BravinLee programs is a contemporary art gallery in the Chelsea neighborhood of New York City. The gallery's programs support the exhibition of works on paper, artist books, public art projects, artist-designed hand-knotted rugs. In 2006, the gallery organized a public art project called "Studio in the Park" that brought 11 site-specific artworks artworks to Riverside Park in upper Manhattan. One of the gallery's programs involves working with artists who design limited edition hand-knotted rugs. Rugs have been designed by Nina Bovasso, James Siena, Peter Halley, Thomas Nozkowski, Jonathan Lasker and James Welling. John Post Lee is the owner with Karin Bravin of BravinLee programs, a contemporary art gallery in Chelsea; the gallery opened in 1991. In 1994 the gallery moved to Mercer Street. BravinLee programs opened in 2006 to represent artists and collaborate with colleagues and institutions on a project-by-project basis; the gallery shows one of kind books, produces rug editions and curates public art installations.
In 2006, the gallery organized Studio in The Park, an outdoor installation in Riverside Park and logistical assistance for Illumination, on the grounds of The Rothko Chapel. Since 2009 the gallery has worked with The Downtown Alliance of Manhattan as an adjunct curator producing public art projects for construction remediation. In the fall of 2011, the gallery will plan an exhibit on the grounds of Lehman College in the Bronx. Official website New York Times article on public art projects New York Times article on artist tapestries Douglas Florian New York Times review Seven Art Fair Miami Web Site
The Hammer Museum, affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles, is an art museum and cultural center known for its artist-centric and progressive array of exhibitions and public programs. Founded in 1990 by the entrepreneur-industrialist Armand Hammer to house his personal art collection, the museum has since expanded its scope to become "the hippest and most culturally relevant institution in town." Important among the museum's critically acclaimed exhibitions are presentations of both over-looked and emerging contemporary artists. The Hammer Museum hosts over 300 programs throughout the year, from lectures and readings to concerts and film screenings; as of February 2014, the museum's collections and programs are free to all visitors. The Hammer opened November 28, 1990 with an exhibition of work by the Russian Suprematist painter Kazimir Malevich which originated at the National Gallery of Art in Washington and subsequently travelled to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
The museum has since presented important single-artist and thematic exhibitions of historical and contemporary art. It has developed an international reputation for reintroducing artists and movements that have been overlooked in the art historical canon. Notable examples include a 2003 retrospective of Lee Bontecou, co-organized with the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; the Hammer is dedicated to inclusion. Of all of the solo exhibitions on view in Los Angeles between January 2008 and December 2012, the Hammer is the only institution to devote 50% of its exhibition programming to female artists; the Hammer hosts fifteen Hammer Projects each year, offering international and local artists a laboratory-like surrounding to create new and innovative work. In 2010 the Hammer announced its inaugural biennial devoted to Los Angeles artists. Though the museum has featured California artists as part of its ongoing exhibition program, the Made in L. A. series has emerged as an important and high-profile platform to showcase the diversity and energy of Los Angeles as an emerging art capitol.
Organized by Hammer senior curator Anne Ellegood, Hammer curator Ali Subotnick, LAXART director and chief curator Lauri Firstenberg, LAXART associate director and senior curator Cesar Garcia, LAXART curator-at-large Malik Gaines, the inaugural Made in L. A. in 2012 featured work by 60 Los Angeles artists in spaces throughout the city including the Hammer Museum itself, LAXART, the Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery in Barnsdall Art Park. In conjunction with the exhibition, the Hammer sponsored a satellite exhibition, the Venice Beach Biennial on the Venice Boardwalk, between July 13 and 15th of that year; the second iteration of Made in L. A. in 2014 took over the entire space of the museum to feature work by more than 30 different artists and collectives. The 2014 exhibition was organized by Hammer chief curator Connie Butler and independent curator Michael Ned Holte. In conjunction with the inaugural Made in L. A. exhibition in 2012, the Hammer offered the first iteration of the prestigious Mohn Award to the artist Meleko Mokgosi.
