Binning in 1613 and Lord Binning and Byres, in the County of Haddington, Earl of Melrose, in the County of Roxburgh, in 1619; these titles were in the Peerage of Scotland. The title of the earldom derived from the fact that he was in possession of much of the lands of the former Melrose Abbey. However, Hamilton was unhappy with this title and wished to replace it with "Haddington". In 1627 he relinquished the earldom of Melrose and was instead created Earl of Haddington, with the precedence of 1619 and with limitation to his heirs male bearing the surname of Hamilton; this derived from the fact that he considered it a greater honour to take his title from a county rather than from an abbey. Hamilton was a member of the prominent Scottish family of that name and descended from John de Hamilton, younger son of Walter de Hamilton, granted the feudal barony of Cadzow and, the ancestor of the Dukes of Hamilton and Dukes of Abercorn.
Lord Haddington was succeeded by the second Earl. He was a staunch Covenanter. Haddington served as Governor of the Castle of Dunglass, was killed by a massive explosion there in 1640, his eldest son, the third Earl, died childless at an early age and was succeeded by his younger brother, the fourth Earl. On his death the titles passed to the fifth Earl, he married Margaret Leslie, 8th Countess of Rothes, daughter of the noted statesman John Leslie, 1st Duke of Rothes, who had received a re-grant of the earldom of Rothes in 1663 which allowed it to be passed on to his daughter. According to the regrant of 1663, the earldom of Rothes was not allowed to be united with the earldom of Haddington; the couple were therefore in 1689 granted a patent of the marriage contract, which stated that the earldom of Rothes should descend to their eldest son, the Hon. John, while the earldom of Haddington should be inherited by their second son, the Hon. Thomas. According to this patent Lady Rothes was succeeded by the ninth Earl.
Lord Haddington was succeeded accordingly by the sixth Earl. He obtained a new charter of the earldom, he sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer from 1716 to 1735 and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Haddingtonshire from 1716 to 1735. He was appointed Hereditary Keeper of Holyrood Palace, his eldest son Charles Hamilton, Lord Binning, married Rachel, daughter of George Baillie, of Mellerstain House and Jerviswood. Through this marriage Mellerstein House and the Jerviswood estate came into the Hamilton family. Lord Binning predeceased his father. Lord Haddington was therefore succeeded by his grandson, Thomas the seventh Earl, who married Mary Lloyd, née Holt. On his death the titles passed to the eighth Earl, he was a Scottish Representative Peer from 1807 to 1812 and Lord-Lieutenant of Haddingtonshire from 1804 to 1823. He was succeeded by the ninth Earl, he was a Tory politician and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland from 1834 to 1835 and as First Lord of the Admiralty from 1841 to 1846.
In 1827, one year before he succeeded his father in the earldom, he was created Baron Melros, of Tyninghame in the County of Haddington, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Lord Haddington resigned the office of Hereditary Keeper of Holyrood Park in 1843 for a compensation fee of £40,000, he was childless and on his death in 1859 the barony of Melros became extinct. The ninth Earl was succeeded in the Scottish titles by the tenth Earl, he was the son of George Baillie of Jerviswood, son of the Hon. George Hamilton, younger brother of the seventh Earl, he assumed in 1859 by Royal licence the additional surname of Hamilton to that of Baillie. Lord Haddington was a Scottish Representative Peer in the House of Lords from 1859 to 1870 and served as a government whip in the 1866–1868 Conservative administration. On his death the titles passed to the eleventh Earl, he was Lord-Lieutenant of Haddingtonshire from 1876 to 1917. In 1858 Haddington assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Arden after that of Baillie-Hamilton.
