Crucible Industries known as Crucible, is an American company which develops and manufactures specialty steels and is the sole producer of Crucible Particle Metallurgy steels. The company produces high speed and tool steels for the automotive, cutlery and machine tool industries. Crucible's history spans over 100 years, the company inherited some of its ability to produce high-grade steel from England beginning in the late 1800s. Thirteen crucible-steel companies merged in 1900 to become the largest producer of crucible steel in the United States, this company evolved into a corporation with 1,400 employees in several states. Crucible declined in tandem with the automotive industry during the 1980s, recovering over the next decade. Although the company entered bankruptcy in 2009, a Cleveland corporation revived it as Crucible Specialty Metals Division to continue producing specialty steels at its original site; some of Crucible's products are manufactured using a powder metallurgy process, resulting in steels with superior mechanical properties.
These steels find specialized scientific and industrial applications and are favoured by knife makers for the production of blades which are tough and corrosion resistant. The Crucible Steel Company of America was formed from the merger of thirteen crucible-steel companies in 1900. This, known as "the great consolidation of 1900", inspired other steel companies to form U. S. Steel a year later. From 1900 through the 20th century, Crucible developed and patented new steels and brought new steel-production methods to the United States. C. H. Halcomb, Jr. was Crucible's general manager. Two years he left Crucible, building the Halcomb Steel mill next door. In 1911 Crucible acquired Halcomb Steel, merging the Halcomb plant with the new Sanderson plant to form the Sanderson-Halcomb Works. In 1955 it began producing vacuum-arc-remelted steels, becoming the first company to use this process commercially. By 1939 Crucible was the largest producer of tool steel in the United States, making over 400 products.
It had nine mills in four states, two coal mines, a water company and a half-interest in a Mesabi ore mine. From 1968 to 1984 Crucible was owned by Colt Industries. By the company was known as Crucible Materials Corporation. Fourteen hundred employees worldwide worked for a number of companies, including Crucible Specialty Metals in Solvay, New York. In 1989, the number of employees was reduced to 600 after a strike; the 1980s saw layoffs and plant closures across the U. S.. In 1984 Crucible made the titanium alloy used in the artificial heart implanted by Robert Jarvik, donated corrosive-resistant steel used to help renovate the Statue of Liberty. During the 1990s Crucible expanded its operations to Canada, working with General Motors and building a 35,000-square-foot facility with newly patented smelting and processing equipment costing $25 million. Although the number of employees increased to about 1,400, from 2001 to 2003 200 were laid off. In 2004 Crucible entered the knife market, in May 2009 the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
That October JP Industries purchased the operating assets of the Crucible Specialty Metals Division, formed Crucible Industries and restarted the Geddes steel mill. A number of steel companies have operated in Syracuse, maintaining Crucible's intellectual property and patents. In 1870, William A. Sweet founded the Sweet Iron Works. Sanderson Brothers of Sheffield, bought the Sweet Iron Works for U. S. production in 1876, renaming the steelworks Sanderson. In 1900, Sanderson's Syracuse steelworks merged into the Crucible Steel Company of America. In 1946 the Sanderson and Halcomb steelworks were renamed the Sanderson-Halcomb Works becoming the Syracuse Works of Crucible Steel. In 1968, Crucible became Colt's Crucible Specialty Metals Division. Colt consolidated its basic-materials group into the Crucible Materials Corporation in 1983. According to ExplorePAHistory.com, "By 1877, the region's fourteen medium-scale crucible steel factories produced nearly three-fourths of the nation's output. Metal-shaping factories across the country depended on cutting tools made of crucible steel through the 1920s, when electric steel furnaces gained prominence."
Three companies which merged to form Crucible into the largest U. S. crucible-steel-producing company were: Sanderson Brothers began producing steel in Sheffield, England in 1776. In 1873, it was using a gas-fired crucible melting furnace. Sanderson sold its Syracuse operation to Crucible, expanding its English company with the purchase of Samuel Newbould and Company. Hussey and Company of Pittsburgh, founded in 1859, was the first company in America to manufacture crucible steel, its partners were Curtis G. Hussey and Thomas Marshall Howe (banker, Congressman, assistant adjutant general of Pennsylvania and the first president of the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce. Thomas' son, helped form Crucible. Hussey and James M. Cooper formed Company to roll and market copper. Before merging with Crucible, Hussey and Company became Howe and Company when George joined his father. P
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell, it is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In pure iron, the crystal structure has little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms; the carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel, slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, tensile strength of the resulting steel; the increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility. Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began; this was followed by the Siemens–Martin process and the Gilchrist–Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations; the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan, related to stahlaz or stahliją. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, so on. Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, chromium, boron, vanadium, tungsten and niobium. Additional elements, most considered undesirable, are important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make high-carbon steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron, which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag. Iron is found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon, lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C, copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C, the combination, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iro
Pointe Mouillee State Game Area
Pointe Mouillee State Game Area is a state game area located in Berlin Charter Township in the northeasternmost corner of Monroe County, Michigan. It consists of 4,040 acres of coastal wetlands in Lake Erie near the mouth of the Huron River; the game area occupies only a tiny area of land on the other side of the Huron River in Wayne County, where its headquarters are located at 37205 Mouillee Road, Route 2 in Brownstown Charter Township. It is used for waterfowl hunting due to its heavy use by ducks and geese along the flyway across Lake Erie; the park is utilized by bird watchers hiking or biking along the dikes or hunters in small boats. A large number of muskrats are taken yearly by trappers in the area; the Downriver area Catholics had a tradition of eating muskrat under a traditional exemption to the eating of meat during Lent. The area was named by French fur traders in the 17th century. Mouillee is a most appropriate name for the place, as the word is the feminine form of mouillé, which means wet or moist.