The award consisted of a catalogue and a $100,000.00 cash prize and was decided by public vote after a jury of experts narrowed the 60 participants to five finalists. The Mohn Award, funded by Los Angeles philanthropists and art collectors Jarl and Pamela Mohn and the Mohn Family Foundation, was one of the most generous international awards given to a single artist. In 2014 the Hammer announced it was offering three awards in conjunction with Made in L. A. 2014: The Mohn Award, the Career Achievement Award —both of which are selected by a professional jury—and the Public Recognition Award, awarded by popular vote among exhibition visitors. All three awards are again funded by the Mohn Family Foundation. In 2014 Alice Könitz's Los Angeles Museum on Art won the Mohn Award, Michael Frimkess and Magdalena Suarez Frimkess were awarded the Career Achievement Award, Jennifer Moon was awarded the Public Recognition Award; the Hammer Museum manages five distinct collections: The Hammer Contemporary Collection.
The Hammer Contemporary Collection, inaugurated in 1999, is the museum's growing collection of modern and contemporary art. The collection includes works on paper drawings and photographs, as well as paintings and media arts; the Contemporary Collection houses works from internationally acclaimed artists, including many active in Southern California from 1960 to the present. Hammer Contemporary Collection works are acquired in tandem with exhibitions presented at the museum, including the Hammer Projects series focusing on the work of emerging artists; the 2009 exhibition Second Nature: The Valentine-Adelson Collection at the Hammer exhibited selections from Dean Valentine and Amy Adelson's gift to the Hammer Contemporary Collection. The gift of fifty sculptures by 29 Los Angeles artists represents a significant milestone in the Hammer's commitment to collecting the works of Southern California artists. In 2012, the Hammer showcased selections from the Larry Marx Collection; the exhibition was made possible by a substantial gift from longtime museum supporters Susan and Larry Marx and includes more than 150 paintings, sculp
Documenta is an exhibition of contemporary art which takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. It was founded by artist and curator Arnold Bode in 1955 as part of the Bundesgartenschau which took place in Kassel at that time, was an attempt to bring Germany up to speed with modern art, both banishing and repressing the cultural darkness of Nazism; this first documenta featured many artists who are considered to have had a significant influence on modern art. The more recent documentas feature art from all continents; every documenta is limited to 100 days of exhibition, why it is referred to as the "museum of 100 days". Documenta is not a selling exhibition, it coincides with the three other major art world events: the Venice Biennale, Art Basel and Skulptur Projekte Münster, but in 2017, all four were open simultaneously. The name of the exhibition is an invented word; the term is supposed to demonstrate the intention of every exhibition to be a documentation of modern art, not available for the German public during the Nazi era.
Rumour spread from those close to Arnold Bode that it was relevant for the coinage of the term that the Latin word documentum could be separated into docere and mens and therefore thought it to be a good word to describe the intention and the demand of the documenta. Each edition of documenta has commissioned its own visual identity, most of which have conformed to the typographic style of using lowercase letters, which originated at the Bauhaus. Art professor and designer Arnold Bode from Kassel was the initiator of the first documenta. Planned as a secondary event to accompany the Bundesgartenschau, this attracted more than 130,000 visitors in 1955; the exhibition centred less on "contemporary art“, art made after 1945: instead, Bode wanted to show the public works, known as "Entartete Kunst" in Germany during the Nazi era: Fauvism, Cubism, Blauer Reiter and Pittura Metafisica. Therefore, abstract art, in particular the abstract paintings of the 1920s and 1930s, was the focus of interest in this exhibition.
Over time, the focus shifted to contemporary art. At first, the show was limited to works from Europe, but soon covered works by artists from the Americas and Asia. 4. Documenta, the first to turn a profit, featured a selection of Pop Art, Minimal Art, Kinetic Art. Adopting the theme of Questioning Reality – Pictorial Worlds Today, the 1972 documenta radically redefined what could be considered art by featuring minimal and conceptual art, marking a turning point in the public acceptance of those styles, it devoted a large section to the work of Adolf Wolfli, the great Swiss outsider unknown. Joseph Beuys performed under the auspices of his utopian Organization for Direct Democracy. Additionally, the 1987 documenta show signaled another important shift with the elevation of design to the realm of art – showing an openness to postmodern design. Certain key political dates for wide-reaching social and cultural upheavals, such as 1945, 1968 or 1976/77, became chronological markers of documenta X, along which art's political, social and aesthetic exploratory functions were traced.