His eldest son George Baillie-Hamilton, Lord Binning, was a brigadier-general in the army. However, he predeceased his father. Lord Haddington was therefore succeeded by the twelfth Earl, he was the son of Lord Binning. He sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer from 1922 to 1963 and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Berwickshire from 1952 to 1969, he was succeeded by his only son, the thirteenth Earl, in 1986. As of 2017 the titles are held by his only son, the fourteenth Earl, who succeeded in 2016. Several other members of the Baillie-Hamilton family have gained distinction. George Baillie, son of the Hon. George Hamilton, younger brother of the seventh Earl, sat as Member of Parliament for Berwickshire, he was the father of 1) the politician and judge Charles Baillie, Lord Jerviswoode, 2) Reverend t
University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university has five main campuses in the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university; the university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North. The University of Edinburgh is ranked 18th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, it is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U. S. News' Best Global Universities Ranking, 7th best in Europe by the Times Higher Education Ranking; the Research Excellence Framework, a research ranking used by the UK government to determine future research funding, ranked Edinburgh 4th in the UK for research power, 11th overall. It is ranked the 78th most employable university in the world by the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking.
It is a member of both the Russell Group, the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £949.0 million of which £279.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £931.3 million. Alumni of the university include some of the major figures of modern history, including 3 signatories of the American declaration of independence and 9 heads of state; as of March 2019, Edinburgh's alumni, faculty members and researches include 19 Nobel laureates, 3 Turing Award laureates, 1 Fields Medalist, 1 Abel Prize winner, 2 Pulitzer Prize winners, 2 currently-sitting UK Supreme Court Justices, several Olympic gold medallists. It continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.
Edinburgh receives 60,000 applications every year, making it the second most popular university in the UK by volume of applications. It has 4th highest average UCAS entry tariff in Scotland, 5th overall in the UK. Founded by the Edinburgh Town Council, the university began life as a college of law using part of a legacy left by a graduate of the University of St Andrews, Bishop Robert Reid of St Magnus Cathedral, Orkney. Through efforts by the Town Council and Ministers of the City the institution broadened in scope and became formally established as a college by a Royal Charter, granted by King James VI of Scotland on 14 April 1582 after the petitioning of the Council; this was unprecedented in newly Presbyterian Scotland, as older universities in Scotland had been established through Papal bulls. Established as the "Tounis College", it opened its doors to students in October 1583. Instruction began under the charge of another St Andrews graduate Robert Rollock, it was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the richer and much more populous England had only two.
It was renamed King James's College in 1617. By the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. In 1762, Reverend Hugh Blair was appointed by King George III as the first Regius Professor of Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres; this formalised literature as a subject at the university and the foundation of the English Literature department, making Edinburgh the oldest centre of literary education in Britain. Before the building of Old College to plans by Robert Adam implemented after the Napoleonic Wars by the architect William Henry Playfair, the University of Edinburgh existed in a hotchpotch of buildings from its establishment until the early 19th century; the university's first custom-built building was the Old College, now Edinburgh Law School, situated on South Bridge. Its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor.
It went under what was North College Street, under the university buildings until it reached the university's anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection. It was from this tunnel. Towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Sir Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875; the design incorporated a Graduation Hall, but this was seen as too ambitious. A separate building was constructed for the purpose, the McEwan Hall designed by Anderson, after funds were donated by the brewer and politician Sir William McEwan in 1894, it was presented to the University in 1897. New College was opened in 1846 as a Free Church of Scotland college of the United Free Church of Scotland. Since the 1930s it has been the home of the School of Divinity. Prior to the 1929 reunion of the Church of Scotland, candidates for the ministry in the United Free Church studied at New College, whilst candidates for the old Church of Scotland studied in the Divinity Faculty of the University of Edinburgh.
During the 1930s the two institutions came together. By the end of the 1950s, there were around 7,000 students matriculating annually. An Edinburgh Students' Representative Council was founded in 1884 by student Robert Fitzroy Bell. In 1889, the SRC voted to be housed in Teviot Row House; the Edinburgh University Sports Union, founded in 1866. The Edinburgh
Kingdom of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain, sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England, it suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I it fought a successful War of Independence and remained an independent state throughout the late Middle Ages. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became King of England, joining Scotland with England in a personal union. In 1707, the two kingdoms were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain under the terms of the Acts of Union. Following the annexation of the Northern Isles from the Kingdom of Norway in 1472 and final capture of the Royal Burgh of Berwick by the Kingdom of England in 1482, the territory of the Kingdom of Scotland corresponded to that of modern-day Scotland, bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest.
