The Milwaukee Brewers are an American professional baseball team based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Brewers compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division; the team is named for the city's association with the brewing industry. Since 2001, the Brewers have played their home games at Miller Park, which has a seating capacity of 41,900; the team was founded in 1969 as the Seattle Pilots, an expansion team of the American League, in Seattle, Washington. The Pilots played their home games at Sick's Stadium. After only one season, the team relocated to Milwaukee, becoming known as the Brewers and playing their home games at Milwaukee County Stadium. In 1998, the Brewers joined the National League, they are the only franchise to play in four divisions since the advent of divisional play in Major League Baseball in 1969. They are one of two current MLB franchises to switch leagues in their history, the other one being the Houston Astros; the team's only World Series appearance came in 1982.
After winning the ALCS against the California Angels, the Brewers faced off against the St. Louis Cardinals in the World Series, losing 4–3. In 2011, the Brewers defeated the Arizona Diamondbacks to win the NLDS 3–2, but lost in the NLCS to the eventual World Series champion Cardinals 4–2. Originating as an expansion team in 1969, in Seattle, Washington, as the Seattle Pilots, the club played for one season in the American League West Division before being acquired in bankruptcy court by Bud Selig, who moved the team to Milwaukee, they would continue to play in the West Division for two more years. Before the beginning of the 1972 season the Brewers agreed to switch over to the American League East to make room for the Texas Rangers who had relocated from Washington. Beginning in 1994, due to divisional re-alignment, the Brewers moved to the newly created American League Central division. In all, the Brewers were part of the American League from their creation in 1969 through the 1997 season, after which they moved to the National League Central Division.
Milwaukee had been a National League city when its team was the Milwaukee Braves. In 1981, Milwaukee won the American League East Division in the second half of the strike-shortened season. In the playoffs, they lost the divisional series to three games to two. In 1982, Milwaukee won the American League East Division and the American League Pennant, earning their only World Series appearance to date as the Brewers. In the Series, they lost to the St. Louis Cardinals four games to three. In 1998, the Brewers changed leagues, they were put in the recently created NL Central. In 2008, for the first time in the 26 years since their World Series appearance, the Brewers advanced to postseason play by winning the National League wild card, they were eliminated in the National League Division Series by the eventual World Series champion Philadelphia Phillies. On September 23, 2011, the Milwaukee Brewers clinched their first division title in 29 years, they won the National League Division Series in five games over the Arizona Diamondbacks, but lost the National League Championship Series to the eventual World Series champion St. Louis Cardinals in six games.
In 2018, the Brewers clinched a spot in the post-season for the first time since 2011 with a 2–1 victory over the St. Louis Cardinals on September 26, 2018. On September 29, they tied with the Cubs for first place in the National League Central, with a record of 95–67; this tie was broken on October 1st, when the Brewers defeated the Cubs 3–1 in the NL Central tiebreaker to improve to 96–67 and win the division by one game. They went on to defeat the Colorado Rockies 3–0 to win the NLDS, but in the following NLCS, they lost out to the Los Angeles Dodgers in 7 games; the first Brewers uniforms were "hand-me-downs" from the Seattle Pilots. Because the move to Milwaukee received final approval less than a week before the start of the season, there was no time to order new uniforms. Selig had planned to change the Brewers' colors to navy blue and red in honor of the minor league American Association's Milwaukee Brewers, but was forced to remove the Seattle markings from the Pilots' blue-and-gold uniforms and sew "BREWERS" on the front.
However, the outline of the Pilots' logo remained visible. The uniforms had unique striping on the sleeves left over from the Pilots days; the cap was an updated version of the Milwaukee Braves cap in yellow. It was decided to keep blue and gold as the team colors, they have remained so since; the Brewers got their own flannel design in 1971. This design was the same as the one used in 1970, but with blue and yellow piping on the sleeves and collar. In 1972, the Brewers entered the double-knit era with uniforms based upon their flannels: all white with "BREWERS" on the front and blue and yellow trim on the sleeves, neck and down the side of the pants; this is the uniform that Hank Aaron wore with the club in his final seasons and that Robin Yount wore in his first. During this period, the logo of the club was the Beer Barrel Man, used by the previous minor league Brewers since at least the 1940s; the Brewers mascot, Bernie Brewer was introduced in 1973. The Brewers unveiled new uniforms for the 1978 season.