Documenta11 was organized around themes like migration and the post-colonial experience, with documentary photography and video as well as works from far-flung locales holding the spotlight. In 2012, documenta was described as "rdently feminist and multimedia in approach and including works by dead artists and selected bits of ancient art". Documenta gives its artists at least two years to conceive and produce their projects, so the works are elaborate and intellectually complex. However, the participants are not publicised before the opening of the exhibition. At documenta, the official list of artists was not released until the day. Though curators have claimed to have gone outside the art market in their selection, participants have always included established artists. In the documenta, for example, art critic Jerry Saltz identified more than a third of the artists represented by the renowned Marian Goodman Gallery in the show; the first four documentas, organized by Arnold Bode, established the exhibition's international credentials.
Since the fifth documenta, a new artistic director has been named for each documenta exhibition by a committee of experts. Documenta 8 was put together in two years instead of the usual five; the original directors, Edy de Wilde and Harald Szeemann, stepped down. They were replaced by Manfred Schneckenburger, Edward F. Fry, Wulf Herzogenrath, Armin Zweite, Vittorio Fagone. Coosje van Bruggen helped select artists for the 1982 edition. Documenta IX's team of curators consisted of Jan Hoet, Piero Luigi Tazzi, Denys Zacharopoulos, Bart de Baere. For documenta X Catherine David was chosen as the first woman and the first non-German speaker to hold the post, it is the first and unique time that its website Documenta x was conceived by a curator as a part of the exhibition. The first non-European director was Okwui Enwezor for Documenta11; the salary for the artistic director of documenta is around €100,000 a year. 2012's edition was organized around a central node, the trans-Atlantic melding of two distinct individuals who first encountered each other in the "money-soaked deserts of the United Arab Emirates".
As an organizing principle it is a commentary on the romantic potentials of glob
A photograph is an image created by light falling on a photosensitive surface photographic film or an electronic image sensor, such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see; the process and practice of creating such images is called photography. The word photograph was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek φῶς, meaning "light," and γραφή, meaning "drawing, writing," together meaning "drawing with light." The first permanent photograph, a contact-exposed copy of an engraving, was made in 1822 using the bitumen-based "heliography" process developed by Nicéphore Niépce. The first photographs of a real-world scene, made using a camera obscura, followed a few years but Niépce's process was not sensitive enough to be practical for that application: a camera exposure lasting for hours or days was required. In 1829 Niépce entered into a partnership with Louis Daguerre and the two collaborated to work out a similar but more sensitive and otherwise improved process.
After Niépce's death in 1833 Daguerre concentrated on silver halide-based alternatives. He exposed a silver-plated copper sheet to iodine vapor, creating a layer of light-sensitive silver iodide, he named this first practical process for making photographs with a camera the daguerreotype, after himself. Its existence was announced to the world on 7 January 1839 but working details were not made public until 19 August. Other inventors soon made improvements which reduced the required exposure time from a few minutes to a few seconds, making portrait photography practical and popular; the daguerreotype had shortcomings, notably the fragility of the mirror-like image surface and the particular viewing conditions required to see the image properly. Each was a unique opaque positive. Inventors set about working out improved processes. By the end of the 1850s the daguerreotype had been replaced by the less expensive and more viewed ambrotype and tintype, which made use of the introduced collodion process.
Glass plate collodion negatives used to make prints on albumen paper soon became the preferred photographic method and held that position for many years after the introduction of the more convenient gelatin process in 1871. Refinements of the gelatin process have remained the primary black-and-white photographic process to this day, differing in the sensitivity of the emulsion and the support material used, glass a variety of flexible plastic films, along with various types of paper for the final prints. Color photography is as old as black-and-white, with early experiments including John Herschel's Anthotype prints in 1842, the pioneering work of Louis Ducos du Hauron in the 1860s, the Lippmann process unveiled in 1891, but for many years color photography remained little more than a laboratory curiosity, it first became a widespread commercial reality with the introduction of Autochrome plates in 1907, but the plates were expensive and not suitable for casual snapshot-taking with hand-held cameras.
