Greencastle is a borough in Franklin County in south-central Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 3,996 at the 2010 census. Greencastle lies within the Cumberland Valley of Pennsylvania. Greencastle was founded in 1782 by John Allison from the Barkdoll House; the town was named after County Donegal, Ireland. It was composed of 246 lots. By 1790 there were about 60 houses in Greencastle, homes to 400 people; the town of Greencastle had grown by the mid-nineteenth century to 1,125 residents. In 1845, following the succession crisis in the Latter Day Saint movement, Sidney Rigdon took his followers to Pennsylvania and formed a Rigdonite Mormon settlement at Greencastle; this settlement had 200 followers. They founded the New Jerusalem settlement between Greencastle and Mercersburg, published the Conochoheague Herald newspaper in Greencastle, made plans for the construction of a temple; the Rigdonite Mormon settlement at Greencastle only lasted a few years. Early in the Civil War and neighboring Franklin County communities raised the 126th Pennsylvania Infantry.
In the summer of 1863, the war touched close to home when Confederate General Robert E. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia invaded southern Pennsylvania in what became known as the Gettysburg Campaign. From mid-June to early July, those residents of Greencastle who had not fled to safety lived under Confederate rule. On July 2, concurrent with the Battle of Gettysburg in neighboring Adams County, Captain Ulric Dahlgren's Federal cavalry patrol galloped into Greencastle's town square, where they surprised and captured several Confederate cavalrymen carrying vital correspondence from Richmond. After the Battle of Gettysburg, Lee's army began its retreat to Virginia on July 4 and 5, he sent John D. Imboden's cavalry to escort a large wagon train carrying Confederate wounded; the train, nearly 18 miles in length, wound its way through the streets of Greencastle, where a few men of the town attacked the wagon train with axes and hatchets. They succeeded in disabling several wagons. Following the war, Greencastle grew in the late 19th century during the Industrial Revolution, having several industrial factories built inside the town limits, including the Crowell Manufacturing Company, which constructed farming equipment.
In 1902, Greencastle businessman Philip Baer began a tradition where the town holds a triennial social event known as "Old Home Week". Every three years, Greencastle townspeople and former residents come together in a town-wide reunion to reminisce and fellowship; the most recent Old Home Week Celebration occurred in 2016. The Greencastle Historic District and Mitchell-Shook House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Greencastle contains many Christian church congregations with longstanding heritage and rich history; the present-day Methodist church has origins dating back to 1805 when Christian Newcomer conducted services in the area. Greencastle is located in southern Franklin County at 39°47′22″N 77°43′36″W, it is surrounded by Antrim Township. U. S. Route 11 passes through the west side of the borough as Antrim Way, leading north 11 miles to Chambersburg, the county seat, south 11 miles to Hagerstown, Maryland. Pennsylvania Route 16 passes through the center of the borough as Buchanan Trail, leading east 8 miles to Waynesboro and west 10 miles to Mercersburg.
Interstate 81 passes just east of the borough limits, with access from Exit 3 to the south and Exit 5 to the east. I-81 leads northeast 64 miles to Harrisburg and south past Hagerstown 53 miles to Winchester, Virginia. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.6 square miles, all land. As of the Census, of 2010, there were 3,996 people; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,722 people, 2,661 households, 1,036 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,371.0 people per square mile. There were 21,748 housing units at an average density of 1,113.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.72% White, 1.34% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.97% of the population. There were 1,661 households, out of. 52.0% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.6% were non-families.
20.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 21.9% had someone living alone, 70 years of age or older. The average household size was 5.87, the average family size was 2.83. In the borough, the population was spread out, with 4.3% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 46, 29.9% from 45 to 64, 20.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $58,031, the median income for a family was $86,250. Males had a median income of $35,719 versus $44,107 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $4
Hugh Nelson (congressman)
Hugh Nelson was an American politician and U. S. Representative from Virginia, he was the son of Thomas Nelson Jr. Born in Yorktown, Nelson graduated from the College of William and Mary, Virginia, in 1780, he served in the Senate of Virginia 1786-1791, in the Virginia House of Delegates 1805-1809 and 1828-1829. He was Speaker of the latter house 1807-1809. Nelson served as judge of the general court. Nelson was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Twelfth and to the five succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1811, until his resignation on January 14, 1823, having received an appointment in the diplomatic service, he served as chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary. Nelson was appointed by President James Monroe as United States Minister to Spain on January 15, 1823, served until November 23, 1824. Nelson died at his home, "Belvoir," Albemarle County, March 18, 1836, he was interred in Belvoir Cemetery, Virginia. United States Congress. "Hugh Nelson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
James Buchanan Jr. was the 15th president of the United States, serving prior to the American Civil War. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the 17th United States secretary of state and had served in the Senate and House of Representatives before becoming president. Buchanan was born in Pennsylvania, to parents of Ulster Scots descent, he became a prominent lawyer in Lancaster and won election to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives as a Federalist. In 1820, Buchanan won election to the United States House of Representatives becoming aligned with Andrew Jackson's Democratic Party. After serving as Jackson's Minister to Russia, Buchanan won election as a senator from Pennsylvania. In 1845, he accepted appointment as President James K. Polk's Secretary of State. A major contender for his party's presidential nomination throughout the 1840s and 1850s, Buchanan won his party's nomination in 1856, defeating incumbent President Pierce and Senator Stephen A. Douglas at the 1856 Democratic National Convention.
Buchanan and his running mate, John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, defeated Republican John C. Frémont and Know-Nothing Millard Fillmore to win the 1856 election. Shortly after his election, Buchanan lobbied the Supreme Court to issue a broad ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which he endorsed as president, he allied with the South in attempting to gain the admission of Kansas to the Union as a slave state under the Lecompton Constitution. In the process, he alienated both Republican abolitionists and Northern Democrats, most of whom supported the principle of popular sovereignty in determining a new state's slaveholding status, he was called a "doughface", a Northerner with Southern sympathies, he fought with Douglas, the leader of the popular sovereignty faction, for control of the Democratic Party. In the midst of the growing sectional crisis, the Panic of 1857 struck the nation. Buchanan indicated in his 1857 inaugural address that he would not seek a second term, he kept his word and did not run for re-election in the 1860 presidential election.
Buchanan supported the North during the Civil War and publicly defended himself against charges that he was responsible for the war. He died in 1868 at age 77, was the last president to be born in the eighteenth century, he is the only president to remain a lifelong bachelor. Buchanan wished and aspired to be a president who would rank in history with George Washington, by using his tendencies toward neutrality and impartiality. Historians fault him, for his failure to address the issue of slavery and the secession of the southern states, bringing the nation to the brink of civil war, his inability to address the divided pro-slavery and anti-slavery partisans with a unifying principle on the brink of the Civil War has led to his consistent ranking by historians as one of the worst presidents in American history. Historians who participated in a 2006 survey voted his failure to deal with secession as the worst presidential mistake made. James Buchanan Jr. was born in a log cabin in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania, in Franklin County, on April 23, 1791, to James Buchanan, Sr. a businessman and farmer, Elizabeth Speer, an educated woman.
His parents were both of Ulster Scot descent, his father having emigrated from Milford, County Donegal, Ireland, in 1783. One of eleven siblings, Buchanan was the oldest child in the family to survive infancy. Shortly after Buchanan's birth the family moved to a farm near Mercersburg, in 1794 the family moved to Mercersburg itself. Buchanan's father became the wealthiest person in town, having attained success as a merchant and real estate investor. Buchanan attended the village academy and, starting in 1807, Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Though he was nearly expelled at one point for poor behavior, he pleaded for a second chance and subsequently graduated with honors on September 19, 1809; that year, he moved to Lancaster, which, at the time, was the capital of Pennsylvania. James Hopkins, the most prominent lawyer in Lancaster, accepted Buchanan as a student, in 1812 Buchanan was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar after an oral exam. Though many other lawyers moved to Harrisburg, after it became the capital of Pennsylvania in 1812, Lancaster would remain Buchanan's home town for the rest of his life.
Buchanan's income rose after he established his own practice and by 1821 he was earning over $11,000 per year. Buchanan handled various types of cases, including a high-profile impeachment trial in which he defended Pennsylvania Judge Walter Franklin. Buchanan began his political career in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives as a member of the Federalist Party; the legislature met for only three months a year, Buchanan's notoriety as a legislator helped him earn clients for his legal practice. Like his father, Buchanan believed in federally-funded internal improvements, a high tariff, a national bank, he emerged as a strong critic of the leadership of Democratic-Republican President James Madison during the War of 1812. When the British invaded neighboring Maryland in 1814, he served in the defense of Baltimore after enlisting as a private in Henry Shippen's Company, 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Pennsylvania Militia, a unit of yagers or light dragoons. Buchanan is the only president with military experience who did not, at some point, serve as an officer.
An active Freemason, he was the Master of Masonic Lodge No. 43 in Lancaster, a District Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. By 1820, the F
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Frederick Perry Stanton
Frederick Perry Stanton was a member of the United States House of Representatives for Tennessee's 10th congressional district and an interim governor of territorial Kansas. Stanton was born in Alexandria, District of Columbia on Dec. 22, 1814, son of Richard and Harriet Stanton. Richard was a soldier in the American Revolutionary War, afterwards became a bricklayer. Stanton was taught at an early age by the Quaker teacher Benjamin Hallowell. Stanton subsequently attended Columbian University to study classical studies, he graduated in 1833 at age 19. After graduating, Stanton taught for a while in Virginia, followed by a career at a college in North Carolina. At the time, he instead focused on law. In 1834, Stanton opened a law office in Tennessee. Elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-ninth Congress and the four succeeding Congresses, Stanton served from March 4, 1845 to March 3, 1855. After winning his first election, his chagrined Whig opponent shot Stanton in the neck with a pistol. During the Thirty-first and Thirty-second Congresses, he was chairman of the Committee on Naval Affairs, during the Thirty-third Congress he was chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary.
Stanton served as the governor of Kansas Territory from 1858 to 1861, according to the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. However, according to the Lecompton Historical Society, he instead served as acting governor from April 15, 1857 to May 27, 1857 and from November 16, 1857 to December 21, 1857. On April 1 of that year, he had been appointed Secretary of Kansas Territory, he held that office until December 21. After his term ended, he subsequently settled in Florida. Upon retiring from the office he purchased a large tract of land near Lecompton and built what was at that time the largest and most costly residence in Kansas. At the beginning of the Civil war Stanton joined the Republican party. In 1861 he opened a law office in Washington, D. C. for practice in the supreme court of the United States. He was president of the International Peace League, was a delegate to the Richmond convention in 1882. In 1885 he went to Florida for his health, continued to reside in that state until his death.
Stanton died near Ocala, Marion County, Florida on June 4, 1894. He is interred at South Lake Weir Cemetery at Florida. A marble bust of Gov. Stanton is among the collections of the Kansas Historical Society. Lecompton, Kansas' list of acting governors of Kansas Territory Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, industries, cities, prominent persons, etc. United States Congress. "Frederick Perry Stanton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Frederick Perry Stanton at Find a Grave
Joseph Reed Ingersoll
Joseph Reed Ingersoll was an American lawyer and statesman from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In 1835 he followed his father, Jared Ingersoll, his older brother, Charles Jared Ingersoll, to represent Pennsylvania in the U. S. House, he graduated from Princeton College in 1804. He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Philadelphia, he was elected in 1834 as a Whig anti-Jacksonian candidate to the Twenty-fourth Congress. He declined to be a candidate for renomination in 1836, serving 1835–1837, he resumed the practice of law. Ingersoll was elected as a Whig to the Twenty-seventh Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John Sergeant, he was reelected as a Whig to the Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth Congresses. He declined to accept the nomination as a candidate for reelection in 1848. In all, his second stay in office lasted from 1841 to 1849, he was the chairman of the United States House Committee on the Judiciary during the Thirtieth Congress. He was a firm supporter of Henry Clay.
One of his noted efforts in the House was a defense of Clay's tariff of 1842. In 1852, President Millard Fillmore sent him to the United Kingdom as the U. S. Minister, he served about a year, retired to private life, devoting himself to literary pursuits. The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by Lafayette and Bowdoin in 1836, that of D. C. L. by Oxford in 1845. He died in Philadelphia in 1868. Interment in St. Peter's Protestant Episcopal Churchyard, he was a warm adherent of the Union, at the time of the American Civil War prepared an essay entitled "Secession, a Folly and a Crime." He published a translation from the Latin of Roceus's tracts "De Navibus et Naulo" and "De Assecuratione", was the author of a Memoir of Samuel Breck. United States Congress. "Joseph Reed Ingersoll". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; the Political GraveyardAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "Ingersoll, Jared". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography.
New York: D. Appleton
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe