Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
The Genève-Servette HC is a professional ice hockey club based in Geneva and competing in the National League, the top tier of the Swiss hockey league system. The team plays their home games at the Patinoire des Vernets, which has a seating capacity of 7,135. During the 2015–16 regular season, the GSHC was the fourth most attended team in Switzerland, averaging 6,556 spectators. 1905: Foundation of Servette FC's ice hockey section. 1954: The club plays on artificial ice for the first time, in the "Pavillon des Sports". Until Servette had to host its opponents in Lausanne or au Pont; the first match on the new artificial ice sees Servette play Urania Genève Sport. 1956: First promotion in Swiss National League B. 1958: Inauguration of the new ice rink called "Les Vernets". 1959: Servette wins the "Swiss Cup" after beating Neuchâtel-Sports Young Sprinters HC 7–3 in the final, in front of 11,820 fans, it is a crowd record for a hockey game in Les Vernets. 1963: Creation of Genève-Servette HC after the fusion of the ice hockey sections of Servette & UGS. 1964: Genève-Servette is champion of the Swiss National League B, after beating the EHC Biel in the final, is promoted to the top league in Switzerland, the National League A. 1975: Relegated to the Swiss National League B. 1980: Relegated to 1.
Liga. 1995: Promoted to National League B again, after a victory over Luzern. 2001: Promoted to National League A, after a successful series over Chur in the final. 2008: On March 24, the GSHC reaches the Swiss National League A final for the first time in its history, after a clear win over HC Fribourg-Gottéron in the semi-finals. 2010: After a good season, the GSHC defeated HC Fribourg-Gottéron in quarter-finals after being led 3–1 and EV Zug in semi-finals. Against SC Bern in Finals, the GSHC came back from 3–1 to 3–3 before losing the seventh game in Bern. 2011: Were third-most attended team in Switzerland for the 2010–11 season with 6,971 spectators per game. 2013: Winner of the Spengler Cup. 2014: Second consecutive Spengler Cup win. 2017: Fell to EHC Kloten in the Swiss Cup final. The Patinoire des Vernets was built in 1959 and is located in the Geneva neighborhood of the same name, it serves as the main arena for the GSHC. It was renovated in 2009 in order to increase the spectator capacity from 6400 to 7140.
On January 24, 2012, local authorities and the club reached an agreement to build a new arena, in another part of town, with a seating capacity of 10,000. In 2012, it was scheduled to open by 2015, or 2016; as of 2019, construction has yet to start. The official mascots of Genève-Servette are Calvin and Calvina, two anthropomorphic eagles that first appeared at the beginning of the 2006-2007 season, they are Switzerland's only mascot duet. Their names are derived from famous theologian of the Protestant reformation in Geneva. In addition, Sherkan, a bald eagle, opens every home game by flying throughout the arena, reaching for his master standing in the center of ice. Sherkan is popular amongst fans and players alike. Sherkan is Europe’s first living animal to partake in an ice-hockey game opening ceremony. Sherkan first appeared during the NLB playoffs of 2001 and has been present to every home game since, only missing two. Chris McSorley served as head coach and general manager between 2001 and 2017 and was co-owner until 2014, alongside Hugh Quennec.
Chris McSorley is the brother of Marty McSorley, two times winner of the Stanley Cup with the Edmonton Oilers. On March 22, 2017, Chris McSorley stepped down as head coach to focus on his job as general manager. A position he assumed for the entire 2017–18 season. At the end of this season, it was announced that McSorley would return as head coach of Geneva for the 2018/19 season, while keeping his position as general manager. McSorley had signed a 15-year contract with the team in September 2016 worth CHF 10 million, while the club was still under Quennec ownership; the contract runs through the 2030/31 season. On June 26, 2017, it was announced that Craig Woodcroft would replace McSorley at the helm of the team for the next three seasons. At the end of the 2017/18 season, Woodcroft was relieved of his duties as head coach after only one season. Geneva will still pay him the remaining CHF 2 million on his contract. Louis Matte and Jason O'Leary are the assistant coaches and Sebastien Beaulieu is the official goalie coach.
SL Championship: 2001 Swiss Cup: 1959, 1972 Spengler Cup: 2013, 2014 NL Championship: 2008, 2010 NDA Championship: 1917, 1920, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1971 Swiss Cup: 2017 Updated January 13, 2019. Richard Park Logan Couture Nick Spaling Yannick Weber Tom Pyatt Reto Pavoni Philippe Bozon Oleg Petrov Igor Fedulov Official site of Genève-Servette Hockey Club Site officiel du Genève-Servette Hockey Club Official Fan-club webpage Fan-page
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league in North America comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada; the Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season. The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario; the NHL took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name.
The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. From 1942 to 1967, the league had only six teams, collectively nicknamed the "Original Six"; the NHL added six new teams to double its size at the 1967 NHL expansion. The league increased to 18 teams by 1974 and 21 teams in 1979. Between 1991 and 2000, the NHL further expanded to 30 teams, it added its 31st team in 2017 and has approved the addition of a 32nd team in 2021. The league's headquarters have been in New York City since 1989 when the head office moved there from Montreal. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, the league resumed play in 2005–06 under a new collective agreement that included a salary cap. In 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences; the International Ice Hockey Federation considers the Stanley Cup to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport".
The NHL draws many skilled players from all over the world and has players from 20 countries. Canadians have constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons; the current NHL Champions are the Washington Capitals, who defeated the Vegas Golden Knights four games to one in the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association. Founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey, but by the NHA's eighth season, a series of disputes with Toronto Blueshirts owner Eddie Livingstone led team owners of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs to hold a meeting to discuss the league's future. Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, on November 26, 1917, formed the National Hockey League.
Frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the Arenas, to compete with the Canadiens and Senators; the first games were played on December 19, 1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL continued on as a three-team league until the Bulldogs returned in 1919; the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup; the Canadiens won the league title in 1919. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL; the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus. The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after they defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final.
Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup. It was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation; the National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons and Boston Bruins in 1924. The Bruins were the first American team in the league; the New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, were joined by the Pittsburgh Pirates. The New York Rangers were added in 1926; the Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL. A group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and renamed them the Maple Leafs; the first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, whose career ended on a vicious hit by Eddie Shore. The second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenz's family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game.
The Great Depression and the onset of World War II took a toll on the league. The Pirates became the Philadelphia Quakers in 1930 folded one year later; the Senators became the St. Louis Eagles in 1934 lasting only one
Winger (ice hockey)
Winger, in the game of ice hockey, is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play on the ice is along the outer playing area. They work by flanking the centre forward; the name was given to forward players who went up and down the sides of the rink. Nowadays, there are different types of wingers in the game — out-and-out goal scorers, checkers who disrupt the opponents, forwards who work along the boards and in the corners, they tend to be smaller than defenseman. This position is referred to by the side of the rink that the winger takes, i.e. "left wing" or "right wing." The wingers' responsibilities in the defensive zone include the following: getting open for a pass from their teammates intercepting a pass to the opposing defenceman attacking the opposing defencemen when they have the puckWingers should not: play deep in their defensive zone help out their teammates along the boards Wingers should be playing high in the zone, always be vigilant for a breakout pass or a chance to chip the puck past the blue line.
When wingers receive a pass along the boards, they can exercise a number of options: Bank the puck off the boards or glass to get it out of the zone Redirect or pass the puck to a rushing forward Shoot the puck out to the centre line to another forward who can either set up an attack, or dump the puck into the offensive zone to summon a line change Carry the puck themselves into the offensive zone to attempt a breakaway or an odd man rush Wingers are the last players to backcheck out of the offensive zone. On the backcheck, it is essential. Once the puck is controlled by the opposing team in the defensive zone, wingers are responsible for covering the defenceman on their side of the ice. Prior to the puck being dropped for a face-off, players other than those taking the face-off must not make any physical contact with players on the opposite team, nor enter the face-off circle. After the puck is dropped, it is essential for wingers to engage the opposing players to prevent them from obtaining possession of the puck.
Once a team has established control of the puck, wingers can set themselves up into an appropriate position. Some wingers are employed to handle faceoffs. Rover Centre Defenceman Forward Goaltender Power forward List of NHL players
Kitchener is a city in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario. Located 100 km west of Toronto, Kitchener is the regional seat, it was called the Town of Berlin from 1854 until 1912 and the City of Berlin from 1912 until 1916. The City of Kitchener covers an area of 136.86 square kilometres and had a population of 233,222 at the time of the 2016 Census. The Kitchener metropolitan area, which includes the smaller, neighbouring cities of Waterloo to the north and Cambridge to the south, has 523,894 people, making it the tenth largest Census Metropolitan Area in Canada and the fourth largest CMA in Ontario. Kitchener and Waterloo are considered "twin cities" which are referred to jointly as "Kitchener–Waterloo", although they have separate municipal governments. Including Cambridge, the three cities are known as "the Tri-Cities". All are part of the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, created in 1973, when it replaced Waterloo County, created in 1853. Kitchener is in the Saint Lawrence Lowlands.
