The Palmer River is a river located in Far North Queensland, Australia. The area surrounding the river was the site of a gold rush in the late 19th century which started in 1873; the headwaters of the Palmer River rise in the Sussex Range, part of the Great Dividing Range southwest of Cooktown. The river is formed by the confluence of the Prospect Creek and Campbell Creek, near Palmer River Roadhouse, south of Lakeland; the Palmer River flows west across the Cape York Peninsula towards the Gulf of Carpentaria joined by 29 tributaries including the South Palmer River, Little Palmer River and North Palmer River, before reaching its confluence with the Mitchell River northeast of Staaten River National Park. The river descends 365 metres over its 327-kilometre course and has a catchment area of 8,335 square kilometres. Palmer River was one of Australia's major gold rush locations. William Hann and geologist Norman Taylor found gold in a sandy bed of the river in 1872. Hann named the river after Arthur Hunter Palmer the Premier of Queensland at that time.
The main settlement of the gold field was Maytown replacing Palmerville after some months. The settlement began as a camp in 1873 grew into a town which served as the administration centre for the former Hann Local Government Area; the settlements of Byerstown and Idatown were established along the river. Palmerville Post Office opened on 11 May 1874. There were several confrontations between the settlers and the Aborigines from the area, including one at Battle Camp; the miners in the Palmer River included Chinese from the Guangdong Province in southern China. The Chinese miners would re-work the diggings of Europeans. In 1876, with the rush to the Hodgkinson River, Chinese miners occupied most of the Palmer Gold Field; as gold reserves were extracted, anti-Chinese sentiment grew. Although most of the surface gold has long since been prospected, there remain a handful of deeper mine projects in the area. List of rivers of Queensland
Silver Valley, Queensland
Silver Valley is a locality in the Tablelands Region, Australia. It is known for its mining in the late early 1900s; the Wild River forms the western boundary of the locality. The Kennedy Highway passes from west to east through the southern edge of the locality; the locality is mountainous, rising from an elevation of 650m in Bulldog Gully in the south of the locality through to numerous unnamed peaks of up to 1050m. The land is undeveloped apart from some areas now laid bare as the result of mining. James Venture Mulligan is credited with the first discovery of silver at Silver Valley in 1880. By 1883, outcrops of silver and galena had been found in the area and it was named Silver Valley and mining commenced, it was known as Newellton after a pioneer family. However, while the silver mines were productive, after a few years the silver lode was exhausted and the mines abandoned. However, in 1895, three prospector George Harrod discovered two rich lodes of tin and, with Hammond and White, established the Lancelot mine and, with Hammond and Daniels, established the Hadleigh Castle mine.
In 1899 a German company purchased the Lancelot Mine and proposed naming the area Lancelot after the mine and proposed to establish a new town called New Frankfurt. However, the German company did build a 5-head battery. However, by 1910 the lodes were exhausted and diamond drills were used to search for new lodes, but without success. In 1911 the mines were sold to John Moffat. However, the popular story is that the Germans operated the mine up until the start of World War I whereupon they disappeared overnight, but this story reflects the anti-German sentiment prevalent since World War I rather than actual events. Despite the apparent cessation of mining in the area, Silver Valley was described in 1912 as being "rich in minerals" with "beautiful scenery and shooting"; the Silver Valley Hotel could provide accommodation for 20 people for 6 / - per 30 / - per week. Like most old mines, there were occasional flurries of renewed activity whenever there were prospects of poorer ore lodes being profitably mined in response to rising metal prices or more efficient extraction technologies, but such mining is short-lived as it is price-sensitive.
Silver Valley has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Coolgarra Station: Coolgarra Battery Stirling, James. Monograph on the geology and mining features of Silver Valley, North Queensland, Australia. Lancelot Freehold Tin & Copper Mines. Media related to Silver Valley, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
The Queensland Times
The Queensland Times is a daily newspaper serving Ipswich and surrounds in Queensland, Australia. The newspaper is owned by APN Media; the circulation of The Queensland Times is 14,153 on Saturday. The Queensland Times is circulated to the Ipswich city area and the Ipswich rural area including Harrisville, Laidley, Forest Hill, Boonah, Gatton and Toogoolawah; the Queensland Times website is part of the APN Regional News Network. The Queensland Times is the oldest surviving provincial paper in Queensland. Founded on 4 July 1859 as the Ipswich Herald, it has continued since; until a printer's strike interrupted production in 1972, it had the proud record of never having missed a scheduled issue, in spite of fires and machinery breakdowns. It was not, the first newspaper in Ipswich; that honour belongs to the North Australian, founded in 1855 and having on its staff two men who were to play a major part in the establishment of other Queensland newspapers, Hugh Parkinson, the foremen printer, Arthur Sidney Lyon, the editor.