The uniforms waistband. The road uniforms continued to be powder blue, but for the first time the city name, "MILWAUKEE", graced the chest in an upward slant. In addition, this season saw the introduction of the logo, to de
Justin Miller (baseball, born 1977)
Justin Mark Miller was an American professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball for the Toronto Blue Jays, Florida Marlins, San Francisco Giants, Los Angeles Dodgers, he played in Nippon Professional Baseball for the Chiba Lotte Marines. Miller was the inspiration for the "Justin Miller rule" requiring pitchers with arm tattoos to wear long-sleeved shirts. Miller played in the 1992 Little League World Series with Torrance and played high school baseball with Torrance High School, where he was first team All-State and Conference player of the year as a Senior, he attended Los Angeles Harbor College and was a Junior College All-American in 1997. Miller was drafted by the Colorado Rockies in the 5th round of the 1997 MLB Draft and made his professional debut with the short-season Class A Portland Rockies, helping them win the Northwest League championship, he moved up to the Asheville Tourists in 1998 and the Salem Avalanche in 1999. Miller was traded by the Rockies to the Oakland Athletics on Dec. 13, 1999 for Scott Karl and Jeff Cirillo.
He spent most of 2001 with the AAA Sacramento River Cats of the Pacific Coast League. Miller was traded to the Toronto Blue Jays on December 2001 for Billy Koch, he made his Major League debut on April 2002 for the Blue Jays against the Tampa Bay Devil Rays. He pitched 2 2⁄3 innings of relief, hitting the first two batters he faced, allowing a total of four hits and one run, he made his first ML start on April 27 against the Anaheim Angels, but lasted only 3 2⁄3 innings while giving up four runs. He appeared in 25 games with the Blue Jays in 2002, starting 18 of them and finishing 9-5 with a 5.54 ERA. He missed most of the 2003 season with a shoulder injury and returned in 2004, when he appeared in 19 games for the Blue Jays and went 3-4 with a 6.06 ERA. He spent most of 2005 with the AAA Syracuse SkyChiefs, appearing in only one game for the Blue Jays, he signed as a minor league free agent with the Tampa Bay Devil Rays in 2006 and appeared in five games for their AAA affiliate, the Durham Bulls.
He was released and played for the Chiba Lotte Marines in Japan, pitching in twelve games. After a three-game stint with the Philadelphia Phillies AAA affiliate, the Ottawa Lynx, Miller signed a minor-league contract with the Florida Marlins, he started the season at Triple-A Albuquerque and was recalled by the Marlins on May 19, 2007, after an injury to Ricky Nolasco. Although Miller had been a starter in previous seasons, the Marlins used him to fill a relief role, with former closer Byung-hyun Kim taking Nolasco's spot in the starting rotation; the Marlins released him on October 3, 2008. On November 1, 2008, the San Francisco Giants signed him to a minor league contract with an invitation to spring training, he made the Giants roster and appeared in 44 games out of the bullpen, 3-3, with a 3.18 ERA, for the Giants in 2009. Miller was signed to a minor league contract which included an invitation to spring training by the Los Angeles Dodgers on December 4, 2009, he was assigned to the Triple-A Albuquerque Isotopes to start the season.
His contract was purchased by the Dodgers on May 27. He appeared in 19 games with the Dodgers, compiling a 4.44 ERA. He was designated for assignment on July 23, he was reassigned to Albuquerque. In 32 games for the Isotopes in 2010, he had a 1.95 ERA. He was granted free agency on October 6. On November 17, 2010, Miller signed a minor league contract with the Seattle Mariners, he was released by Seattle April 25, 2011. Miller signed a minor league contract with the Texas Rangers April 29, he was released by the Rangers on June 6, 2011. On July 4, 2011, Miller signed a minor league contract with the Los Angeles Dodgers, he pitched in three games for the Albuquerque Isotopes, walking four and allowing two runs in 1 2⁄3 innings for a 10.80 ERA. He was released on July 25. Miller was found dead in his Palm Harbor home on June 26, 2013. A cause of death was not announced, he was survived by his wife of 15 years and two sons. Miller was known for his many tattoos. In a move sometimes called the "Justin Miller Rule", Major League Baseball told Miller that he had to wear a long-sleeved shirt under his jersey whenever he was playing because hitters complained about being "distracted" by Miller's sleeve tattoos.
Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference
Jimmy Wayne Haynes is a former Major League Baseball right-handed pitcher. Haynes was selected by the Baltimore Orioles in the 1991 amateur draft, he made his debut in the 1995 season and was sent to the Oakland Athletics. After playing for the Athletics and Milwaukee Brewers, Haynes won 15 games for the Reds in 2002. Haynes was released after 5 appearances, his pitched his final season in 2005 for the Tampa Bay Devil Rays Triple-A affiliate, the Durham Bulls. In his major league career, Haynes had a win-loss record of 63-89, with 754 strikeouts and an earned run average of 5.39, the worst ERA of all time among pitchers who have pitched at least 1000 innings. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or The Baseball Cube 2004 statistics at ESPN
The Seattle Mariners are an American professional baseball team based in Seattle, Washington. The Mariners compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League West Division; the team joined the American League as an expansion team in 1977 playing their home games in the Kingdome. Since July 1999, the Mariners' home ballpark has been T-Mobile Park, located in the SoDo neighborhood of Seattle; the "Mariners" name originates from the prominence of marine culture in the city of Seattle. They are nicknamed the M's, a title featured in their primary logo from 1987 to 1992, they adopted their current team colors – Navy blue, northwest green, silver – prior to the 1993 season, after having been royal blue and gold since the team's inception. Their mascot is the Mariner Moose; the organization did not field a winning team until 1991, any real success eluded them until 1995 when they won their first division championship and defeated the New York Yankees in the ALDS. The game-winning hit in Game 5, in which Edgar Martínez drove home Ken Griffey Jr. to win the game in the 11th inning, clinched a series win for the Mariners, served as a powerful impetus to preserve baseball in Seattle, has since become an iconic moment in team history.
The Mariners won 116 games in 2001, which set the American League record for most wins in a single season and tied the 1906 Chicago Cubs for the Major League record for most wins in a single season. Through the end of the 2018 season, the franchise has finished with a losing record in 28 of 42 seasons; the Mariners are one of seven Major League Baseball teams who have never won a World Series championship, one of two never to have played in a World Series. With the National Football League's Buffalo Bills ending their 17-year playoff drought on December 31, 2017, the Mariners now hold the longest playoff drought in all of the four major North American professional sports, having not qualified for the playoffs since 2001; the Mariners were created as a result of a lawsuit. In 1970, in the aftermath of the Seattle Pilots' purchase and relocation to Milwaukee as the Milwaukee Brewers by Bud Selig, the city of Seattle, King County, the state of Washington sued the American League for breach of contract.
Confident that Major League Baseball would return to Seattle within a few years, King County built the multi-purpose Kingdome, which would become home to the National Football League's expansion Seattle Seahawks in 1976. The name "Mariners" was chosen by club officials in August 1976 from over 600 names submitted by 15,000 entrants in a name-the-team contest; the Mariners played their first game on April 6, 1977, to a sold-out crowd of 57,762 at the Kingdome, losing 7–0 to the California Angels. The first home run in team history was hit on April 1977, by designated hitter Juan Bernhardt; that year, star pitcher Diego Seguí, in his last major league season, became the only player to play for both the Pilots and the Mariners. The Mariners finished with a 64 -- 98 record. In 1979, Seattle hosted the 50th Major League Baseball All-Star Game. After the 1981 season, the Mariners were sold to California businessman George Argyros, who in turn sold the team to Jeff Smulyan in 1989, to Nintendo of America in 1992.
During the 1992–93 offseason, the Mariners hired manager Lou Piniella, who had led the Cincinnati Reds to victory in the 1990 World Series. Mariner fans embraced Piniella, he would helm the team from 1993 through 2002, winning two American League Manager of the Year Awards along the way; the 2001 Mariners club finished with a record of 116-46, leading all of Major League Baseball in winning percentage for the duration of the season and winning the American League West division championship. In doing so, the team broke the 1998 Yankees American League single-season record of 114 wins and matched the all-time MLB single-season record for wins set by the 1906 Chicago Cubs. At the end of the season, Ichiro Suzuki won the AL MVP, AL Rookie of the Year, one of three outfield Gold Glove Awards, becoming the first player since the 1975 Boston Red Sox's Fred Lynn to win all three in the same season. On October 22, 2008 the Mariners announced the hiring of Jack Zduriencik scouting director of the Milwaukee Brewers, as their general manager.
Weeks on November 18, the team named Oakland Athletics bench coach Don Wakamatsu as its new field manager. Wakamatsu and Zduriencik hired an new coaching staff for 2009, which included former World Series MVP John Wetteland as bullpen coach; the off-season saw a litany of roster moves, headlined by a 12-player, 3-team trade that included sending All-Star closer J. J. Putz to the New York Mets and brought 5 players—including prospect Mike Carp and outfielder Endy Chávez from New York and outfielder Franklin Gutiérrez from the Cleveland Indians—to Seattle. Many of the moves, like the free agent signing of Mike Sweeney, were made in part with the hope of squelching the clubhouse infighting that plagued the Mariners in 2008, it saw the return of Seattle favorite Griffey Jr. The 2009–10 offseason was highlighted by the trade for 2008 American League Cy Young Award winner Cliff Lee from the Philadelphia Phillies, the signing of third baseman Chone Figgins and the contract extension of star pitcher "King" Félix Hernández.
Griffey Jr. announced his retirement on June 2010, after 22 MLB seasons. The Mariners fired field manager Don Wakamatsu along with bench coach Ty Van Burkleo, pitching coach Rick Adair and performance coach Steve Hecht on August 9, 2010. Daren Brow
Henry Ramón Blanco is a Venezuelan professional baseball coach and former player. He is the bullpen coach for the Washington Nationals, he played as a catcher in Major League Baseball from 1997 to 2013, appearing for the Los Angeles Dodgers, Colorado Rockies, Milwaukee Brewers, Atlanta Braves, Minnesota Twins, Chicago Cubs, San Diego Padres, New York Mets, Arizona Diamondbacks, Toronto Blue Jays, Seattle Mariners. He served as quality assurance coach for the Cubs. Although a light-hitting player, he was regarded as one of the best defensive catchers in Major League Baseball. Blanco began his professional baseball career in 1989 when, he was signed by the Los Angeles Dodgers as an amateur free agent, he didn't begin to play as a catcher until 1995. After 7 years in the minor leagues, he blossomed in 1997 when he hit for a.313 batting average in 91 games for the Albuquerque Dukes of the Pacific Coast League. Blanco made his major league debut with the Dodgers on July 25, 1997, he was granted free agency in October of that year.
In December 1998, Blanco signed a contract to play for the Colorado Rockies and won the starting catcher's role for the 1999 season. Hitting for a.232 batting average, he embellished his defensive credentials by leading National League catchers with 39 baserunners caught stealing. In December 1999, he was traded to the Milwaukee Brewers as part of a three-team trade. Blanco caught the majority of the Brewers' games in 2000, posting a.236 batting average with 7 home runs, 31 runs batted in. He led National League catchers with a 58.2% baserunners caught stealing percentage, the highest percentage since 1982 when Bob Boone had a 58.2% success rate. His batting average fell to.210 in the 2001 season and, in March 2002, he was traded to the Atlanta Braves for Paul Bako and José Cabrera. While Blanco served as a reserve catcher with the Braves working behind Javy Lopez, he became known as Greg Maddux' personal catcher, a role he inherited from fellow Venezuelan catcher, Eddie Pérez. Although he only produced 22 runs batted in, he had 5 game-winning RBIs and provided solid defense, helping the Braves win the National League Eastern Division title.
Blanco was the starting catcher for the Braves in Game 3 of the 2002 National League Division Series and was a late-inning replacement in Game 5 as the Braves were defeated by the San Francisco Giants. In January 2003, Blanco signed a $1.3 million dollar, one year contract with the Braves. The Braves repeated as Eastern Division champions in 2003 however, Blanco's batting average dropped to.199 and he was left off the post-season roster in favor of catcher Johnny Estrada as, the Braves lost to the Chicago Cubs in the 2003 National League Division Series. When the Braves assigned him to the Triple-A Richmond Braves at the end of the season, Blanco opted for free agency and, in December 2003, he signed a one year, $750,000 contract to play for the Minnesota Twins. Blanco became a valuable member of the Twins when rookie catcher Joe Mauer was injured early in the 2004 season, he was credited for helping the Twins pitching staff with his game-calling skills, guiding them to the lowest team earned run average in the league.
Twins pitcher, Johan Santana, gave Blanco credit for helping him win the 2004 American League Cy Young Award. He caught the majority of the Twins' games helping them to clinch the American League Central division title. Blanco posted career-highs with 10 home runs and 37 runs batted in, while leading the American League catchers with a 49.2% caught stealing percentage. He started all four games of the 2004 American League Division Series, hitting 1 home run along with a.250 batting average as the Twins lost to the New York Yankees. After failing to reach a contract agreement with the Twins after the 2004 season, Blanco opted for free agency again and, in December 2004 he signed a two year, $2.7 million contract to play for the Chicago Cubs. He worked as a back up catcher to Michael Barrett although, many of the Cubs pitchers preferred pitching to Blanco as his 2005 catcher's earned run average of 3.58 was 1 run lower than the 4.45 average posted by Barrett. In the 2006 Caribbean Series, Blanco had a walk off double off the top of the opposing shortstop's head in the championship game to give the Leones del Caracas the series championship win over the Tigres del Licey.
In the 2006 major league season, he hit for a.266 batting average with a career-high 37 runs batted in and, in November, signed a two-year contract for $5.25 million to remain with the Cubs. Blanco appeared in only 22 games for the Cubs in 2007, missing two months of the season due to a herniated disc; the Cubs went on to win the National League Central division although, Blanco did not appear in any post-season games. In 2008, Blanco hit a career-high.292 while serving as back up and mentor to rookie catcher Geovany Soto, who went on to win the 2008 National League Rookie of the Year Award. After the 2008 season, Blanco's option was declined making him a free agent. In January 2009, he signed a $750,000, one-year contract to play for the San Diego Padres. During the 2009 season, he was a pinch-hitter, late-inning defensive replacement, a mentor for Padres starting catcher Nick Hundley. Blanco signed a one year, 1.5 million dollar contract with the New York Mets on December 3, 2009. On May 8, 2010, Blanco hit a walk-off home run to help the Mets defeat the San Francisco Giants 5–4.
Blanco signed a one-year contract on December 2010 with the Arizona Diamondbacks. He was re-signed following the season, he played in 21 games in the 2012 season. Blanco signed a non-guaranteed contract on January 2013 with the Toronto Blue Jays. Blanco made the opening day roster for Toronto as the batterymate t
In baseball or softball, a strikeout occurs when a batter racks up three strikes during a time at bat. It means the batter is out. A strikeout is a statistic recorded for both pitchers and batters, is denoted by K. A strikeout looking is denoted by a Ʞ. Although a strikeout suggests that the pitcher dominated the batter, the free-swinging style that generates home runs leaves batters susceptible to striking out; some of the greatest home run hitters of all time — such as Alex Rodriguez, Reggie Jackson, Sammy Sosa — were notorious for striking out. A pitched ball is ruled a ball by the umpire if the batter did not swing at it and, in that umpire's judgement, it does not pass through the strike zone. Any pitch at which the batter swings unsuccessfully or, that in that umpire's judgement passes through the strike zone, is ruled a strike; each ball and strike affects the count, incremented for each pitched ball with the exception of a foul ball on any count with two strikes. That is, a third strike may only occur by the batter swinging and missing at a pitched ball, or the pitched ball being ruled a strike by the umpire with no swing by the batter.
A pitched ball, struck by the batter with the bat on any count, is not a foul ball or foul tip, is in play. A batter may strike out by bunting if the ball is hit into foul territory. A pitcher receives credit for a strikeout on any third strike, but a batter is out only if one of the following is true: The third strike is pitched and caught in flight by the catcher. Thus, it is possible for a batter to strike out, but still become a runner and reach base safely if the catcher is unable to catch the third strike cleanly, he does not either tag out the batter or force him out at first base. In Japan, this is called furinige, or "swing and escape". In Major League Baseball, it is known as an uncaught third strike; when this happens, a strikeout is recorded for both the pitcher and the batter, but no out is recorded. Because of this, a pitcher may be able to record more than three strikeouts in one half-inning, it is possible for a strikeout to result in a fielder's choice. With the bases loaded and two strikes with two outs, the catcher drops the ball or catches it on the bounce.
The batter-runner is obliged to run for first base and other base-runners are obliged to attempt to advance one base. Should the catcher field the ball and step on home plate before the runner from third base can score the runner from third base is forced out. In baseball scorekeeping, a swinging strikeout is recorded as a K, or a K-S. A strikeout looking is scored with a backwards K, sometimes as a K-L, CK, or Kc. Despite the scorekeeping custom of using "K" for strikeout, "SO" is the official abbreviation used by Major League Baseball."K" is still used by fans and enthusiasts for purposes other than official record-keeping. One baseball ritual involves fans attaching a succession of small "K" signs to the nearest railing, one added for every strikeout notched by the home team's pitcher, following a tradition started by New York Mets fans in honor of "Dr. K", Dwight Gooden; the "K" may be placed backwards in cases where the batter strikes out looking, just as it would appear on a scorecard.
Every televised display of a high-strikeout major league game will include a shot of a fan's strikeout display, if the pitcher continues to strike out batters, the display may be shown following every strikeout. The use of "K" for a strikeout was invented by Henry Chadwick, a newspaper journalist, credited as the originator of the box score and the baseball scorecard; as is true in much of baseball, both the box score and scorecard remain unchanged to this day. Chadwick decided to use "K", the last letter in "struck", since the letter "S" was used for "sacrifice." Chadwick was responsible for several other scorekeeping conventions, including the use of numbers to designate player positions. Those unaware of Chadwick's contributions have speculated that "K" was derived from the last name of 19th century pitcher Matt Kilroy. If not for the evidence supporting Chadwick's earlier use of "K", this explanation would be reasonable. Kilroy raised the prominence of the strikeout, setting an all-time single-season record of 513 strikeouts in 1886, only two years after overhand pitching was permitted.
His record, however, is limited to its era since the pitcher's mound was only 50 feet from the batter during that season. It was moved to its current distance of 60'6" in 1893; the modern record is 383 strikeouts, held by Nolan Ryan, one better than Sandy Koufax's 382. For 55 years, Walter Johnson held the career strikeout record, at 3,508; that record fell in 1982 to Nolan Ryan, passed by Steve Carlton, before Ryan took the career strikeout record for good at 5,714. Early rules stated that "three balls being struck at and missed and the last one caught, is a hand-out; the modern rule has changed little. The addition of the called strike came in 1858. In 1880, the rules were changed to specify. A adjustment to the dropped third strike rule specified that a batter is automatically out when there are fewer than two out and a runner on first base. In 1887, the number of strikes for an out was changed to four, but it was promptly changed back to three the next season. A swinging strik
Oklahoma City shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. The county seat of Oklahoma County, the city ranks 27th among United States cities in population; the population grew following the 2010 Census, with the population estimated to have increased to 643,648 as of July 2017. As of 2015, the Oklahoma City metropolitan area had a population of 1,358,452, the Oklahoma City-Shawnee Combined Statistical Area had a population of 1,459,758 residents, making it Oklahoma's largest metropolitan area. Oklahoma City's city limits extend into Canadian and Pottawatomie counties, though much of those areas outside the core Oklahoma County area are suburban or rural; the city ranks as the ninth-largest city in the United States by total area when including consolidated city-counties. Lying in the Great Plains region, Oklahoma City has one of the world's largest livestock markets. Oil, natural gas, petroleum products and related industries are the largest sector of the local economy.
