Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York was the wife of Henry VII, thus the first Tudor queen. She was the daughter of Edward IV and his wife Elizabeth Woodville, niece of Richard III, she married Henry VII in 1486, after being detained by him the previous year following the latter's victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field, which started the last phase of the Wars of the Roses. Together and Henry had a total of four sons, three of whom died before their father, leaving their brother, Henry VIII, to succeed his father as king; the period of Henry VI's Readeption from October 1470 until April 1471 and the period between her father's death in 1483, when she was 17, the making of peace between her mother and her uncle Richard, were violent and anxious interludes in what was a peaceful life. Her two brothers, the so-called "Princes in the Tower", their fate uncertain. Although declared illegitimate by an act of Parliament, Titulus Regius in 1484, she was subsequently welcomed back to court by her uncle Richard III, along with all of her sisters.
As a Yorkist princess, the final victory of the Lancastrian faction in the War of the Roses may have seemed a further disaster, but Henry Tudor knew the importance of Yorkist support for his invasion and promised to marry her before he arrived in England. Elizabeth of York was the queen consort of England from 1486 until her death in 1503, but seems to have played little part in politics, her marriage seems to have been successful. Her eldest son Arthur, Prince of Wales, died at age 15 in 1502, three other children died young, her surviving son became king of England and her daughters Mary and Margaret became queen of France and queen of Scotland, respectively. Elizabeth of York was born at the Palace of Westminster as the eldest child of King Edward IV and his wife Elizabeth Woodville, her christening was celebrated at Westminster Abbey, sponsored by her grandmothers Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Duchess of Bedford, Cecily Neville, Duchess of York. Her third sponsor was her cousin Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.
At three, she was betrothed to George Neville in 1469. His father John supported George's uncle, the Earl of Warwick, in rebellion against King Edward IV, the betrothal was called off. In 1475, Louis XI agreed to the marriage of 9-year-old Elizabeth of York and his son Charles, the Dauphin of France. In 1482, Louis XI reneged on his promise. At age 11, she was named a Lady of the Garter in 1477, along with her mother and her paternal aunt Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk. On 9 April 1483, Elizabeth's father, King Edward IV, unexpectedly died and her younger brother, Edward V, ascended to the throne, her mother, Elizabeth Woodville, tried to deny Gloucester his right to be Lord Protector in order to keep power within her family, so Gloucester opted to take steps to isolate his nephews from their Woodville relations. He intercepted Edward V while the latter was travelling from Ludlow, where he had been living as Prince of Wales, to London to be crowned king. Edward V was placed in the royal residence of the Tower of London, ostensibly for his protection.
Elizabeth Woodville fled with her younger son Richard and her daughters, taking sanctuary in Westminster Abbey. Gloucester asked Archbishop Bourchier to take Richard with him, so the boy could reside in the Tower and keep his brother Edward company. Elizabeth Woodville, under duress agreed. Two months on 22 June 1483, Edward IV's marriage was declared invalid, it was claimed that Edward IV had, at the time of his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville been betrothed to Lady Eleanor Butler. Parliament issued Titulus Regius, in support of this position; this measure bastardised the children of Edward IV, made them ineligible for the succession, declared Gloucester the rightful king, with the right of succession reverting to children of George, 1st Duke of Clarence, another late brother of Gloucester, attainted in 1478. Gloucester ascended to the throne as Richard III on 6 July 1483, with Edward and Richard disappearing shortly afterwards. Rumours began to spread that they had been murdered, these appear to have been widely credited though some undoubtedly emanated from overseas.