The Crown was the most important element of government. The Scottish monarchy in the Middle Ages was a itinerant institution, before Edinburgh developed as a capital city in the second half of the 15th century; the Crown remained at the centre of political life and in the 16th century emerged as a major centre of display and artistic patronage, until it was dissolved with the Union of Crowns in 1603. The Scottish Crown adopted the conventional offices of western European monarchical states of the time and developed a Privy Council and great offices of state. Parliament emerged as a major legal institution, gaining an oversight of taxation and policy, but was never as central to the national life. In the early period, the kings of the Scots depended on the great lords—the mormaers and toísechs—but from the reign of David I, sheriffdoms were introduced, which allowed more direct control and limited the power of the major lordships. In the 17th century, the creation of Justices of Peace and Commissioners of Supply helped to increase the effectiveness of local government.
The continued existence of courts baron and the introduction of kirk sessions helped consolidate the power of local lairds. Scots law was reformed and codified in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under James IV the legal functions of the council were rationalised, with Court of Session meeting daily in Edinburgh. In 1532, the College of Justice was founded, leading to the training and professionalisation of lawyers. David I is the first Scottish king known to have produced his own coinage. At the union of the Crowns in 1603 the Pound Scots was fixed at only one-twelfth the value of the English pound; the Bank of Scotland issued pound notes from 1704. Scottish currency was abolished by the Act of Union, however to the present day, Scotland retains unique banknotes. Geographically, Scotland is divided between the Lowlands; the Highlands had a short growing season, further shortened during the Little Ice Age. From Scotland's foundation to the inception of the Black Death, the population had grown to a million.
It expanded in the first half of the 16th century, reaching 1.2 million by the 1690s. Significant languages in the medieval kingdom included Gaelic, Old English and French. Christianity was introduced into Scotland from the 6th century. In the Norman period the Scottish church underwent a series of changes that led to new monastic orders and organisation. During the 16th century, Scotland underwent a Protestant Reformation that created a predominately Calvinist national kirk. There were a series of religious controversies that resulted in persecutions; the Scottish Crown developed naval forces at various points in its history, but relied on privateers and fought a guerre de course. Land forces centred around the large common army, but adopted European innovations from the 16th century. From the 5th century AD, north Britain was divided into a series of petty kingdoms. Of these, the four most important were those of the Picts in the north-east, the Scots of Dál Riata in the west, the Britons of Strathclyde in the south-west and the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia in the south-east, stretching into modern northern England.
In AD 793, ferocious Viking raids began on monasteries such as those at Iona and Lindisfarne, creating fear and confusion across the kingdoms of north Britain. Orkney and the Western Isles fell to the Norsemen; these threats may have speeded up a long-term process of gaelicisation of the Pictish kingdoms, which adopted Gaelic language and customs. There was a merger of the Gaelic and Pictish kingdoms, although historians debate whether it was a Pictish takeover of Dál Riata, or the other way round; this culminated in the rise of Cínaed mac Ailpín as "king of the Picts" in the 840s, which brought to power the House of Alpin. When he died as king of the combined kingdom in 900 one of his successors, Domnall II, was the first man to be called rí Alban; the term Scotia would be used to describe the heartland of these kings, north of the River Forth, the entire area controlled by its kings would be referred to as Scotland. The long reign of Donald's successor Causantín is regarded as the key to formation of the Kingdom of Alba/Scotland, he was la
Allan Ramsay (poet)
Allan Ramsay was a Scottish poet, publisher and impresario of early Enlightenment Edinburgh. Allan Ramsay was born at Leadhills, Lanarkshire, to John Ramsay, superintendent of Lord Hopetoun's lead-mines and his wife, Alice Bower, a native of Derbyshire. Allan Ramsay and his elder brother Robert attended the parish school at Crawfordjohn. In 1701 Allan was apprenticed to a wig-maker in Edinburgh and received his indentures back by 1709, he married Christian Ross in 1712. They had six children, his eldest child was the portrait painter. Ramsay's first efforts in verse-making were inspired by the meetings of the Easy Club, of which he was an original member. In the society of the members he assumed the name of "Isaac Bickerstaff," and of "Gawin Douglas," the latter in memory of his maternal grandfather Douglas of Muthill, to give point to his boast that he was a "poet sprung from a Douglas loin." The choice of the two names has some significance, when we consider his literary life as the associate of the Queen Anne poets and as a collector of old Lowland Scots poetry.
By 1718 he had made some reputation as a writer of occasional verse, which he published in broadsheets, he turned bookseller in the premises where he had hitherto plied his craft of wig-making. In 1716 he had published a rough transcript of "Christ's Kirk on the Green" from the Bannatyne Manuscript, with some additions of his own. In 1718 he republished the piece with more supplementary verses. In the following year he printed a collection of Scots Songs; the success of these ventures prompted him to collect his poems in 1720 and publish a volume in 1721. The volume was issued by subscription, brought in the sum of four hundred guineas. Four years he removed to another shop, in the neighbouring Luckenbooths, where he opened a circulating library and extended his business as a bookseller. Ramsay is considered to have created the first circulating library in Britain when he rented books from his shop in 1726. Between the publication of the collected edition of his poems and his settling down in the Luckenbooths, he had published a few shorter poems and had issued the first instalments of The Tea-Table Miscellany and The Ever Green.
The Tea-Table Miscellany is "A Collection of Choice Songs Scots and English," containing some of Ramsay's own, some by his friends, several well-known ballads and songs, some Caroline verse. Its title was suggested by the programme of The Spectator: as Addison had sought for his speculations the hour set apart "for tea and bread and butter," so Ramsay laid claim to that place for his songs "e'en while the tea's fill'd reeking round."In The Ever Green: being a Collection of Scots Poems wrote by the Ingenious before 1600, Ramsay had another purpose, to reawaken an interest in the older national literature. Nearly all the pieces were taken from the Bannatyne manuscript, though they are by no means verbatim copies, they included his version of "Christ's Kirk" and a remarkable pastiche by the editor entitled "The Vision". While engaged on these two series, he produced, in his dramatic pastoral The Gentle Shepherd. In the volume of poems published in 1721 Ramsay had shown his bent to this genre in "Patie and Roger," which supplies two of the dramatis personae to his greater work.
The success of the drama was remarkable. It passed through several editions, was performed at the theatre in Edinburgh. In 1726 he published anonymously Poems in English and Latin, on the Archers and Royal Company of Archers, by several Hands for the Royal Company of Archers, he wrote the words to the Archer's March, Another volume of his poems appeared in 1728. Ramsay wrote little afterwards, though he published a few shorter poems, new editions of his earlier work. A complete edition of his Poems appeared in London in 1731 and in Dublin in 1733. With a touch of vanity he expressed the fear lest "the coolness of fancy that attends advanced years should make me risk the reputation I had acquired." He was on terms of intimacy with the leading men of letters in Scotland and England. He corresponded with William Hamilton of William Somervile, John Gay and Alexander Pope. Gay visited him in Edinburgh, Pope praised his pastoral—compliments which were undoubtedly responsible for some of Ramsay's unhappy poetic ventures beyond his Scots vernacular.
The poet had for many years been a warm supporter of the stage. Some of his prologues and epilogues were written for the London theatres. In 1736 he set about the erection of a new theatre, "at vast expense," in Carrubber's Close, Edinburgh. In 1755 he retired from his shop to the house on the slope of the Castle Rock, still known as Ramsay Lodge; this house was called by his friends "the goose-pie," because of its octagonal shape. He is buried at Edinburgh; the grave itself is unmarked but a monument was erected to his memory on the south wall of Greyfriars Kirk in the mid-19th century. In 1846 Ramsay was depicted as one of sixteen Scottish poets and writers on the lower section of the Scott Monument on Princes Street in Edinburgh. Ramsay's statue was erected in 1850 at the corner of Princes Street Gardens and the Mound in the centre of Edinburgh. There is a hotel located in Carlops named after him; the hotel hosted a festival in his and his