The publishing office of this paper was moved to Brisbane in 1863. One of the main aims of the Ipswich Herald was to promote Ipswich's claims to be capital city of the Moreton bay colony as separation from New South Wales loomed, it was bought in 1861 by Hugh Parkinson and two other north Australian employees, Hugh Bowring Sloman and Francis Kidner. They changed its name to The Queensland Times and said it "would undertake to speak as from the centre of authority, the capital, would oppose centralization in Brisbane." The editor was John Charlton Thompson, who surveyed and laid out the city of Bundaberg. The greatest success story connected with the paper was that of a young lad, William Kippen, who rose from the position of paper seller in 1862 to become chairman of directors in 1914. Between the 1860s and the 1880s the bi-weekly Queensland Times faced competition from other newspapers, but outlasted them all. On Tuesday, 8 October 1861, the Ipswich Herald merged to form The Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald, General Advertiser.
It became a morning daily in 1899, but a depression forced it to revert to a tri-weekly publication until, in 1908, it became a daily again. The Queensland Times is owned by the APN Media Ltd Group; the Queensland Times has been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program of the National Library of Australia. The Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser was the second newspaper published in Queensland, it was established in 1859 by Central Queensland separationists, who argued for a separation from New South Wales. The paper merged with another to become the Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser when it changed ownership in October 1861; the newspaper claimed to be the leading proponent for populating, opening up, exploiting the resources of Queensland. It is now known as The Queensland Times, is the oldest surviving newspaper in Queensland; the Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser was established and owned by Walter Gray, H. M. Cockburn, Arthur Macalister and John Rankin, Central Queensland separationists.
It launched on 4 July 1859 with an ex-Sydney Morning Herald employee Edmund Gregory acting as both publisher and editor. An editorial under the pseudonym "Red Gum" in the 4 July 1899 issue: — The "Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser" was established by a private company of ardent Separationists, comprising the late Messrs. Arthur Macalister, H. M. Cockburn, Walter Gray, John Rankin. Mr. Edmund Gregory, the present Queensland Government Printer, was the printer and publisher of the "'Ipswich Herald", having been specially en-gaged in Sydney to manage the paper, its offices were situated in Ellenborough-street, about on the site where the railway bridge crosses the line. Separation was achieved just prior to the first edition: the proclamation by Queen Victoria established a colony separate to New South Wales called Queensland. News of this proclamation featured in the first issue; the newspaper was one of three regional Queensland newspapers published during the 1850s, the first in Ipswich was named The North Australian.
In 1861 Gregory left to join the Moreton Bay Courier, the paper was bought by three former employees of The North Australian, Hugh Parkinson, F. Kidner and J. Sloman, it was known as Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser, with the new ownership keen to represent the interests of Queensland more generally. In 1874 the Elenborough Street site was purchased by the railways and the paper moved to "Dowden's corner"; the Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser has been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program of the National Library of Australia. List of newspapers in Australia The Queensland Times The Queensland Times at Trove Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser at Trove
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table of elements, it is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains stannic oxide, SnO2. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, has two main oxidation states, +2 and the more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons, it has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin does not oxidize in air; the first tin alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of 1/8 tin and 7/8 copper, from as early as 3000 BC. After 600 BC, pure metallic tin was produced. Pewter, an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder consisting of copper and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century.
In modern times, tin is used in many alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders, which are 60% or more tin, in the manufacture of transparent, electrically conducting films of indium tin oxide in optoelectronic applications. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel; because of the low toxicity of inorganic tin, tin-plated steel is used for food packaging as tin cans. However, some organotin compounds can be as toxic as cyanide. Tin is a soft, malleable and crystalline silvery-white metal; when a bar of tin is bent, a crackling sound known as the "tin cry" can be heard from the twinning of the crystals. Tin melts at low temperatures of about 232 °C, the lowest in group 14; the melting point is further lowered to 177.3 °C for 11 nm particles. Β-tin, stable at and above room temperature, is malleable. In contrast, α-tin, stable below 13.2 °C, is brittle. Α-tin has a diamond cubic crystal structure, similar to silicon or germanium. Α-tin has no metallic properties at all because its atoms form a covalent structure in which electrons cannot move freely.
