William Smith O'Brien
William Smith O'Brien was an Irish nationalist Member of Parliament and leader of the Young Ireland movement. He encouraged the use of the Irish language, he was convicted of sedition for his part in the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848, but his sentence of death was commuted to deportation to Van Diemen's Land. In 1854, he was released on the condition of exile from Ireland, he lived in Brussels for two years. In 1856 O'Brien was pardoned and returned to Ireland. Born in Dromoland, Newmarket on Fergus, County Clare, he was the second son of Sir Edward O'Brien, 4th Baronet, of Dromoland Castle, his mother was Charlotte Smith. William took his mother's maiden name, upon inheriting the property, he lived at a mile from Ardagh, County Limerick. He was a descendant of Brian Boru, he received an upper-class English education at Trinity College, Cambridge. Subsequently, he studied law at Lincoln's Inn in London. From April 1828 to 1831 he was Conservative MP for Ennis, he became MP for Limerick County in 1835, holding his seat in the House of Commons until 1849.
Being found guilty of High Treason he forfeited his seat in the House of Commons. Although a Protestant country-gentleman, he supported Catholic Emancipation while remaining a supporter of British-Irish union. In 1843, in protest against the imprisonment of Daniel O'Connell, he joined O'Connell's anti-union Repeal Association. Three years O'Brien withdrew the Young Irelanders from the association. With Thomas Francis Meagher, in January 1847 he founded the Irish Confederation, although he continued to preach reconciliation until O'Connell's death in May 1847, he was active in seeking relief from the hardships of the famine. In March 1848, he tried to incite a national rebellion, he was not convicted. On 29 July 1848, O'Brien and other Young Irelanders led landlords and tenants in a rising in three counties, with an bloodless battle against police at Ballingarry, County Tipperary. In O'Brien's subsequent trial, the jury found him guilty of high treason, he was sentenced to be hanged and quartered.
Petitions for clemency were signed by 10,000 people in England. In Dublin on 5 June 1849, the sentences of O'Brien and other members of the Irish Confederation were commuted to transportation for life to Van Diemen's Land. O'Brien attempted to escape from Maria Island off Tasmania, but was betrayed by Ellis, captain of the schooner hired for the escape, he was sent to Port Arthur where he met up with John Mitchel, transported before the rebellion. The cottages which O'Brien lived in on Maria Island and Port Arthur have been preserved in their 19th century state as memorials. Having emigrated to the United States, Ellis was tried by another Young Irelanders leader, Terence MacManus, at a lynch court in San Francisco for the betrayal of O'Brien, he was freed for lack of evidence. In 1854, after five years in Tasmania, O'Brien was released on the condition he never return to the United Kingdom, he settled in Brussels. In May 1856, he was returned to Ireland that July, he contributed to the Nation newspaper, published the two-volume Principles of Government, or Meditations in Exile in 1856, but played no further part in politics.
In 1864 he visited England and Wales, with the view of rallying his failing health, but no improvement took place, he died at Bangor, in Wales on 16 June 1864. O'Brien was a founding member of the Ossianic Society, whose aim was further the interests of the Irish language and to publish and translate literature relating to the Fianna, he wrote to his son Edward from Van Diemen's Land. He himself studied the language and used an Irish-language Bible, presented to the Royal Irish Academy Irish-language manuscripts he had collected, he enjoyed the respect of Clare poets, in 1863, on his advice, Irish was introduced into a number of schools there. A statue of William Smith O'Brien stands in Dublin. Sculpted in Portland limestone, it was designed by Thomas Farrell and erected in D'Olier Street, Dublin, in 1870, it was moved to its present position in 1929. In the United States, O'Brien County, Iowa is named after him. While studying in London O'Brien met Mary Ann Wilton and fathered two children born to her.
In Autumn 1832 he married Lucy Caroline Gabbett of County Limerick. They had two girls; the children of William Smith O'Brien and Lucy O'Brien were Edward William, William Joseph, Lucy Josephine, Lucius Henry, Robert Donough, Charlotte Grace and Charles Murrough. The elder daughter Lucy Josephine O'Brien married Rev John Gwynn and their children included writer and MP Stephen Gwynn, Lucy Gwynn, the first woman registrar of Trinity College and Edward Gwynn, Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. O'Brien's younger daughter Charlotte Grace O'Brien was a campaigner for the better treatment of Irish emigrants. William Smith O'Brien's elder brother Lucius O'Brien was for some time member of parliament for County Clare. William Smith O'Brien's sister Harriet O'Brien was soon widowed; as Harriet Monsell, she founded the order of Anglican nuns, the Community of St John Baptist
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as expert witnesses in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the prosecution or the defense. While any field could technically be forensic, certain sections have developed over time to encompass the majority of forensically related cases. Forensic science is a combination of two different Latin words: science; the former, relates to a discussion or examination performed in public. Because trials in the ancient world were held in public, it carries a strong judicial connotation.
The second is science, derived from the Latin word for ‘knowledge’ and is today tied to the scientific method, a systematic way of acquiring knowledge. Taken together forensic science can be seen as the use of the scientific methods and processes in crime solving; the word forensic comes from the Latin term forensis, meaning "of or before the forum". The history of the term originates from Roman times, during which a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their sides of the story; the case would be decided in favor of the individual with delivery. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word forensic – as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation. In modern use, the term forensics in the place of forensic science can be considered correct, as the term forensic is a synonym for legal or related to courts. However, the term is now so associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word forensics with forensic science.
The ancient world lacked standardized forensic practices, which aided criminals in escaping punishment. Criminal investigations and trials relied on forced confessions and witness testimony. However, ancient sources do contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow concepts in forensic science that were developed centuries later; the first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve criminal cases is attributed to the book of Xi Yuan Lu, written in China by Song Ci in 1248, a director of justice and supervision, during the Song dynasty. Gunhegarancha Kardankal authored by Dr. Vasudha Apte in Marathi provides information about 130 different methods of forensic investigations in detail. Song Ci ruled regulation about autopsy report for court, how to protect the evidence in the examining process, the reason why workers must show examination to public impartiality, he concluded methods on how to make antiseptic and to reappear the hidden injury from dead bodies and bones. At that time, the book had given methods to distinguish pretending suicide.
In one of Song Ci's accounts, the case of a person murdered with a sickle was solved by an investigator who instructed everyone to bring his sickle to one location. Flies, attracted by the smell of blood gathered on a single sickle. In light of this, the murderer confessed. For example, the book described how to distinguish between a drowning and strangulation, along with other evidence from examining corpses on determining if a death was caused by murder, suicide or an accident. Methods from around the world involved saliva and examination of the mouth and tongue to determine innocence or guilt, as a precursor to the Polygraph test. In ancient India, some suspects were made to spit it back out. In ancient China, those accused of a crime would have rice powder placed in their mouths. In ancient middle-eastern cultures, the accused were made to lick hot metal rods briefly, it is thought that these tests had some validity since a guilty person would produce less saliva and thus have a drier mouth.
In 16th-century Europe, medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on the cause and manner of death. Ambroise Paré, a French army surgeon, systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs. Two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern pathology by studying changes that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease. In the late 18th century, writings on these topics began to appear; these included A Treatise on Forensic Medicine and Public Health by the French physician Francois Immanuele Fodéré and The Complete System of Police Medicine by the German medical expert Johann Peter Frank. As the rational values of the Enlightenment era increasingly
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal Party leader William Ewart Gladstone, his one-nation conservatism or "Tory democracy", he made the Conservatives the party most identified with the power of the British Empire. He is the only British prime minister to have been of Jewish birth, he was a novelist, publishing works of fiction as prime minister. Disraeli was born in Bloomsbury a part of Middlesex, his father left Judaism after a dispute at his synagogue. After several unsuccessful attempts, Disraeli entered the House of Commons in 1837. In 1846 the Prime Minister at the time, Sir Robert Peel, split the party over his proposal to repeal the Corn Laws, which involved ending the tariff on imported grain.
Disraeli clashed with Peel in the House of Commons. Disraeli became a major figure in the party; when Lord Derby, the party leader, thrice formed governments in the 1850s and 1860s, Disraeli served as Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. Upon Derby's retirement in 1868, Disraeli became Prime Minister before losing that year's general election, he returned to the Opposition, before leading the party to winning a majority in the 1874 general election. He maintained a close friendship with Queen Victoria, who in 1876 appointed him Earl of Beaconsfield. Disraeli's second term was dominated by the Eastern Question—the slow decay of the Ottoman Empire and the desire of other European powers, such as Russia, to gain at its expense. Disraeli arranged for the British to purchase a major interest in the Suez Canal Company. In 1878, faced with Russian victories against the Ottomans, he worked at the Congress of Berlin to obtain peace in the Balkans at terms favourable to Britain and unfavourable to Russia, its longstanding enemy.
This diplomatic victory over Russia established Disraeli as one of Europe's leading statesmen. World events thereafter moved against the Conservatives. Controversial wars in Afghanistan and South Africa undermined his public support, he angered British farmers by refusing to reinstitute the Corn Laws in response to poor harvests and cheap imported grain. With Gladstone conducting a massive speaking campaign, his Liberals bested Disraeli's Conservatives at the 1880 general election. In his final months, Disraeli led the Conservatives in Opposition, he had throughout his career written novels, beginning in 1826, he published his last completed novel, shortly before he died at the age of 76. Disraeli was born on 21 December 1804 at 6 King's Road, Bedford Row, London, the second child and eldest son of Isaac D'Israeli, a literary critic and historian, Maria, née Basevi; the family was of Sephardic Jewish Italian mercantile background. All Disraeli's grandparents and great-grandparents were born in Italy.
Disraeli romanticised his origins, claiming that his father's family was of grand Spanish and Venetian descent. Historians differ on Disraeli's motives for rewriting his family history: Bernard Glassman argues that it was intended to give him status comparable to that of England's ruling elite. Disraeli's siblings were Sarah, Naphtali and James, he was close to his sister, on affectionate but more distant terms with his surviving brothers. Details of his schooling are sketchy. From the age of about six he was a day boy at a dame school in Islington that one of his biographers described as "for those days a high-class establishment". Two years or so—the exact date has not been ascertained—he was sent as a boarder to Rev John Potticary's St Piran's school at Blackheath. While he was there events at the family home changed the course of Disraeli's education and of his whole life: his father renounced Judaism and had the four children baptised into the Church of England in July and August 1817. Isaac D'Israeli had never taken religion seriously, but had remained a conforming member of the Bevis Marks Synagogue.
His father, the elder Benjamin, was a devout member. After Benjamin senior died in 1816 Isaac felt free to leave the congregation following a second dispute. Isaac's friend Sharon Turner, a solicitor, convinced him that although he could comfortably remain unattached to any formal religion it would be disadvantageous to the children if they did so. Turner stood as godfather when Benjamin was baptised, aged twelve, on 31 July 1817. Conversion to Christianity enabled Disraeli to contemplate a career in politics. Britain in the early-nineteenth century was not a anti-Semitic society, there had been Members of Parliament from Jewish families since Samson Gideon in 1770, but until 1858, MPs were required to take the oath of allegiance "on the true faith of a Christian", necessitating at least nominal conversion. It is not known whether Disraeli formed any ambition for a parliamentary career at
Thomas Langlois Lefroy
Thomas Langlois Lefroy was an Irish-Huguenot politician and judge. He served as an MP for the constituency of Dublin University in 1830–1841, Privy Councillor of Ireland in 1835–1869 and Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in 1852–1866. Thomas Lefroy was born in Ireland, he had an outstanding academic record at Trinity College, from 1790 to 1793. His great-uncle, Benjamin Langlois, sponsored Tom's legal studies at London. One year Lefroy served as Auditor of Trinity's College Historical Society, the still-active debating society of the college. Still, he became a prominent member of the Irish bar and published a series of Law Reports on the cases of the Irish Court of Chancery. In 1796, Lefroy began a flirtation with English novelist Jane Austen, a friend of an older female relative. Jane Austen wrote two letters to her sister Cassandra mentioning "Tom Lefroy", some have suggested that it may have been he whom Austen had in mind when she invented the character of Mr. Darcy in Pride and Prejudice, as the courtship between Tom Lefroy and Jane Austen took place over the year or so that Pride and Prejudice was written.
In his 2003 biography, Becoming Jane Austen, Jon Spence suggests that Jane Austen used her and Tom LeFroy's personalities as the models for Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth Bennet, but not in an expected way. Spence suggests that Jane Austen used Tom Lefroy's more gregarious personality as the model for the novel's heroine Elizabeth Bennet, her own measured demeanor was used as the model for the male protagonist, Mr. Darcy. So while the exact influence of Tom Lefroy on Pride and Prejudice continues to be debated, it does seem certain that his presence in Austen's life is in some way reflected in the novel. In a letter dated Saturday, Austen mentioned: You scold me so much in the nice long letter which I have this moment received from you, that I am afraid to tell you how my Irish friend and I behaved. Imagine to yourself everything most profligate and shocking in the way of dancing and sitting down together. I can expose myself however, only once more, because he leaves the country soon after next Friday, on which day we are to have a dance at Ashe after all.
He is a gentlemanlike, good-looking, pleasant young man, I assure you. But as to our having met, except at the three last balls, I cannot say much. After I had written the above, we received a visit from his cousin George; the latter is very well-behaved now. He is a great admirer of Tom Jones, therefore wears the same coloured clothes, I imagine, which he did when he was wounded. In a letter started on Thursday, finished the following morning, there was another mention of him. Friday. — At length the day is come on which I am to flirt my last with Tom Lefroy, when you receive this it will be over. My tears flow. Austen's surviving correspondence contains only one other mention of Tom Lefroy, in a November 1798 letter that Austen biographer Claire Tomalin believes demonstrates the author's "bleak remembrance, persistent interest" in Lefroy. In the letter to her sister, Austen writes that Tom's aunt Mrs. Lefroy had been to visit, but had not said anything about her nephew... "...to me, I was too proud to make any enquiries.
Upon learning of Jane Austen’s death, Thomas Langlois Lefroy travelled from Ireland to England to pay his respects to the British author. In addition, at an auction of Cadell's papers, one Tom Lefroy bought a Cadell publisher's rejection letter—for Austen's early version of Pride and Prejudice, titled First Impressions. Caroline Austen said in her letter to James Edward Austen-Leigh on 1 April 1869: I enclose a copy of Mr. Austen's letter to Cadell—I do not know which novel he would have sent—The letter does not do much credit to the tact or courtesy of our good Grandfather for Cadell was a great man in his day, it is not surprising that he should have refused the favour so offered from an unknown—but the circumstance may be worth noting as we have so few incidents to produce. At a sale of Cadell's papers &c Tom Lefroy picked up the original letter—and Jemima copied it for me – It was rather unlikely that Caroline Austen would address the Chief Justice Lefroy as only'Tom Lefroy'. However, if it is true that the original Tom Lefroy purchased the Cadell letter after Jane's death, it is possible that he handed it over to Thomas Edward Preston Lefroy.