Elizabeth's mother made an alliance with Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry Tudor King Henry VII, who had the closest claim to the throne of those in the Lancastrian party. Although Henry Tudor was descended from King Edward III, his claim to the throne was weak, owing to an act of parliament passed during the reign of Richard II in the 1390s, that barred accession to the throne to any heirs of the legitimised offspring of Henry's great-great grandparents, John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford. Whether such an unprecedented act had force of law is, disputed. Whatever the merits of Henry's claim, his mother and Elizabeth Woodville agreed he should move to claim the throne and, once he had taken it, marry Elizabeth of York to unite the two rival houses. In December 1483, in the cathedral of Rennes, Henry Tudor swore an oath promising to marry her and began planning an invasion. In 1484, Elizabeth of York and her sisters left Westminster Abbey and returned to court when Elizabeth Woodville was reconciled with Richard III, which may – or may not – suggest that Elizabeth Woodville believed Richard III to be innocent of any possible role in the murder of her two sons (although this is unlikely owing to her in
Polidoro Virgili Latinised as Polydorus Vergilius, or anglicised as Polydore Vergil, known as Polydore Vergil of Urbino was an Italian humanist scholar, historian and diplomat, who spent most of his life in England. He is remembered for his works the Proverbiorum libellus, a collection of Latin proverbs, he has been dubbed the "Father of English History". Vergil is sometimes referred to in contemporary documents as Polydore Vergil Castellensis or Castellen, leading some to assume that he was a kinsman of his patron, Cardinal Adriano Castellesi. However, it is more that the alias indicates that he was in Castellesi's service. Vergil was born at Urbino, or more at Fermignano, within the Duchy of Urbino, his father, Giorgio di Antonio, owned a dispensary. His grandfather, Antonio Virgili, "a man well skilled in medicine and astrology", had taught philosophy at the University of Paris. Another brother, was a merchant trading with England; the niece of Polydore Vergil, married Lorenzo Borgogelli, count of Fano, from whom descend the family of Borgogelli Virgili.
Polydore was educated at the University of Padua, at Bologna. He was ordained by 1496, he was in the service of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, before 1498, as in the dedication of his Proverbiorum Libellus he styles himself Guido's client. His second book, De Inventoribus Rerum, was dedicated to Guido's tutor, Lodovico Odassio, in August 1499. At some point prior to 1502 Polydore entered the service of Pope Alexander VI. In 1502, Vergil travelled to England as the deputy of Cardinal Adriano Castellesi in the office of Collector of Peter's Pence, and, in practice, the Cardinal's agent in a variety of affairs. In October 1504 he was enthroned Bishop of Wells as proxy for Adriano, he spent little time in Wells, but was active as the Chapter's representative in London. He donated a set of hangings for the quire of Wells Cathedral, he held other ecclesiastical sinecures, from 1503, the living of Church Langton, Leicestershire. As an established author, a representative of Italian humanist learning, Vergil was received in England as a minor celebrity, was welcomed at court by King Henry VII.
It was at the King's behest that he began work on his Anglica Historia, a new history of England as early as 1505. On 22 October 1510, he was naturalised English. Early in 1515 – through the intrigues of Andrea Ammonio, who sought the subcollectorship for himself – an ill-judged letter from Vergil was intercepted by the authorities, it contained what was read as implied criticism of both Thomas Wolsey and Henry VIII, as a result Vergil was imprisoned in April in the Tower of London. His supporters and advocates included Pope Leo X. From prison Vergil wrote to Wolsey, begging that the approaching Christmas season – a time which witnessed the restitution of a world – might see his pardon: his letter's tone has been described as "almost blasphemous", he never regained his subcollectorship. Although Vergil lived predominantly in England from 1502 onwards, he paid several return visits to Urbino, in 1513–14, 1516–17 and 1533–4. In 1534, Francesco Maria, Duke of Urbino, in recognition of his literary achievements, admitted Vergil and his family to the ranks of the nobility.
In 1546 Vergil resigned the Archdeaconry of Wells to the Crown in anticipation of his retirement to Italy. He was licensed to return to Urbino in 1550, left England for the last time in the summer of 1553, he died in Urbino on 18 April 1555. Vergil was buried in the chapel of St Andrew which he himself had endowed. In 1613, it was agreed; this was put in place in 1631, with an inscription stating that his fame would "live for in the world". However, it is believed to have been lost when the cathedral was damaged by an earthquake in 1789. Vergil's family home in Urbino is marked by a plaque. Vergil is among the worthies whose portraits were painted in c.1618–19 on the frieze in what is now the Upper Reading Room of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Vergil published his first work in 1496; this was an edition of Niccolò Perotti’s Cornucopiae latinae linguae, a commentary on Martial's Epigrams. Vergil's Proverbiorum Libellus, retitled in editions as Adagiorum Liber, known as the Adagia, was a collection of Latin proverbs.