The city is in the middle of an active oil field and oil derricks dot the capitol grounds. The federal government employs large numbers of workers at Tinker Air Force Base and the United States Department of Transportation's Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center. Oklahoma City is on the I-35 Corridor, one of the primary travel corridors south into neighboring Texas and Mexico and north towards Wichita and Kansas City. Located in the state's Frontier Country region, the city's northeast section lies in an ecological region known as the Cross Timbers; the city was founded during the Land Run of 1889 and grew to a population of over 10,000 within hours of its founding. The city was the scene of the April 19, 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, in which 168 people died, it was the deadliest terror attack in the history of the United States until the attacks of September 11, 2001, remains the deadliest act of domestic terrorism in U. S. history. Since the time weather records have been kept, Oklahoma City has been struck by thirteen strong tornadoes.
Since 2008, Oklahoma City has been home to the National Basketball Association's Oklahoma City Thunder, who play their home basketball games at the Chesapeake Energy Arena. Oklahoma City was settled on April 22, 1889, when the area known as the "Unassigned Lands" was opened for settlement in an event known as "The Land Run"; some 10,000 homesteaders settled the area. The town grew quickly. Early leaders of the development of the city included Anton Classen, John Shartel, Henry Overholser and James W. Maney. By the time Oklahoma was admitted to the Union in 1907, Oklahoma City had surpassed Guthrie, the territorial capital, as the new state's population center and commercial hub. Soon after, the capital was moved from Guthrie to Oklahoma City. Oklahoma City was a major stop on Route 66 during the early part of the 20th century. Before World War II, Oklahoma City developed major stockyards, attracting jobs and revenue in Chicago and Omaha, Nebraska. With the 1928 discovery of oil within the city limits, Oklahoma City became a major center of oil production.
Post-war growth accompanied the construction of the Interstate Highway System, which made Oklahoma City a major interchange as the convergence of I-35, I-40, I-44. It was aided by federal development of Tinker Air Force Base. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported city's population as 8.6 % 90.7 % white. Patience Latting was elected Mayor of Oklahoma City in 1971. Latting was the first woman to serve as mayor of a U. S. city with over 350,000 residents. Like many other American cities, center city population declined in the 1970s and 1980s as families followed newly constructed highways to move to newer housing in nearby suburbs. Urban renewal projects in the 1970s, including the Pei Plan, removed older structures but failed to spark much new development, leaving the city dotted with vacant lots used for parking. A notable exception was the city's construction of the Myriad Gardens and Crystal Bridge, a botanical garden and modernistic conservatory in the heart of downtown. Architecturally significant historic buildings lost to clearances were the Criterion Theater, the Baum Building, the Hales Building, the Biltmore Hotel.
In 1993, the city passed a massive redevelopment package known as the Metropolitan Area Projects, intended to rebuild the city's core with civic projects to establish more activities and life to downtown. The city added a new baseball park. Water taxis transport passengers within the district, adding activity along the canal. MAPS has become one of the most successful public-private partnerships undertaken in the U. S. exceeding $3 billion in private investment as of 2010. As a result of MAPS, the population living in downtown housing has exponentially increased, together with demand for additional residential and retail amenities, such as grocery and shops. Since the MAPS projects' completion, the downtown area has seen continued