It is a dull-gray powdery material with no common uses other than a few specialized semiconductor applications. These two allotropes, α-tin and β-tin, are more known as gray tin and white tin, respectively. Two more allotropes, γ and σ, exist at temperatures above 161 pressures above several GPa. In cold conditions, β-tin tends to transform spontaneously into α-tin, a phenomenon known as "tin pest". Although the α-β transformation temperature is nominally 13.2 °C, impurities lower the transition temperature well below 0 °C and, on the addition of antimony or bismuth, the transformation might not occur at all, increasing the durability of the tin. Commercial grades of tin resist transformation because of the inhibiting effect of the small amounts of bismuth, antimony and silver present as impurities. Alloying elements such as copper, bismuth and silver increase its hardness. Tin tends rather to form hard, brittle intermetallic phases, which are undesirable, it does not form wide solid solution ranges in other metals in general, few elements have appreciable solid solubility in tin.
Simple eutectic systems, occur with bismuth, lead and zinc. Tin was one of the first superconductors to be studied. Tin can be attacked by acids and alkalis. Tin can be polished and is used as a protective coat for other metals. A protective oxide layer prevents further oxidation, the same that forms on pewter and other tin alloys. Tin helps to accelerate the chemical reaction. Tin has ten stable isotopes, with atomic masses of 112, 114 through 120, 122 and 124, the greatest number of any element. Of these, the most abundant are 120Sn, 118Sn, 116Sn, while the least abundant is 115Sn; the isotopes with mass numbers have no nuclear spin, while those with odd have a spin of +1/2. Tin, with its three common isotopes 116Sn, 118Sn and 120Sn, is among the easiest elements to detect and analyze by NMR spectroscopy, its chemical shifts are referenced against SnMe4; this large number of stable isotopes is thought to be a direct result of the atomic number 50, a "magic number" in nuclear physics. Tin occurs in 29 unstable isotopes, encompassing all the remaining atomic masses from 99 to 137.
Apart from 126Sn, with a half-life of 230,000 years, all the radioisotopes have a half-life of less than a year. The radioactive 100Sn, discovered in 1994, 132Sn are one of the few nuclides with a "doubly magic" nucleus: despite being unstable, having lopsided proton–neutron ratios, they represent endpoints beyond which stability drops off rapidly. Another 30 metastable isomers have been characterized for isotopes between 111 and 131, the most stable being 121mSn with a half-life of 43.9 years. The relative differences in the abundances of tin's stable isotopes can be explained by their different modes of formation in stellar nucleosynthesis. 116Sn through 120Sn inclusive are formed in the s-process in most stars and hence they are the most common isotopes, while 122Sn and 124Sn are only formed in the r-process (rapid neutr
County Down is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, in the northeast of the island of Ireland. It covers an area of 2,448 km2 and has a population of 531,665, it is one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland and is within the province of Ulster. It borders County Antrim to the north, the Irish Sea to the east, County Armagh to the west, County Louth across Carlingford Lough to the southwest. In the east of the county is Strangford Lough and the Ards Peninsula; the largest town is Bangor, on the northeast coast. Three other large towns and cities are on its border: Newry lies on the western border with County Armagh, while Lisburn and Belfast lie on the northern border with County Antrim. Down contains both the easternmost point of Ireland, it was one of two counties of Northern Ireland to have a Protestant majority at the 2001 census. The other Protestant majority County is County Antrim to the North. In March 2018, The Sunday Times published its list of Best Places to Live in Britain, including five in Northern Ireland.
The list included three in County Down: Holywood and Strangford. County Down takes its name from dún, the Irish word for dun or fort, a common root in Gaelic place names; the fort in question was in the historic town of Downpatrick known as Dún Lethglaise. During the Williamite War in Ireland the county was a centre of Protestant rebellion against the rule of the Catholic James II. After forming a scratch force the Protestants were defeated by the Irish Army at the Break of Dromore and forced to retreat, leading to the whole of Down falling under Jacobite control; the same year Marshal Schomberg's large Williamite expedition arrived in Belfast Lough and captured Bangor. After laying siege to Carrickfergus Schomberg marched south to Dundalk Camp, clearing County Down and much of the rest of East Ulster of Jacobite troops. Down contains two significant peninsulas: Lecale peninsula; the county has a coastline along Carlingford Lough to the south. Strangford Lough lies between the mainland. Down contains part of the shore of Lough Neagh.
Smaller loughs include Lough Island Reavy. The River Lagan forms most of the border with County Antrim; the River Bann flows through the southwestern areas of the county. Other rivers include the Quoile. There are several islands off the Down coast: Mew Island, Light House Island and the Copeland Islands, all of which lie to the north of the Ards Peninsula. Gunn Island lies off the Lecale coast. In addition there are a large number of small islands in Strangford Lough. County Down is where, in the words of the famous song by Percy French, "The mountains of Mourne sweep down to the sea", the granite Mourne Mountains continue to be renowned for their beauty. Slieve Donard, at 849 m, is the highest peak in the Mournes, in Northern Ireland and in the province of Ulster. Another important peak is Slieve Croob, at 534 m, the source of the River Lagan. An area of County Down is known as the Brontë Homeland, after Patrick Brontë, father of Anne, Charlotte and Branwell. Patrick Brontë was born in this region.
The city of Newry in the south of the county contains St Patrick's, overlooking the city centre from Church street, on the east side of the city, considered to be Ireland's first Protestant church. The Newry Canal is the first summit-level canal to be built in the British Isles. Castlewellan Forest Park. Down is home to Exploris, the Northern Ireland Aquarium, located in Portaferry, on the shores of Strangford Lough, on the Ards Peninsula; the Old Inn in Crawfordsburn is one of Ireland's oldest hostelries, with records dating back to 1614. It is predated however by Donaghadee's Grace Neill's, opened in 1611; the Old inn claims that people who have stayed there include Jonathan Swift, Dick Turpin, Peter the Great, Lord Tennyson, Charles Dickens, Anthony Trollope, former US president George H. W. Bush, C. S. Lewis, who honeymooned there. Tollymore Forest Park. Scrabo Tower, in Newtownards, was built as a memorial to Charles Stewart, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry. Saint Patrick is reputed to be buried at Down Cathedral in Downpatrick, reputedly alongside St. Brigid and St. Columcille.
Saul, County Down – where Saint Patrick said his first eucharist in Ireland Baronies Ards Lower Ards Upper Castlereagh Lower Castlereagh Upper Dufferin Iveagh Lower, Lower Half Iveagh Lower, Upper Half Iveagh Upper, Lower Half Iveagh Upper, Upper Half Kinelarty Lecale Lower Lecale Upper Lordship of Newry Mourne Parishes Townlands Belfast - the eastern suburbs of the city lie in County Down but County Antrim Lisburn - the eastern suburbs of the city lie in County Down but County Antrim Newry - the eastern suburbs of the city lie in County Down but County Armagh Bangor Dundonald Newtownards Banbridge Downpatrick Holywood Carryduff (Population of 4,500 or more and under 10,000 at
The Tablelands Region is a local government area in Far North Queensland, Australia inland from the city of Cairns. Established in 2008, it was preceded by four previous local government areas which dated back more than a century. On 1 January 2014, one of those local government areas, the Shire of Mareeba, was re-established independent of the Tablelands Region, it has an estimated operating budget of A$62.2 million. Prior to the 2008 amalgamation, the Tablelands Region consisted the entire area of four previous local government areas: the Shire of Atherton. On 11 November 1879, when the Divisional Boards Act 1879 came into effect proclaiming 74 divisions around Queensland, the nature and distribution of the population in the Tablelands region was vastly different from today. Most of the area was divided between the Woothakata divisions. On 3 September 1881, Tinaroo Division was proclaimed from part of Hinchinbrook, making the mining towns of Tinaroo and Thornborough the administrative centres of the region.
A number of changes occurred from that point: 15 September 1888 – Formation of the Borough of Herberton to manage the town of Herberton 14 May 1889 – Walsh Division separated from Woothakata 20 December 1890 – Barron Division separated from Tinaroo 11 May 1895 – Herberton Division separated from Tinaroo. 16 December 1908 – Shire of Chillagoe formed from part of Woothakata 18 November 1910 – Shire of Eacham formed from part of Tinaroo 20 December 1919 – Shire of Barron abolished and divided between Mulgrave and Woothakata 1933 – Shires of Walsh and Chillagoe amalgamated into Woothakata 1935 – Shire of Tinaroo renamed Shire of Atherton 20 December 1947 – Shire of Woothakata renamed Shire of MareebaIn July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that the four areas amalgamate. Amongst its reasons given for this recommendation were that a community of interest revolved around the towns of Mareeba and Atherton, with residents travelling to Cairns for services not offered in the region.
The opportunity for tourism and leisure promotion under a single banner, the close proximity of most major towns, the lack of natural barriers and similar economic interests including beef, dairy and sugar production. All councils opposed the amalgamation, although Atherton and Eacham were willing to consider shared service delivery. On 15 March 2008, the Shires formally ceased to exist, elections were held on the same day to elect councillors and a to the Regional Council. In 2012, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Mareeba from the Tablelands Region. On 9 March 2013, the citizens of the former Mareeba shire voted in a referendum to de-amalgamate; the Shire of Mareeba was re-established on 1 January 2014. Tablelands Regional Council consists of: Joe Paronella Division 1 Councillor: Kate Eden Division 2 Councillor: Annette Haydon Division 3 Councillor: Anthony Ball Division 4 Councillor: Samantha Banks Division 5 Councillor: Katrina Spies Division 6 Councillor: Bronwyn Voyce 2008: Tom Gilmore2012: Rosa Lee Long2016: Joe Paronella The Tablelands Region includes the following settlements: 1 - shared with Cassowary Coast Region2 - shared with Cairns Region and Cassowary Coast Region The populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008.
The Tablelands Regional Council operate public libraries in Atherton, Malanda, Millaa Millaa, Mount Garnet and Yungaburra
A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer and cider. It is a relaxed, social drinking establishment and a prominent part of British, Breton, New Zealand, South African and Australian cultures. In many places in villages, a pub is the focal point of the community. In his 17th-century diary Samuel Pepys described the pub as "the heart of England". Pubs can be traced back to Roman taverns, through the Anglo-Saxon alehouse to the development of the tied house system in the 19th century. In 1393, King Richard II of England introduced legislation that pubs had to display a sign outdoors to make them visible for passing ale tasters, who would assess the quality of ale sold. Most pubs focus on offering beers and similar drinks; as well, pubs sell wines and soft drinks and snacks. The owner, tenant or manager is known as the pub landlord or landlady, or publican. Referred to as their "local" by regulars, pubs are chosen for their proximity to home or work, the availability of a particular beer or ale or a good selection, good food, a social atmosphere, the presence of friends and acquaintances, the availability of recreational activities such as a darts team, a skittles team, a pool or snooker table.
The pub quiz was established in the UK in the 1970s. The inhabitants of the British Isles have been drinking ale since the Bronze Age, but it was with the arrival of the Roman Empire on its shores in the 1st century, the construction of the Roman road networks that the first inns, called tabernae, in which travellers could obtain refreshment, began to appear. After the departure of Roman authority in the 5th century and the fall of the Romano-British kingdoms, the Anglo-Saxons established alehouses that grew out of domestic dwellings; the Anglo-Saxon alewife would put a green bush up on a pole to let. These alehouses evolved into meeting houses for the folk to congregate and arrange mutual help within their communities. Herein lies "pub" as it is colloquially called in England, they spread across the kingdom, becoming so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village. A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, but a demand for hostelries grew with the popularity of pilgrimages and travel.
The Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. A survey in 1577 of drinking establishment in England and Wales for taxation purposes recorded 14,202 alehouses, 1,631 inns, 329 taverns, representing one pub for every 187 people. Inns are buildings where travellers can seek lodging and food and drink, they are located in the country or along a highway. In Europe, they first sprang up when the Romans built a system of roads two millennia ago; some inns in Europe are several centuries old. In addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation, if anything, that now distinguishes inns from taverns and pubs; the latter tend to provide alcohol, but less accommodation. Inns tend to be older and grander establishments: they provided not only food and lodging, but stabling and fodder for the traveller's horse and on some roads fresh horses for the mail coach.
Famous London inns include The George and The Tabard. There is, other kinds of establishment. Many pubs use "Inn" in their name, either because they are long established former coaching inns, or to summon up a particular kind of image, or in many cases as a pun on the word "in", as in "The Welcome Inn", the name of many pubs in Scotland; the original services of an inn are now available at other establishments, such as hotels and motels, which focus more on lodging customers than on other services, although they provide meals. In North America, the lodging aspect of the word "inn" lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn, in some state laws that refer to lodging operators as innkeepers; the Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery in London started as ordinary inns where barristers met to do business, but became institutions of the legal profession in England and Wales. The 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments due to the introduction of gin. Brought to England by the Dutch after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, gin became popular after the government created a market for "cuckoo grain" or "cuckoo malt" by allowing unlicensed gin and beer production while imposing a heavy duty on all imported spirits.
As thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England, brewers fought back by increasing the number of alehouses. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer and, because of its cheapness, it became popular with the poor, leading to the so-called Gin Craze. Over half of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London were gin shops; the drunkenness and lawlessness created by gin was seen to lead to the ruination and degradation of the working classes. The different effects of beer and gin were illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane; the Gin Act 1736 imposed high taxes on retailers and led to riots in the streets