In 1875, a group of wealthy local men bought about 2,000 acres and established the Pointe Mouillee Shooting Club, which employed punters and cooks to assist the duck hunters. In 1945, the state of Michigan bought 2,600 acres from the club to establish the state game area, it added more property including 130-acre Celeron Island. The barrier island washed away and the marsh was damaged by erosion. To protect the park and marsh, the Army Corps of Engineers built a new barrier island, from material dredged from harbors and shipping channels, considered contaminated and could no longer be dumped in depths of the Great Lakes, they constructed a Confined Disposal Facility with 3.5 miles of dikes enclosing 700 acres, which doubled as a barrier for the marsh. They rerouted streams and drained the interior to assist the regrowth of vegetation; the Pointe Mouillee Waterfowl Festival has occurred yearly since 1947. Since the late 20th century, this park has been a destination for an increasing number of migratory American pelicans, which have a growing population.
List of Michigan state game areas Pointe Mouillee State Game Area - Michigan DNR Bird checklist
George W. Guthrie
George Wilkins Guthrie, served as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1906 to 1909 and was United States Ambassador to Japan from 1913 to 1917. George Wilkins Guthrie was born in Pittsburgh on September 5, 1848 to John B. Guthrie and Catherine Murray Guthrie. Guthrie attended public school in Pittsburgh the Western University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1866. Next, he studied law at the Columbian College for three years, at which point he was admitted to the bar, he became an attorney and started an involvement in reform issues during an era of increasing government corruption and largess. On December 2, 1886, he married Florence Julia Howe Guthrie, daughter of General Thomas Marshall Howe of Pittsburgh. Guthrie, a Democrat, was defeated narrowly by Henry P. Ford. Guthrie was elected mayor in 1906 and started instituting city policies to stem local corruption, while working locally he pushed for statewide reforms. Guthrie is best remembered for two accomplishments. First, for the success of the legislation he and D.
T. Watson, the famous corporate lawyer, created which led to the merger between Pittsburgh and Allegheny City in 1906; this consolidation controversial and unpopular among Allegheny residents withstood challenges in the Pennsylvania and United States Supreme Courts, made the new Greater Pittsburgh the sixth largest city in the United States. Second, the implementation of a water filtration system during Guthrie's term reduced the incidence of typhoid in Pittsburgh; the first filtered water, cleaned in a slow sand filter, was delivered on December 18, 1907, by October 3, 1908, the entire water supply of Pittsburgh was being filtered. Guthrie's term was noted for a significant decline in the city's death rate due to improvement in public health; the rate had been among the highest in America's northern cities, around 20 per 1,000 inhabitants, a level at which it had been stuck for 20 years. By the end of his term, the rate had fallen to 16 per 1,000, the lowest in Pittsburgh's history to that point.
Notable declines were seen in incidences of typhoid fever. After leaving office, Guthrie was appointed United States Ambassador to Japan on May 20, 1913, he was accredited as special Ambassador and represented the President and the people of the United States at the funeral of Empress Shōken, the Dowager Empress of Japan, on April 7, 1914, was the personal representative of President Wilson at the coronation of Emperor Taishō of Japan on September 30, 1915. He died while at that post in Tokyo in 1917, after collapsing while playing golf with an American reporter; the Japanese government sent the armored cruiser Azuma to return his body to San Francisco as a mark of respect. He was Vice President and Trustee of the Dollar Savings Bank of Pittsburgh, a Trustee of the University of Pittsburgh, a member of the Board of Managers of St. Margaret's Memorial Hospital and the Kingsley House Association, a member of the Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce, the Pittsburgh and Duquesne Golf Clubs, he was internationally known for his activities in Masonic bodies and served as Past Grand Master of Pennsylvania Masons.
He is buried in Allegheny Cemetery in Lawrenceville, PA. Guthrie Street in the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Regent Square was constructed in 1910 and named in the Mayor's honor
58th United States Congress
The Fifty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC, from March 4, 1903, to March 4, 1905, during the third and fourth years of Theodore Roosevelt's presidency; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twelfth Census of the United States in 1900. Both chambers had a Republican majority. April 28, 1904: Kinkaid Act February 1, 1905: Transfer Act of 1905 Republican: 209 Democratic: 176 Silver Republican: 1Total members: 386 President: Vacant President pro tempore: William P. Frye Republican Conference Chairman: William B. Allison Democratic Caucus Chairman: Arthur P. Gorman Democratic Caucus Secretary: Edward W. Carmack Speaker: Joseph G. Cannon Majority Leader: Sereno E. Payne Majority Whip: James A. Tawney Republican Conference Chair: William Peters Hepburn Minority Leader: John Sharp Williams Minority Whip: James T. Lloyd Democratic Caucus Chairman: James Hay Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: James M. Griggs This list is arranged by chamber by state.
Senators are listed in order of seniority, Representatives are listed by district. At this time, Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1904. Skip to House of Representatives, below The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by an "At-large," and the names of those elected from districts, whether plural or single member, are preceded by their district numbers. Many of the congressional district numbers are linked to articles describing the district itself. Since the boundaries of the districts have changed and the linked article may only describe the district as it exists today, not as it was at the time of this Congress.
The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 3 Democratic: no net change Republican: no net change deaths: 3 resignations: 1 vacancy: 0 Total seats with changes: 4 replacements: 14 Democratic: 2 seat loss Republican: 2 seat gain deaths: 8 resignations: 7 contested elections: 1 Total seats with changes: 18 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
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