This geological and climatic region has deciduous forests. Located in the Grand River Valley, the area is above 300m in elevation. Kitchener is the largest city within the Grand River watershed, the largest city on the Haldimand Tract. Just to the west of the city is Baden Hill, in Wilmot Township; this glacial kame remnant formation is the highest elevation for many miles. The other dominant glacial feature is the Waterloo Moraine, which snakes its way through the region and holds a significant quantity of artesian wells, from which the city derives most of its drinking water; the settlement's first name, Sandhills, is an accurate description of the higher points of the moraine. Kitchener has a humid continental climate of the warm summer subtype. Winter-like conditions last from the mid-December until mid-March, while summer temperatures occur between mid-May to close to the end of September. March 2012 went down in the history books for Kitchener – between 16 and 22 March, temperatures ranged from 21.4 °C to 27.0 °C —7 record highs in a row.
19 March high of 24 °C is one of the highest winter temperatures recorded, while 22 March high of 27 °C is the highest for March in this area. Temperatures during the year can exceed 30 °C in the summer and drop below −20 °C in the winter several times a year, but prolonged periods of extreme temperatures are rare; the frost-free period for Kitchener averages about 147 frost-free days a year, a much more limited number than cities on the Great Lakes due its inland location and higher elevation. Snowfall averages 160 centimetres per year, high but not nearly as areas more directly affected by lake effect snow; the highest temperature recorded in Kitchener was 38.3 °C on August 6 & 7, 1918 and July 27, 1941. The coldest temperature recorded was −34.1 °C on February 16, 2015. In 1784, the land Kitchener was built on was a 240,000 hectare area given to the Six Nations by the British as a gift for their allegiance during the American Revolution. Between 1796 and 1798, the Six Nations sold 38,000 hectares of this land to loyalist Colonel Richard Beasley.
The portion of land that Beasley purchased was remote but of great interest to German Mennonite farming families from Pennsylvania. They wanted to live in an area; the Mennonites purchased all of Beasley's unsold land creating 160 farm tracts. Many of the pioneers arriving from Pennsylvania, known as the Pennsylvania Dutch or Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsche, after November 1803 bought land in a 60,000-acre section of Block Two from the German Company, established by a group of Mennonites from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; the tract included most of Block 2 of the previous Grand River Indian Lands. Many of the first farms were least four hundred acres in size; the German Company, represented by Daniel Erb and Samuel Bricker, had acquired the land from previous owner Richard Beasley. The payment to Beasley, in cash, arrived from Pennsylvania in kegs, carried in a wagon surrounded by armed guards. By 1800, the first buildings had been built, over the next decade several families made the difficult trip north to what was known as the Sand Hills.
One of these Mennonite families, arriving in 1807, were the Schneiders, whose restored 1816 home is now a museum in the heart of Kitchener. Other families whose names can still be found in local place names were the Bechtels, the Ebys, the Erbs, the Weavers, the Cressmans and the Brubachers. In 1816 the Government of Upper Canada designated the settlement the Township of Waterloo. Much of the land, made up of moraines and swampland interspersed with rivers and streams, was converted to farmland and roads. Wild pigeons, which once swarmed by the tens of thousands, were driven from the area. Apple trees were introduced to the region by John Eby in the 1830s, several grist- and sawmills were erected throughout the area. Schneider built the town's first road, from his home to the corner of Queen Street. $1000 was raised by the settlers to extend the road from Walper corner to Huether corner, where th
Jamey Alan Wright is an American former professional baseball pitcher. He played for 10 different teams in Major League Baseball, the Colorado Rockies, Milwaukee Brewers, St. Louis Cardinals, Kansas City Royals, San Francisco Giants, Texas Rangers, Cleveland Indians, Seattle Mariners, Los Angeles Dodgers, Tampa Bay Rays. Wright was drafted in the first round of the 1993 Major League Baseball draft by the Colorado Rockies out of Westmoore High School in Oklahoma City, where he was a second team High School All-American and the Southwest Region Gatorade Player of the Year, he began his career with eight starts for the Arizona League Rockies in 1993 and was promoted to the Asheville Tourists in 1994, the Salem Avalanche and New Haven Ravens in 1995 and played with New Haven and the AAA Colorado Springs Sky Sox in 1996. Wright made his Major League debut when he started for the Rockies against the San Francisco Giants on July 3, 1996, allowing one run in six innings, he recorded his first Major League win with a seven inning start against the Giants on July 17, where he allowed only one earned run.