T. E. P. Lefroy would give Cadell's letter to Caroline for reference. Cadell & Davies firm was closed down in 1836 after the death of Thomas Cadell Jr; the sale of Cadell's papers took place in 1840 in November. In the latter years of Tom Lefroy's life, he was questioned about his relationship with Jane Austen by his nephew, admitted to having loved Jane Austen, but stated that it was a "boyish love"; as is written in a letter sent from T. E. P. Lefroy to James Edward Austen Leigh in 1870, My late venerable uncle... said in so many words that he was in love with her, alt
Attorney-General for Ireland
The Attorney-General for Ireland was an Irish and United Kingdom government office-holder. He was senior in rank to the Solicitor-General for Ireland: both advised the Crown on Irish legal matters. With the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, the duties of the Attorney General and Solicitor General for Ireland were taken over by the Attorney General of Ireland; the office of Solicitor General for Ireland was abolished for reasons of economy. This led to repeated complaints from the first Attorney General of Ireland, Hugh Kennedy, about the "immense volume of work" which he was now forced to deal with single-handed; the first record of the existence of the office of Attorney General in Ireland, some 50 years after the equivalent office was established in England, is in 1313 when Richard Manning was appointed King's Attorney. The Attorney General was junior to the serjeant-at-law, but since the titles King's Serjeant and King's Attorney were used interchangeably, it can be difficult to establish who held which office at any given time.
From the early 1660s, due to the personal prestige of Sir William Domville, the Attorney General became the chief legal adviser to the Crown. In certain periods, notably during the reign of Elizabeth I, who thought poorly of her Irish-born law officers, the English Crown adopted a policy of choosing English lawyers for this office; the Attorney General was always a member of the Privy Council of Ireland, a strong Attorney, like Philip Tisdall, William Saurin, or Francis Blackburne, could exercise great influence over the Dublin administration. Tisdall, was for much of his tenure as Attorney General the Government leader in the Irish House of Commons, a crucial member of the Irish administration. Saurin was regarded for many years as the effective head of the Irish Government. In 1841 Blackburne, on being challenged about a proposed appointment within his own office, said that he "would not tolerate a refusal to ratify the appointment"; the office of Attorney General was described as being "a great mixture of law and general political reasoning"".
Richard Manning: appointed "King's Attorney" for Ireland 1313 William de Woodworth: c. 1327 Thomas of Westham: 1334 William le Petit: 1343 Nicholas Lumbard, or Lombard: 1345 Robert Preston, 1st Baron Gormanston: 1355 John de Leycestre: 1357 Henry Mitchell: 1372 John Tirel c. 1373–6 Robert Hore: 1379, superseded Thomas Malalo: 1381 Robert Hemynborgh: 1385 William Tynbegh: 1400 John Barry: 1401 John Whyte or White: 1422 Stephen Roche: 1441 William Sutton: 1444 Robert FitzRery: 1450 Thomas Dowdall: 1463 Nicholas Sutton: 1473 Thomas Archbold: 1478 Thomas Cusacke: 1480 Walter St. Lawrence: 1491 Clement Fitzleones: 1502 John Barnewall, 3rd Baron Trimlestown 1504 Nicholas Fitzsimons: 1504incomplete Thomas St. Lawrence: 1532 Robert Dillon: 1535 Barnaby Skurloke or Skurlog: 1554 James Barnewall: 1559 Lucas Dillon: 1566 Edward Fitz-Symon: 1570 John Bathe: 1574 Thomas Snagge: 1577 Christopher Flemyng: 1580 Edward Butler: 1582 Charles Calthorpe, afterwards Sir Charles: 1584 Sir John Davys or Davies: 1606 Sir William Ryves: 1619 Richard Osbaldeston of Gray's Inn: 1636 Thomas Tempest: 1640 William Basil: 1649, under the Protectorate Sir Wiliam Domville: 1660 Sir Richard Nagle: December 1686 Sir John Temple: October 1690 Robert Rochfort, June 1695 Alan Brodrick: 12 June 1707 John Forster: 24 December 1709 Sir Richard Levinge, Bt: 4 June 1711 George Gore, 3 Nov 1714 John Rogerson, 14 May 1720 Thomas Marlay, 5 May 1727 Robert Jocelyn, 29 Sep 1730 John Bowes, 3 Sep 1739 St George Caulfeild, 23 Dec 1741 Warden Flood, 27 Aug 1751 Philip Tisdall, 31 July 1760 John Scott, 17 Oct 1777 Barry Yelverton: 2 July 1782 John Fitzgibbon, app 29 Nov 1783 Arthur Wolfe, app 16 July 1789 John Toler: 26 June 1798 John Stewart: 9 December 1800 Standish O'Grady: 28 May 1803 William Plunket: 15 October 1805 William Saurin: 15 May 1807 William Plunket: 15 January 1822 Henry Joy: 18 June 1827 Edward Pennefather: 23 December 1830 Francis Blackburne: 11 January 1831 office vacant: 17 November 1834 Louis Perrin: 29 April 1835 Michael O'Loghlen: 31 August 1835 John Richards: 10 November 1836 Stephen Woulfe: 3 February 1837 Nicholas Ball: 11 July 1838 Maziere Brady: 23 February 1839 David Richard Pigot: 11 August 1840 Francis Blackburne: 23 September 1841 Thomas Berry Cusack Smith: 1 November 1842 Richard Wilson Greene: 2 February 1846 Richard Moore: 16 July 1846 James Henry Monahan: 21 December 1847 John Hatchell: 23 September 1850 Joseph Napier: February 1852 Abraham Brewster: April 1853 William Keogh: March 1855 John David Fitzgerald: March 1856 James Whiteside: February 1858 John David Fitzgerald: June 1859 Rickard Deasy: February 1860 Thomas O'Hagan: 1861 James Anthony Lawson: 1865 John Edward Walsh: 25 July 1866 Michael Morris: 1 November 1866 Hedges Eyre Chatterton: 1867 Robert Warren: 1867 John Thomas Ball: 1868 Edward Sullivan: 12 December 1868 Charles Robert Barry: 26 January 1870 Richard Dowse: 13 January 1872 Christopher Palles: 5 November 1872 Hugh Law: 1873??
John Thomas Ball: 12 March 1874 Henry Ormsby: 21 January 1875 George Augustus Chichester May: 27 November 1875 Edward Gibson: 15 February 1877 Hugh Law: 10 May 1880 William Moore Johnson: 17 November 1881 Andrew Marshall Porter: 3 January 1883 John Naish: 19 December 1883 Samuel Walker: 1885 Hugh Holmes: 3 July 1885 Samuel Walker: February 1886 Hugh Holmes: August 1886 John George Gibson: 1887 Peter O'Brien: 1888 Dodgson Hamilton Madden: 1890 John Atkinson: 1892 The Macdermot: August 1892 John Atkinson: 8 July 1895 James Campbell: 4 December 1905 Richard Robert Cherry: 22 December 1905 Redmond Barry: 2 December 1909 Charles Andrew O'Connor
Albert Bruce-Joy was an Irish sculptor working in England. His original surname was Joy but he became known under his hyphenated name Bruce-Joy in life, he was the brother of the painter George W. Joy. Son of William Bruce Joy, MD, Bruce-Joy was born in Dublin but educated in Offenbach, Paris and at King's College London, he trained as a sculptor with John Henry Foley at the National Art Training School, South Kensington, the Royal Academy Schools. He began exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1866 onwards. In 1867 he gave an address in Rome. After his return to London, he took over the commission for a statue of Robert James Graves for the Royal College of Physicians in Dublin; this was given to the late John Foley who had finished three statues for the College. This marked the start of his specialisation in portrait statues and medallions which were praised at the time for their likeness, for which he is now known. Bruce-Joy built his house in Shottermill near Haslemere in 1891, travelled to America twice in his life.
Statue of John Laird in Birkenhead. Statue of James Whiteside in St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. Statue of Gladstone in front of Bow Church, London. Statues of John Bright, Oliver Heywood in Albert Square, Manchester. Statue of Alexander Balfour in St John's Gardens, Liverpool. Statue of William Harvey, The Leas, Kent. Gerhard Bissell, Albert Bruce, in: Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon, vol. 78, 2013