The mid-1930s saw the introduction of Kodachrome and Agfacolor Neu, the first easy-to-use color films of the modern multi-layer chromogenic type. These early processes produced transparencies for use in slide projectors and viewing devices, but color prints became popular after the introduction of chromogenic color print paper in the 1940s; the needs of the motion picture industry generated a number of special processes and systems the best-known being the now-obsolete three-strip Technicolor process. Non-digital photographs are produced with a two-step chemical process. In the two-step process the light-sensitive film captures a negative image. To produce a positive image, the negative is most transferred onto photographic paper. Printing the negative onto transparent film stock is used to manufacture motion picture films. Alternatively, the film is processed to invert the negative image; such positive images are mounted in frames, called slides. Before recent advances in digital photography, transparencies were used by professionals because of their sharpness and accuracy of color rendition.
Most photographs published in magazines were taken on color transparency film. All photographs were monochromatic or hand-painted in color. Although methods for developing color photos were available as early as 1861, they did not become available until the 1940s or 1950s, so, until the 1960s most photographs were taken in black and white. Since color photography has dominated popular photography, although black and white is still used, being easier to develop than color. Panoramic format images can be taken with cameras like the Hasselblad Xpan on standard film. Since the 1990s, panoramic photos have been available on the Advanced Photo System film. APS was developed by several of the major film manufacturers to provide a film with different formats and computerized options available, though APS panoramas were created using a mask in panorama-capable cameras, far less desirable than a true panoramic camera, which achieves its effect through a wider film format. APS has been discontinued; the advent of the microcomputer and d
In situ is a Latin phrase that translates to "on site" or "in position." It can mean "locally", "on site", "on the premises", or "in place" to describe where an event takes place and is used in many different contexts. For example, in fields such as physics, chemistry, or biology, in situ may describe the way a measurement is taken, that is, in the same place the phenomenon is occurring without isolating it from other systems or altering the original conditions of the test. In the aerospace industry, equipment on-board aircraft must be tested in situ, or in place, to confirm everything functions properly as a system. Individually, each piece may work but interference from nearby equipment may create unanticipated problems. Special test equipment is available for this in situ testing. In archaeology, in situ refers to an artifact that has not been moved from its original place of deposition. In other words, it is stationary, meaning "still." An artifact being in situ is critical to the interpretation of that artifact and of the culture which formed it.
Once an artifact's'find-site' has been recorded, the artifact can be moved for conservation, further interpretation and display. An artifact, not discovered in situ is considered out of context and as not providing an accurate picture of the associated culture. However, the out of context artifact can provide scientists with an example of types and locations of in situ artifacts yet to be discovered; when excavating a burial site or surface deposit "in situ" refers to cataloging, mapping, photographing human remains in the position they are discovered. The label in situ indicates. Thus, an archaeological in situ find may be an object, looted from another place, an item of "booty" of a past war, a traded item, or otherwise of foreign origin; the in situ find site may still not reveal its provenance, but with further detective work may help uncover links that otherwise would remain unknown. It is possible for archaeological layers to be reworked on purpose or by accident. For example, in a Tell mound, where layers are not uniform or horizontal, or in land cleared or tilled for farming.
The term in situ is used to describe ancient sculpture, carved in place such as the Sphinx or Petra. This distinguishes it from statues that were carved and moved like the Colossi of Memnon, moved in ancient times. In art, in situ refers to a work of art made for a host site, or that a work of art takes into account the site in which it is installed or exhibited. For a more detailed account see: Site-specific art; the term can refer to a work of art created at the site where it is to be displayed, rather than one created in the artist's studio and installed elsewhere. In architectural sculpture the term is employed to describe sculpture, carved on a building from scaffolds, after the building has been erected. Used to describe the site specific dance festival “Insitu”. Held in Queens, New York. A fraction of the globular star clusters in our galaxy, as well as those in other massive galaxies, might have formed in situ; the rest might have been accreted from now defunct dwarf galaxies. In astronomy, in situ refers to in situ planet formation, in which planets are hypothesized to have been formed in the orbit that they are observed to be in rather than migrating from a different orbit.
In biology and biomedical engineering, in situ means to examine the phenomenon in place where it occurs. In the case of observations or photographs of living animals, it means that the organism was observed in the wild as it was found and where it was found; this means. The organism had not been moved to another location such as an aquarium; this phrase in situ when used in laboratory science such as cell science can mean something intermediate between in vivo and in vitro. For example, examining a cell within a whole organ intact and under perfusion may be in situ investigation; this would not be in vivo as the donor is sacrificed by experimentation, but it would not be the same as working with the cell alone. In vitro was among the first attempts to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze natural occurrences in the lab; the limitation of in vitro experimentation was that they were not conducted in natural environments. To compensate for this problem, in vivo experimentation allowed testing to occur in the original organism or environment.
To bridge the dichotomy of benefits associated with both methodologies, in situ experimentation allowed the controlled aspects of in vitro to become coalesced with the natural environmental compositions of in vivo experimentation. In conservation of genetic resources, "in situ conservation" is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, as opposed to ex situ conservation. In chemistry, in situ means "in the reaction mixture." There are numerous situations in which chemical intermediates are synthesized in situ in various processes. This may be done because the species is unstable, cannot be isolated, or out of convenience. Examples of the former include the Corey-Chaykovsky adrenochrome. In biomedical engineering, protein nanogels made by the in situ polymerization method provide a versatile platform for storage and release of therapeutic
Philip Cortelyou Johnson was an American architect. He is best known for his works of Modern architecture, including the Glass House in New Canaan and his works of postmodern architecture 550 Madison Avenue, designed for AT&T, 190 South La Salle Street in Chicago. In 1978, he was awarded an American Institute of Architects Gold Medal and in 1979 the first Pritzker Architecture Prize. Johnson was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on July 8, 1906, the son of a Cleveland lawyer, Homer Hosea Johnson, the former Louisa Osborn Pope, a niece of Alfred Atmore Pope and a first cousin of Theodate Pope Riddle, he had an older sister, a younger sister, Theodate. He was descended from the Jansen family of New Amsterdam, included among his ancestors the Huguenot Jacques Cortelyou, who laid out the first town plan of New Amsterdam for Peter Stuyvesant, he grew up in New London and attended the Hackley School, in Tarrytown, New York, studied as an undergraduate at Harvard University where he focused on learning Greek, philology and philosophy the work of the Pre-Socratic philosophers.
Upon completing his studies in 1927, he made a series of trips to Europe, visiting the landmarks of classical and Gothic architecture, joined Henry-Russell Hitchcock, a prominent architectural historian, introducing Americans to the work of Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, other modernists. In 1928 he met German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, at the time designing the German Pavilion for the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition; the meeting formed the basis for a lifelong relationship of both collaboration and competitionIn 1930 Johnson joined the architecture department of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. There he arranged for American visits by Gropius and Le Corbusier, negotiated the first American commission for Mies van der Rohe. In 1932, working with Hitchcock and Alfred H. Barr, Jr. he organized the first exhibition on Modern architecture at the Museum of Modern Art. The show and their published book International Style: Modern Architecture Since 1922 played an important part in introducing modern architecture to the American public.
His flirtation with fascism and the Nazi party was documented in Marc Wortman's 2016 book 1941: Fighting the Shadow War. It was excerpted by Vanity Fair magazine; when the rise of the Nazis in Germany forced the modernists Marcel Breuer and Mies van der Rohe to leave Germany, Johnson helped arrange for them to come to work in the United States. In 1936, in the depths of the Great Depression, he left the Museum of Modern Art for a brief venture into journalism and politics, he was a Nazi sympathaizer and supported the extreme populist Governor of Louisiana Huey Long and Father Charles Coughlin. Johnson traveled to Germany and Poland as a correspondent for Coughlin's radically populist and anti-Semitic newspaper Social Justice. In the newspaper, Johnson expressed, as the New York Times reported, "more than passing admiration for Hitler" Johnson observed the Nuremberg Rallies in Germany and, sponsored by the German government, covered the invasion of Poland in 1939. Many years he told his biographer, Franz Schulze, "You could not fail to be caught up in the excitement of it, by the marching songs, by the crescendo and climax of the whole thing, as Hitler came on at last to harangue the crowd," and told of being thrilled at the sight of "all those blond boys in black leather" marching past the Führer.
Schulze dismissed these early political activities as inconsequential, concluding they merited "little more substantial attention than they have gained" and his politics "were driven as much by an unconquerable esthetic impulse as by fascist philosophy or playboy adventurism". In 1941, at the age of 35, Johnson abandoned politics and journalism and enrolled in the Harvard Graduate School of Design, where he studied with Marcel Breuer and Walter Gropius. In 1941, Johnson designed and built his first building, a house that still exists at 9 Ash Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts; the house influenced by Mies van der Rohe, has a wall around the lot which merges with the structure. It was used by Johnson to host social events and was submitted as his graduate thesis. After the United States entered World War II in December 1941, Johnson enlisted in the Army, he was investigated by the FBI for his contacts with the German government and his support for Coughlin, who opposed American intervention in the war, but he was cleared for service and entered the army.
He spent his army service during the war in the United States. In 1946, after he completed his military service, Johnson returned to the Museum of Modern Art as a curator and writer. At the same time, he began working to establish his architectural practice, he built a small house, in the style of Mies, in Saaponack, Long Island in 1946. This was followed by one of this most famous buildings; the Glass House that he designed as his own residence in New Canaan, Connecticut was influenced by the Farnsworth House, built shortly before it by Mies van der Rohe, an influence which Johnson never denied. Johnson had curated an exhibit of Mies van der Rohe's at the Museum of Modern Art in 1947, featuring a model of the glass Farnsworth House; the house is a 56 foot by 32 foot glass rectangle, sited at the edge of a crest on Johnson's estate overlooking a pond. The building's sides are charcoal-painted steel.
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modernist art, is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, painting, photography, illustrated books and artist's books and electronic media; the MoMA Library includes 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups. The archives holds primary source material related to the history of contemporary art; the idea for the Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and two of her friends, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan, they became known variously as "the Ladies", "the daring ladies" and "the adamantine ladies". They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, it opened to the public on November 7, 1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash.
Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the former president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, to become president of the new museum. Abby became treasurer. At the time, it was America's premier museum devoted to modern art, the first of its kind in Manhattan to exhibit European modernism. One of Abby's early recruits for the museum staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami, who served the museum as its official documentary photographer from 1930 until 1968. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees. Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, Jr. a promising young protege. Under Barr's guidance, the museum's holdings expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing, its first successful loan exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne, Seurat.
First housed in six rooms of galleries and offices on the twelfth floor of Manhattan's Heckscher Building, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street, the museum moved into three more temporary locations within the next ten years. Abby's husband was adamantly opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture, which had to be obtained from other sources and resulted in the frequent shifts of location, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time, thus became in effect one of its greatest benefactors. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, such as the lone Vincent van Gogh exhibition on November 4, 1935. Containing an unprecedented sixty-six oils and fifty drawings from the Netherlands, as well as poignant excerpts from the artist's letters, it was a major public success due to Barr's arrangement of the exhibit, became "a precursor to the hold van Gogh has to this day on the contemporary imagination"; the museum gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago.
In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars and historians. This was wholly masterminded by Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, the exhibition lionized Picasso as the greatest artist of the time, setting the model for all the museum's retrospectives that were to follow. Boy Leading a Horse was contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the ground-breaking exhibition, Indian Art of the United States, that changed the way American Indian arts were viewed by the public and exhibited in art museums; when Abby Rockefeller's son Nelson was selected by the board of trustees to become its flamboyant president in 1939, at the age of thirty, he became the prime instigator and funder of its publicity and subsequent expansion into new headquarters on 53rd Street. His brother, David Rockefeller joined the museum's board of trustees in 1948 and took over the presidency when Nelson was elected Governor of New York in 1958.
David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the museum garden and name it in honor of his mother, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden. He and the Rockefeller family in general have retained a close association with the museum throughout its history, with the Rockefeller Brothers Fund funding the institution since 1947. Both David Rockefeller, Jr. and Sharon Percy Rockefeller sit on the board of trustees. In 1937, MoMA had shifted to offices and basement galleries in the Time-Life Building in Rockefeller Center, its permanent and current home, now renovated, designed in the International Style by the modernist architects Philip L. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone, opened to the public on May 10, 1939, attended by an illustrious company of 6,000 people, with an opening address via radio from the White House by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On April 15, 1958, a fire on the second floor destroyed an 18 foot long Monet Water Lilies painting (the current Mone