He finished 4-4 with a 4.93 ERA in his debut season. He turned in his first complete game with a 7-1 win over the Chicago Cubs on July 24, 1997, he made 26 starts in 1997, 34 in 1998 and 16 in 1999, where he made 17 appearances in AAA for Colorado Springs. After the 1999 season, Wright was traded with Henry Blanco to the Milwaukee Brewers in a three team trade in which the Oakland Athletics sent Jimmy Haynes to Milwaukee, the Rockies sent Justin Miller to the Athletics, the Brewers sent Jeff Cirillo and Scott Karl to the Rockies, he spent parts of three seasons with the Brewers, where he made 77 starts and was 23-34 with a 4.73 ERA. In August 2002, Wright was traded by the Brewers with cash to the St. Louis Cardinals for a player to be named and Chris Morris. Wright was 2-0 in 4 appearances for the Cardinals, with a 4.80 ERA. He signed with the Seattle Mariners on January 28, 2003, but was released in spring training and re-signed with the Brewers. After appearing in 7 games with the AAA Indianapolis Indians the Brewers released him on April 28.
He was signed by the Texas Rangers on May 7 and he made 7 starts for the Oklahoma RedHawks, where he was 2-1 with a 4.12 ERA. Texas released him on June 15 and he signed with the Kansas City Royals on June 20, he made 13 appearances in AAA with the Omaha Royals and was 3-5 with a 3.64 ERA. The Royals called him up to the Majors on September 6 and he pitched a complete game that day against the Anaheim Angels, but lost 1-3, his next start, on September 13 against the Detroit Tigers, was his first complete game shutout as the Royals beat the Tigers 7-0. He finished the season 1-2 with a 4.26 ERA in 4 starts. He began 2004 with the Chicago Cubs but did not make the Opening Day roster so he decided to opt for free agency, he signed a minor league deal with the Royals, made 18 starts in Omaha, where he was 8-6 with a 4.21 ERA before he was released on July 21. He played there for two more years, he was 2-3 with a 4.12 ERA in 14 starts in 2004 and was 8-16 with a 5.46 ERA in 34 appearances in 2005. He signed a minor league contract with the San Francisco Giants organization after the 2005 season and was brought to spring training in 2006 as a non-roster invitee.
Following a strong spring training performance, Wright was promoted to the major league roster and named the team's number five starter, beating out Kevin Correia and Brad Hennessey for the job. On August 10, Wright was taken out of the rotation, replaced by Hennessey. Overall, he appeared in 34 games, making 21 starts in 2006 with a 6-10 record and 5.19 ERA. On November 1, 2006, the Giants declined their option on Wright for the 2007 season, making him a free agent. On January 25, 2007, he signed a minor league contract with an invitation to spring training with the Texas Rangers. Wright made one short start for the Rangers before being placed on the 15-day disabled list. Kameron Loe claimed his spot in the rotation. However, after returning from the DL, Wright returned to the rotation. In 2 seasons with the Rangers, he was 12-12 with a 4.41 ERA, pitching out of the bullpen for the first time in his career. On February 10, 2009, Wright signed a minor league contract with the Royals and was invited to spring training.
As a key member of the Royals bullpen, he was 3-5 with a 4.33 ERA in 65 games. On February 9, 2010, Wright signed a minor league contract with the Cleveland Indians with an invitation to spring training. In 18 appearances he was 1-2 with a 5.48 ERA. On June 4, 2010, the Indians designated Wright for assignment. On June 16, 2010, he signed a minor league contract with the Oakland Athletics, he made 10 appearances in AAA with the Sacramento River Cats, where he was 1-0 with a 9.00 ERA. On July 15, he was added to the major league roster. In 60 games, he was 2-3 with a 3.16 ERA. He became a free agent after the season. On February 7, 2012 Wright signed a minor league contract with the Los Angeles Dodgers, that contained a spring training invitation. On March 27 he was added to the teams 40 man roster and informed that he would make the opening day roster, he appeared in 66 games for the Dodgers, with a 5-3 record and 3.72 ERA. On January 22, 2013, Wright signed a minor league contract with the Tampa Bay Rays.
He managed to make the opening day roster, finished 2-2 with a 3.09 ERA in 66 appearances. This was the eighth straight season that Wright had gone to camp as a NRI and made the opening day roster. On December 24, 2013, the Dodgers announced that they had signed Wright to a one-year Major League contract
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a