It was the first such collection printed. The initial controversy between the two authors that arose from their rival claims for priority gave place to a sincere friendship; the first edition of Vergil's work contained 306 proverbs taken from classical sources. A second, edition appeared in 1521: it contained a further series of 431 Biblical proverbs, was dedicated to Wolsey's follower, Richard Pace; this edition is preceded by an interesting letter sent in June 1519, which gives the names of many of Vergil's English friends, including Thomas More, William Warham, Thomas Lina
Guînes is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. It was spelt Guisnes. Guînes is located on the border of the two territories of the Boulonnais and Calaisis, at the edge of the now-drained marshes, which extend from here to the coast; the Guînes canal connects with Calais. Guînes was the capital of a small county of the same name. After the Romans left, in the 5th century, there is little known about the town. In the Dark Ages, according to legend, the territory of Guînes became the property of one Aigneric, Mayor of the Palace of the Burgundian king Théodebert II. In 928, when the Danes invaded and seized the place, it was a defenceless village. A fenced mound and a double ditch would soon have been created by the Danes; this is the origin of the castle of Guînes. Arnulf I, Count of Flanders, realizing a counter-attack would be costly, arranged the marriage of his daughter Elstrude, to Sigfrid, the Danish leader, bestowing upon him the title of Count of Guînes but as vassal to him, the Count of Flanders.
Under Sigfrid’s successors, the county of Guînes acquired considerable importance. At the beginning of the 11th century, Count Manassès founded a convent of the order of Saint-Benoit; this was placed under the jurisdiction of the nearby abbey of Saint Léonard. At that time, Guînes comprised three parishes within its walls, whose churches were dedicated to Saint Bertin, Saint Pierre and Saint Médard. Outside the town ramparts were the abbey of Saint Léonard, the church of Saint-Blaise, in the hamlet of Melleke, the leper-house of Saint Quentin, in the hamlet of Spelleke. At the end of the 11th century, Baudoin II built a huge stone castle on top of Sigfrid’s old keep and enclosed the town within a stone wall, with defensive towers at each of the entrances, his son Fulk was a participant in the First Crusade. On January 22, 1351, three years after the capture of Calais by Edward III, the castle of Guînes was delivered up to the English. In 1360, the Treaty of Brétigny surrendered the city and its county to England and they became part of the Pale of Calais, the last English possession in mainland France.
The "Field of the Cloth of Gold", where Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France met in 1520, was at Balinghem in the immediate neighbourhood. When the French captured the town of Calais in January 1558, Guînes held out, by the courageous efforts of the English commander, William Grey, 13th Baron Grey de Wilton. After a few days of desperate fighting, Grey was wounded and his soldiers refused to fight on; the French gave. The inhabitants are called Guinois; the column was erected to commemorate Jean-Pierre Blanchard's crossing of the English Channel by hot-air balloon on 7 January 1785. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file Guînes on the website of l'Institut géographique national Guînes on the website of l'Insee Guînes on the website of Quid Position of Guînes on a map of France Map of Guînes on Mapquest
Edward V of England
Edward V succeeded his father, Edward IV, as King of England and Lord of Ireland upon the latter's death on 9 April 1483. He was never crowned, his brief reign was dominated by the influence of his uncle and Lord Protector, the Duke of Gloucester, who deposed him to reign as Richard III on 26 June 1483. Edward and his younger brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, were the Princes in the Tower who disappeared after being sent to guarded royal lodgings in the Tower of London. Responsibility for their deaths is attributed to Richard III, but the lack of any solid evidence and conflicting contemporary accounts suggest other possible suspects. Edward was born on 2 November 1470 in the medieval house of the Abbot of Westminster, his mother, Elizabeth Woodville, had sought sanctuary there from Lancastrians who had deposed his father, the Yorkist king Edward IV, during the course of the Wars of the Roses. Edward was created Prince of Wales in June 1471, following Edward IV's restoration to the throne, in 1473 was established at Ludlow Castle on the Welsh Marches as nominal president of a newly created Council of Wales and the Marches.
In 1479, his father conferred the earldom of Pembroke on him. Prince Edward was placed under the supervision of the queen's brother Anthony, Earl Rivers, a noted scholar, in a letter to Rivers, Edward IV set down precise conditions for the upbringing of his son and the management of his household; the prince was to "arise every morning at a convenient hour, according to his age". His day would begin with matins and Mass, which he was to receive uninterrupted. After breakfast, the business of educating the prince began with "virtuous learning". Dinner was served from ten in the morning, the prince was to be read "noble stories... of virtue, cunning, of deeds of worship" but "of nothing that should move or stir him to vice". Aware of his own vices, the king was keen to safeguard his son's morals, instructed Rivers to ensure that no one in the prince's household was a habitual "swearer, backbiter, common hazarder, words of ribaldry". After further study, in the afternoon the prince was to engage in sporting activities suitable for his class, before evensong.
Supper was served from four, curtains were to be drawn at eight. Following this, the prince's attendants were to "enforce themselves to make him merry and joyous towards his bed", they would watch over him as he slept. King Edward's diligence appeared to bear fruit, as Dominic Mancini reported of the young Edward V: In word and deed he gave so many proofs of his liberal education, of polite nay rather scholarly, attainments far beyond his age, he had such dignity in his whole person, in his face such charm, that however much they might gaze, he never wearied the eyes of beholders. As with several of his other children, Edward IV planned a prestigious European marriage for his eldest son, in 1480 concluded an alliance with the Duke of Brittany, Francis II, whereby Prince Edward was betrothed to the duke's four-year-old heir, Anne; the two were to be married upon their majority, the devolution of Brittany would have been given to the second child to be born, the first becoming Prince of Wales.
Those plans disappeared together with Edward V. It was at Ludlow that the 12-year-old prince received news, on Monday 14 April 1483, of his father's sudden death five days before. Edward IV's will, which has not survived, nominated his trusted brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, as Protector during the minority of his son. Both the new king and his party from the west, Richard from the north, set out for London, converging in Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire. On the night of 29 April Richard met and dined with Earl Rivers and Edward's half-brother, Richard Grey, but the following morning Rivers and Grey, along with the king's chamberlain, Thomas Vaughan, were arrested and sent north, they were all subsequently executed. Dominic Mancini, an Italian who visited England in the 1480s, reports that Edward protested, but the remainder of his entourage was dismissed and Richard escorted him to London. On 19 May 1483, the new king took up residence in the Tower of London, where, on 16 June, he was joined by his younger brother Richard, Duke of York.
The council had hoped for an immediate coronation to avoid the need for a protectorate. This had happened with Richard II, who had become king at the age of ten. Another precedent was Henry VI. Richard, however postponed the coronation. On 22 June, Ralph Shaa preached a sermon declaring that Edward IV had been contracted to marry Lady Eleanor Butler when he married Elizabeth Woodville, thereby rendering his marriage to Elizabeth invalid and their children together illegitimate; the children of Richard's older brother George, Duke of Clarence, were barred from the throne by their father's attainder, therefore, on 25 June, an assembly of Lords and Commons declared Richard to be the legitimate king. The following day he acceded to the throne as King Richard III. Dominic Mancini recorded that after Richard III seized the throne and his younger brother Richard were taken i
Princes in the Tower
"The Princes in the Tower" is an expression used to refer to Edward V, King of England and Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York. The two brothers were the only sons of Edward IV, King of England and Elizabeth Woodville surviving at the time of their father's death in 1483; when they were 12 and 9 years old they were lodged in the Tower of London by the man appointed to look after them, their uncle, the Lord Protector: Richard, Duke of Gloucester. This was in preparation for Edward's forthcoming coronation as king. However, Richard took the throne for himself and the boys disappeared, it is unclear. It is assumed that they were murdered, their deaths may have occurred some time in 1483, but apart from their disappearance, the only evidence is circumstantial. As a result, several other hypotheses about their fates have been proposed, including the suggestion that they were murdered by Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham or Henry VII, among others, it has been suggested that one or both princes may have escaped assassination.
In 1487, Lambert Simnel claimed to be Richard, Duke of York, but claimed to be Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick. From 1491 until his capture in 1497, Perkin Warbeck claimed to be Richard, Duke of York, having escaped to Flanders. Warbeck's claim was supported by some contemporaries. In 1674, workmen at the Tower dug up a wooden box containing two small human skeletons; the bones were found in a box under the staircase in the Tower of London. The bones were accepted at the time as those of the princes, but this has not been proven and is far from certain. King Charles II had the bones buried in Westminster Abbey. On 9 April 1483, Edward IV of England died unexpectedly after an illness lasting around three weeks. At the time, Edward's son, the new King Edward V, was at Ludlow Castle, the dead king's brother, Duke of Gloucester, was at Middleham Castle in Yorkshire; the news reached Gloucester around 15 April, although he may have been forewarned of Edward's illness. It is reported that he went to York Minster to publicly "pledge his loyalty to his new king".
The Croyland Chronicle states that, before his death, Edward IV designated his brother Gloucester as Lord Protector. Edward's request may not have mattered, since "as the precedent of Henry V showed, the council was not bound to follow the wishes of a dead king". Edward V and Gloucester set out for London from the west and north meeting at Stony Stratford on 29 April; the following morning, Gloucester arrested Edward's retinue including the boys' uncle, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, their half-brother Sir Richard Grey. They were sent to Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire. Gloucester took possession of the prince himself, prompting Elizabeth Woodville to take her other son, Duke of York, her daughters into sanctuary at Westminster Abbey. Edward V and Gloucester arrived in London together. Plans continued for Edward's coronation. On 19 May 1483 Edward was lodged in the Tower of London the traditional residence of monarchs prior to coronation. On 16 June, he was joined by his younger brother Richard, Duke of York, in sanctuary.
At this point the date of Edward's coronation was indefinitely postponed by Gloucester. On Sunday 22 June, a sermon was preached at Saint Paul's Cross claiming Gloucester to be the only legitimate heir of the House of York. On 25 June, "a group of lords and gentlemen" petitioned Richard to take the throne. Both princes were subsequently declared illegitimate by Parliament; the act stated that Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville's marriage was invalid because of Edward's pre-contract of marriage with Lady Eleanor Butler. Gloucester was crowned King Richard III of England on 3 July; the declaration of the boys' illegitimacy has been described by Rosemary Horrox as an ex post facto justification for Richard's accession. Dominic Mancini, an Italian friar who visited England in the 1480s and, in London in the spring and summer of 1483, recorded that after Richard III seized the throne and his younger brother Richard were taken into the "inner apartments of the Tower" and were seen less and less until they disappeared altogether.
Mancini records that during this period Edward was visited by a doctor, who reported that Edward, "like a victim prepared for sacrifice, sought remission of his sins by daily confession and penance, because he believed that death was facing him." The Latin reference to "Argentinus medicus", was translated as "a Strasbourg doctor". E. Rhodes suggests it may refer to "Doctor Argentine", whom Rhodes identifies as John Argentine, an English physician who would serve as provost of King's College, as doctor to Arthur, Prince of Wales, eldest son of King Henry VII of England. There are reports of the two princes being seen playing in the Tower grounds shortly after Richard joined his brother, but there are no recorded sightings of either of them after the summer of 1483. An attempt to rescue them in late July failed, their fate remains an enduring mystery. Many historians believe the princes were murdered, some suggesting that the act may have happened towards the end of summer 1483. Maurice Keen argues that the rebellion against Richard in 1483 "aimed to
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona