Woburn is a city in Middlesex County, United States. The population was 38,120 at the 2010 census. Woburn is located 9 miles north of Massachusetts. Woburn was first settled in 1640 near Horn Pond, a primary source of the Mystic River, was incorporated in 1642. At that time the area included present day towns of Woburn, Winchester and parts of Stoneham and Wilmington. In 1740 Wilmington separated from Woburn. In 1799 Burlington separated from Woburn. Woburn got its name from Bedfordshire. Woburn played host to the first religious ordination in the Americas on Nov. 22, 1642. Rev. Thomas Carter was sworn in by many of the most prominent men of New England including John Cotton, minister of the First Church of Boston, Richard Mather minister of the First Church of Dorchester, Capt. Edward Johnson co-founder of the church and town of Woburn. Johnson is regarded as "the father of Woburn." He served as the first town clerk, represented the town in the Massachusetts General Court, made the first map of Massachusetts, wrote the first history of the colony.
The first organizational Town Meeting was held on April 13, 1644 and the first town officers were chosen. Town Selectmen were Edward Johnson, Edward Convers, John Mousall, William Learned, Ezekiel Richardson, Samuel Richardson and James Thompson. William Learned was selected as Constable. Michael Bacon, Ralph Hill, Thomas Richardson were chosen as Surveyors of Highways. Deacon Edward Convers was one of the founders of Woburn, he was one of its first selectmen, built the first house and first mill in Woburn. He was active in town affairs and was a large landowner and surveyor. List of important events Gershom Flagg's tannery was built in 1668 The Middlesex Canal was opened in 1803 Thompson established a tannery at Cummingsville in 1823 The Boston and Lowell Railroad started operating through Woburn in 1835 The Woburn Sentinel newspaper began in 1839 In 1840 the first membership library opened The telegraph started operating in Woburn in 1867 "America's oldest active gun club," the Massachusetts Rifle Association, was founded in 1875 and moved to Woburn in 1876.
The public library opened in 1879 The telephone was introduced in Woburn in 1882. Cummings Properties, the major holder of commercial properties in the region, was founded in 1970. Cummings Foundation was established in 1986. Cummings Foundation purchased the former Choate Memorial Hospital site and turned it into the New Horizons of Choate senior living community in 1990. Community Weeklies Inc. was founded by William S. Cummings and began publishing Woburn Advocate in 1991; the firm was bought by a division of Fidelity Investments in 1994, Woburn Advocate is now being published by GateHouse Media. Middlesex Superior Courthouse moved to TradeCenter 128 business campus in 2008; the final phase of construction is completed on TradeCenter 128 business campus in 2010. Woburn Police Officer John B. Maguire was killed in the line of duty while responding to an armed robbery on December 26, 2010. Massachusetts Biotechnology Council awarded Woburn the platinum-level "Bio-Ready community" designation in 2011.
Woburn was the scene of a high-profile water contamination crisis. During the mid to late 1970s, the local community became concerned over the high incidence of childhood leukemia and other illnesses in the Pine Street area of east Woburn. After high levels of chemical contamination were found in City of Woburn’s Wells G and H in 1979, some members of the community suspected that the unusually high incidence of leukemia, a wide variety of other health problems were linked to the possible exposure to volatile organic chemicals in the groundwater pumped from wells G and H. In May 1982, a number of citizens whose children had developed or died from leukemia filed a civil lawsuit against two corporations, W. R. Grace and Company and Beatrice Foods. Grace's subsidiary and Beatrice were suspected of contaminating the groundwater by improperly disposing of trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and other industrial solvents at their facilities in Woburn near wells G and H. In a controversial decision over what many considered a bungled trial, Beatrice was acquitted and Grace only paid $8 million, a third of which went to the lawyers and lawyer fees.
A United States Environmental Protection Agency report found Beatrice and Grace responsible for the contamination. A book titled. In 1998 the book was turned into a movie starring John Travolta and Robert Duvall titled A Civil Action; the film was filmed in nearby Bedford and Lexington, with only a few shots on location in Woburn. Woburn is located at 42°29′4″N 71°9′7″W, it is bordered by the towns of Wilmington, Stoneham, Winchester and Burlington. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.9 square miles, of which 12.7 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. Woburn features a humid continental climate, similar to those of many of the other Boston suburban areas, it features moderately cold Winters, but not as bad as the ones around The Great Lakes Regions or Southern Canada, or Northern New England. Nonetheless, it features occasional'arctic blasts' which can drop the temperature below zero. Spring generally
Thomas Hill (clergyman)
Thomas Hill was an American Unitarian clergyman, scientist and educator. Taught to read at an early age, Hill read voraciously and was well regarded for his capacious and accurate memory, his father taught him botany, he took a delight in nature and devised scientific instruments, one that calculated eclipses and was subsequently awarded the Scott Medal by the Franklin Institute. Though not formally educated in his youth, Hill attended the Lower Dublin Academy in Holmesburg and the Leicester Academy in Massachusetts, now the Leicester campus of Becker College, leaving in 1837, he earned his A. B. and D. Div. from Harvard University in 1843 and 1845 respectively. He was made an honorary member of the Hasty Pudding. Hill was president of Antioch College from 1860 to 1862 until the Civil War forced the college to shut down. Ill health caused his retirement from Harvard, from 1873, he was head of the Unitarian parish in Portland, Maine. Thomas Hill claimed to have injured his testicle while gardening, an incident that made him wary of laboratory instruction at Harvard, warning students not to exert themselves too much in their studies.
His home in Waltham, where he began his career, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Biography, part of a series of Harvard's Unitarian Presidents Book: The True Order of Studies John Scott Medal, Franklin Institute Mechanical Calculators of the 19th Century Hill Arithmometer U. S. Patent 18692 T. Hill Arithmometer
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. Founded in 1780, the Academy is dedicated to honoring excellence and leadership, working across disciplines and divides, advancing the common good. Membership in the academy is achieved through a thorough petition and election process and has been considered a high honor of scholarly and societal merit since the academy was founded during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, others of their contemporaries who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, the United States Constitution. Today the Academy is charged with a dual function: to elect to membership the finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, business, public affairs, the arts, from each generation, to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research and cultural studies and technological advances, politics and the environment, the welfare of children.
Dædalus, the Academy's quarterly journal, is regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals. The Academy carries out nonpartisan policy research by bringing together scientists, artists, business leaders, other experts to make multidisciplinary analyses of complex social and intellectual topics; the Academy's current areas of work are Arts & Humanities, Democracy & Justice, Energy & Environment, Global Affairs, Science & Technology. David W. Oxtoby began his term as the organization’s President in January 2019. A chemist by training, he served as President of Pomona College from 2003 to 2017, he was elected a member of the American Academy in 2012. The Academy is headquartered in Massachusetts; the Academy was established by the Massachusetts legislature on May 4, 1780. Its purpose, as described in its charter, is "to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor and happiness of a free and virtuous people." The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political and commercial sectors of the state.
The first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several international honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, the Proceedings followed in 1846. In the 1950s, the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program. Since the second half of the twentieth century, independent research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as one of its signature concerns; the Academy served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina. In the late 1990s, the Academy developed a new strategic plan, focusing on four major areas: science and global security. In 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. More than 75 academic institutions from across the country have become Affiliates of the Academy to support this program and other Academy initiatives.
The Academy has sponsored a number of awards and prizes, now numbering 11, throughout its history and has offered opportunities for fellowships and visiting scholars at the Academy. Charter members of the Academy are John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Bacon, James Bowdoin, Charles Chauncy, John Clarke, David Cobb, Samuel Cooper, Nathan Cushing, Thomas Cushing, William Cushing, Tristram Dalton, Francis Dana, Samuel Deane, Perez Fobes, Caleb Gannett, Henry Gardner, Benjamin Guild, John Hancock, Joseph Hawley, Edward Augustus Holyoke, Ebenezer Hunt, Jonathan Jackson, Charles Jarvis, Samuel Langdon, Levi Lincoln, Daniel Little, Elijah Lothrup, John Lowell, Samuel Mather, Samuel Moody, Andrew Oliver, Joseph Orne, Theodore Parsons, George Partridge, Robert Treat Paine, Phillips Payson, Samuel Phillips, John Pickering, Oliver Prescott, Zedekiah Sanger, Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant, Micajah Sawyer, Theodore Sedgwick, William Sever, David Sewall, Stephen Sewall, John Sprague, Ebenezer Storer, Caleb Strong, James Sullivan, John Bernard Sweat, Nathaniel Tracy, Cotton Tufts, James Warren, Samuel West, Edward Wigglesworth, Joseph Willard, Abraham Williams, Nehemiah Williams, Samuel Williams, James Winthrop.
From the beginning, the membership and elected by peers, has included not only scientists and scholars, but writers and artists as well as representatives from the full range of professions and public life. Throughout the Academy's history, 10,000 fellows have been elected, including such notables as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John James Audubon, Joseph Henry, Washington Irving, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, Duke Ellington. International honorary members have included Jose Antonio Pantoja Hernandez, Leonhard Euler, Marquis de Lafayette, Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Ranke, Charles Darwin, Otto Hahn, Jawaharlal Nehru, Pablo Picasso, Liu Kuo-Sung, Lucian Michael Freud, Galina Ulanova, Werner Heisenberg, Alec Guinness and Sebastião Salgado. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman elected to the Academy, in 1848; the current membership encompasses over 5,700 members based across the United States and around the world.
Academy members include more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. The current membership is divided into five classes and twen
Doctor of Divinity
Doctor of Divinity is an advanced or honorary academic degree in divinity. Doctor of Divinity should not be confused with the Doctor of Theology degree, a research doctorate in theology awarded by universities and divinity schools, such as Duke Divinity School and others. However, many universities award a PhD rather than a ThD to graduates of higher-level religious studies programs. Another research doctorate in theology is the Doctor of Sacred Theology, in particular awarded by Catholic pontifical universities and faculties; the Doctor of Ministry is another doctorate-level religious degree, but is a professional doctorate rather than a research doctorate. In the United Kingdom, the degree is a higher doctorate conferred by universities upon a religious scholar of standing and distinction for accomplishments beyond the PhD level; the candidate will submit a collection of work, published in a peer-reviewed context and pay an examination fee. The university assembles a committee of academics both internal and external who review the work submitted and decide on whether the candidate deserves the doctorate based on the submission.
Most universities restrict candidacy to academic staff of several years' standing. In the United States, the degree is conferred honoris causa by a church-related college, seminary, or university to recognize the recipient's ministry-orientated accomplishments. For example, Martin Luther King subsequently received honorary Doctor of Divinity degrees from the Chicago Theological Seminary, Boston University, Wesleyan College, Springfield College. Billy Graham was addressed as "Dr. Graham", though his highest earned degree was a Bachelor of Arts degree in anthropology from Wheaton College. Under federal law, a 1974 judgement accepted expert opinion that an "Honorary Doctor of Divinity is a religious title with no academic standing; such titles may be issued by bona fide churches and religious denominations, such as plaintiff, so long as their issuance is limited to a course of instruction in the principles of the church or religious denomination". However, under the California Education Code, "an institution owned and operated and maintained by a religious organization lawfully operating as a nonprofit religious corporation pursuant to Part 4 of Division 2 of Title 1 of the Corporations Code" that offers "instruction... limited to the principles of that religious organization, or to courses offered pursuant to Section 2789 of Business and Professions Code" may confer "degrees and diplomas only in the beliefs and practices of the church, religious denomination, or religious organization" so long as "the diploma or degree is limited to evidence of completion of that education".
In a 1976 interview with Morley Safer of the TV newsmagazine 60 Minutes, Universal Life Church founder Kirby J. Hensley professed that the church's honorary Doctor of Divinity degree was "...just a little piece of paper. And it ain't worth anything, you know, under God's mighty green Earth—you know what I mean?—as far as value." In 2006, Universal Life Church minister Kevin Andrews advised potential degree recipients not to misrepresent the title as an educational achievement to employers, recommending instead that it would be appropriate to list such credentials "under the heading of Titles, Awards, or Other Achievements" on curricula vitae. As of 2009, 20 U. S. states and Puerto Rico had some form of exemption provision under which religious institutions can grant religious degrees without accreditation or government oversight. In the Catholic Church, Doctor of Divinity is an honorary degree denoting ordination as bishop. Christopher St. Germain's 1528 book The Doctor and Student describes a dialogue between a Doctor of Divinity and a law student in England containing the grounds of those laws together with questions and cases concerning the equity thereof.
Bachelor of Divinity Doctor of the Church Master of Divinity Lambeth degree The Doctor and Student pdf files
Edward Holyoke was an early American clergyman, the 9th President of Harvard College. Edward Holyoke was the son of a wealthy and influential businessman, Elizur Holyoke Jr, who held several local town offices and served in the legislature, he is the grandson of Elizur Holyoke Sr. of Springfield, Massachusetts — notable due to the fact Mount Holyoke and Holyoke, Massachusetts are attributed to him. Edward was educated at North Grammar School and went directly to Harvard College, graduating in 1705 at age 16, he gave the class' Bachelor's Oration. While at Harvard, Holyoke "had had the distinction, as an undergraduate, of having more fines and black marks recorded against his name for breaches of discipline than any student of his day. In 1708, he received his M. A from Harvard College. From 1709-1712 he was the Librarian at Harvard and between 1712-1716 he was a tutor, he was a Fellow of the Corporation. In 1714 he became a candidate for colleague pastor with Rev. Samuel Cheever of Marblehead, but the majority of the church favored another candidate.
The minority that favored Holyoke withdrew and formed a second church which Edward was ordained as pastor for the Second Church of Marblehead on April 25, 1716, he served the Second Church of Marblehead for 21 years. In 1736, he was appointed and approved by Governor Belcher as the choice as President of Harvard College; the General Court agreed to pay Marblehead Society 140 pounds "to encourage and facilitate the settlement of a minister there..." Holyoke became the 9th President of Harvard College. Holyoke's administration began during the religious revivals of the Great Awakening and lasted until the revolutionary controversy with England was entering its final phase, he gained notoriety with his election-day sermon delivered before the Governor and General Court in which he boldly declared: All forms of government originate from the people... As these forms have originated from the people, doubtless they may be changed whensoever the body of them choose, to make such an alteration, and as a liberal in politics, Holyoke was an eloquent spokesman of new spirit of toleration, softening the strict tenets of New England Calvinism.
To minister or pastors, he had insisted on occasions, that governments should have no hand in making any laws with regard to the spiritual affairs of their people... have no right to impose their interpretations of the laws of Christ upon their flocks... Every Man therefore is to judge for himself in these things. At first, there were about 100 students at Harvard being taught by four tutors; as president, Holyoke was the chairman of the Harvard Corporation, for which he is responsible to the day-to-day operation of the college, but he was expected to teach. During Holyoke's administration several reforms were undertaken to improve the intellectual climate at the College; the ancient system of each tutor taking a college class through all the subjects in a curriculum was ended, by 1767 tutors had become specialists instructing students in particular subjects. Moreover, rather than birth and social standing, became the criteria for entrance to Harvard College. College history prizes were offered for scholarships, the custom of flogging students for college offenses was abandoned.
Teaching was not limited to the college, but included studies at his home. "Through John Adams' four years at Harvard, the first Saturday "was given over to the study of theology under President Holyoke's supervision." Holyoke encouraged broader intellectual exploration beyond curriculum and disciplinary changes. In 1755, the Dudleian Lecture was given for the first time by the College President. In 1756, in order to improve English oratory, a system of public exhibitions was introduced. Lasting for over a century, selected students participated in debates and dialogues in the English language. In 1761, John Winthrop, the Hollis Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, arranged the first American astronomical expedition to observe Venus's transit over the Sun. While not considered an intellect by his contemporaries, Holyoke did strengthen Harvard's academic program in mathematics and science, during his tenure Harvard established the first laboratory for experimental physics in North America.
Holyoke's presidency was not without some controversy. In the early 1740s, the revivalist George Whitefield came to Cambridge to preach. Although Holyoke at first welcomed Whitefield to Harvard College, he turned against him because Holyoke perceived Whitefield's religious views as excessive, inspiring division among families and local churches. Moreover, Holyoke took exception to Whitefield's labeling of Harvard College as a house of impiety and sin. In 1744, Holyoke and other members of the faculty defended the college and warned the local churches against Whitefield's views in The Testimony of the President, Professors and Hebrew Instructor of Harvard College, Against the Reverend Mr. George Whitefield, And His Conduct; this rebuttal to Whitefield sparked a yearlong pamphlet war between both sides. Despite Holyoke's differences with George Whitefield, when a fire destroyed the College's original library twenty years in 1764, Whitefield came to the College's aid and donated books and money to help rebuild the library collection.
"The fact that Harvard had moved a long way from the strict faith of the fathers, under Edward's "catholic temper" all manner of heresies flour
Reverend Samuel Willard was a colonial clergyman. He was born in Concord, graduated Harvard in 1659, was minister at Groton from 1663–1676, whence he was driven by the Indians during King Philip's War. Willard was pastor of the Third Boston from 1678 until his death, he opposed the Salem witch trials, served as acting president of Harvard from 1701. He published many sermons. Willard's parents were Major Simon Willard and Mary Sharpe, who had emigrated from England to New England in 1634, settling first in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1635, with Rev. Peter Bulkley, they established the town of Concord, where Samuel was born the sixth child and second son. After the death of his mother, his father remarried twice, Samuel was one of seventeen children born to the family. At the age of fifteen, Willard entered Harvard College in 1655, graduating in 1659, was the only member of his class to receive an M. A. In 1663, Willard began preaching in Groton at the frontier of the Massachusetts Bay Colony; the town's first minister John Miller had become ill and, when he died, the congregation asked Willard to stay, he was ordained by them in 1664.
On August 8, 1664, Willard married Abigail Sherman of Watertown. In 1670, he became a freeman, with full privileges of citizenship. In 1671, 16-year-old Elizabeth Knapp appeared to be possessed. Willard wrote about the strange behavior. Groton was destroyed on March 10, 1676 during King Philip's War, the 300 residents abandoned the town. Willard and his family removed to Massachusetts. Willard preached at Boston's Third Church during the illness of Rev. Thomas Thacher and gave an election-day sermon on June 5; the Third Church called Willard to be its Teacher, an associate pastor, on April 10, 1678. When Thacher died on October 15, Willard became their only pastor. Members of the congregation included a variety of influential members of the colony: John Hull, Samuel Sewall, Edward Rawson, Thomas Brattle, Joshua Scottow, Hezekiah Usher, Capt. John Alden, his wife Abigail died sometime in the first half of 1679. Willard was the acting president of Harvard College, although having the nominal title of vice-president, from 1701 until his death in 1707.
Some Miscellany Observations On our present Debates respecting Witchcrafts, in a Dialogue Between S. & B. A Compleat Body of Divinity, 1726 "A briefe account of a strange & unusuall Providence of God befallen to Elizabeth Knap of Groton" in Samuel A. Green, ed. Groton In The Witchcraft Times, Groton, MA: 1883 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Willard, Samuel". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Seymour Van Dyken, Samuel Willard, 1640-1707: Preacher of Orthodoxy in an Era of Change. "Samuel Willard," pp. 13–36 of Biographical Sketches of Graduates of Harvard University, in Cambridge Massachusetts, Vol. II, 1659–1677. Cambridge: Charles William Sever, 1881. Profile, pragmatism.org. A collection of Samuel Willard's sermons are in the Andover-Harvard Theological Library at Harvard Divinity School in Cambridge, Massachusetts. "Willard, settler". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1889