Stumped is a method of dismissal in cricket. The action of stumping can only be performed by a wicket-keeper and, according to the Laws of Cricket, a batsman can be given out stumped if: the wicket-keeper puts down the wicket, while the batsman is: out of his ground. Being "out of his ground" is defined as not having any part of the batsman's body or his bat touching the ground behind the crease – i.e. if his bat is elevated from the floor despite being behind the crease, or if his foot is on the crease line itself but not across it and touching the ground behind it he would be considered out. One of the fielding team must appeal for the wicket by asking the umpire; the appeal is directed to the square-leg umpire, who would be in the best position to adjudicate on the appeal. Stumping is the fifth most common form of dismissal after caught, leg before wicket and run out, though it is seen more in Twenty20 cricket because of its more aggressive batting, it is governed by Law 39 of the Laws of Cricket.
It is seen with a medium or slow bowler, as with fast bowlers a wicket-keeper takes the ball too far back from the wicket to attempt a stumping. It includes co-operation between a bowler and wicket-keeper: the bowler draws the batsman out of his ground, the wicket-keeper catches and breaks the wicket before the batsman realises he has missed the ball and makes his ground, i.e. places the bat or part of his body on the ground back behind the popping crease. If the bails are removed before the wicket-keeper has the ball, the batsman can still be stumped if the wicket-keeper removes one of the stumps from the ground, while holding the ball in his hand; the bowler is credited for the batsman's wicket, the wicket-keeper is credited for the dismissal. A batsman may be out stumped off a wide delivery but cannot be stumped off a no-ball as bowler is credited for the wicket. Notes: The popping crease is defined as the back edge of the crease marking (i.e. the edge closer to the wicket. Therefore, a batsman whose bat or foot is on the crease marking, but does not touch the ground behind the crease marking, can be stumped.
This is quite common. The wicket must be properly put down in accordance with Law 28 of the Laws of cricket: using either the ball itself or a hand or arm, in possession of the ball. Note that since the ball itself can put down the wicket, a stumping is still valid if the ball rebounds from the'keeper and breaks the wicket though never controlled by him; the wicket-keeper must allow the ball to pass the stumps before taking it, unless it has touched either the batsman or his bat first. If the wicket-keeper fails to do this, the delivery is a "no-ball", the batsman cannot be stumped
Newcastle is the third-largest city in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with a population of 363,236 citizens as of the 2011 census. 56,144 of these citizens reside in Newcastle West, whilst the balance of the population reside in the main townships of Madadeni and Osizweni, which form Newcastle East. Set at the picturesque foothills of the northern KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg Mountains, Newcastle is located in the north west corner of the province along the Ncandu River and is one of the country's main industrial centers. Newcastle's municipal area is 188 square kilometres, consists of 31 wards and a population growth rate of 0.87%, ranking Newcastle as South Africa's tenth-largest city. The N11 and R34 are the principal roads linking the city to the rest of South Africa. Newcastle is the seat of the local municipality as well as being the seat to the Amajuba District Municipality. Newcastle has changed names on numerous occasions during the country's historic rule, it was named Post Halt Number 2 on military maps during the 1840s, as postal coaches stopped here to obtain fresh horses on the journey between Durban and Johannesburg.
It was known as the Waterfall River Township because of the Ncandu River. Newcastle received her name after the British Colonial Secretary, the fifth Duke of Newcastle, a British aristocrat, not the city in England as some believe. During the Anglo-Boer War, Newcastle was invaded by Boer forces on 14 October 1899, the entire district was incorporated into the Transvaal Republic. Newcastle's name lasted for a period of seven months when it was renamed to Viljoensdorp after the commander of the Johannesburg Commando, General Ben Viljoen. However, after relief of Ladysmith under the command of General Redver Buller, the British forces reclaimed the name back to Newcastle. Newcastle was strategically placed in 1854 by the Surveyor General of the Natal Colony, Dr PC Sutherland on the banks of the flooded Ncandu River. In 1864, Newcastle was founded on the site, becoming the fourth settlement to be established in Natal after Durban and Pietermaritzburg. In 1876, Fort Amiel was constructed to ward off the Zulus during the war.
In 1873 Newcastle became a separate electoral division. To commemorate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee the construction of a sandstone town hall started in 1897, was completed two years later; the town was used as a depot by the British during both the Second Boer War. Newcastle functioned as a major transport junction and popular stopover for wagons and post chaises during the late 19th century. British preparation work for the Pretoria Convention of 1881 was done at Newcastle. In 1890, the first train arrived in Newcastle, the town was declared a borough in 1891; the discovery of coal brought a new era of prosperity and several ambitious building projects were planned. In 1920, the Union Steel Corporation built the provinces first steel plant, which became the ISCOR South Works and subsequently decommissioned the plant after the ISCOR North Works was built, now Arcelor Mittal Newcastle Works today. Today, Newcastle is the main commercial and industrial center in northern KwaZulu-Natal, is the provinces third largest city.
Continuous development has seen this city being a leader in its class and the municipality is striving to make the city sustainable by 2030. The city is the gateway to the Zulu Kingdom from Mpumalanga. Located at 1,194 metres above sea level, Newcastle is found in the North West corner of the province of KwaZulu-Natal at the foothills of the northern Drakensberg mountains; the city has a temperate climate and is classified under the country's'Cold Interior'. Temperatures in Newcastle drop below freezing during the winter months, with snowfall experienced at least twice a decade. Newcastle's summer temperatures have in the recent past exceeded 40 degrees Celsius, due to the 2015 El Niño weather phenomenon, with the region experiencing drought conditions after 28 years. Zulus form the largest single ethnic group. Due to its past, Newcastle has a large number of people of British descent and Indians, with several places of worship and spiritual organizations around the city's suburbs; the city has since the mid 1980s seen an influx of Chinese nationals.
While making up a small percentage of Newcastle's population, they have contributed extensively to the economy. With 200 Chinese-owned businesses, they have left their mark on Newcastle making it a leader in the textile and plastic manufacturing industry; the abolishing of Apartheid has seen the establishment of the Buddhist Light Association's Mediation Center and Chinese School on Victoria Road. Indian nationals, Pakistan nationals as well as African foreign nationals have since 1995 flocked to the city in search of a better life, now calling Newcastle their home. From the 1880s, Newcastle experienced constant economic growth. Today, Newcastle has industry in northern KwaZulu-Natal; this city serves the surrounding towns of Utrecht, Dannhauser and Dundee, maize and dairy farmers and country at large with an extensive amount of resources and goods some of which are for export. The city has 4 industrial areas, namely Riverside Industrial, Airport Industrial, Madadeni Industrial Estate & Arcelor Mittal Newcastle Works.
The Newcastle economy is strong, being dominated by heavy industry, clothing & textile and engineering industry. There is considerable coal mining in the area. Although the Arcelor Mittal steelworks, the Natal Portland Cement slagment cement plant, the LANXESS Chrome Chemical Plant and the Karbochem synthetic
Netherlands national cricket team
The Netherlands national cricket team is the team that represents the Kingdom of the Netherlands and is administered by the Koninklijke Nederlandse Cricket Bond, based in Nieuwegein in the centre of the country and is older than many renowned cricket clubs in the West Indies and New Zealand. Cricket has been played in the Netherlands since at least the 19th century, in the 1860s was considered a major sport in the country. Other sports – notably football – have long since surpassed cricket in popularity amongst the Dutch, but today there are around 6,000 cricketers in the Netherlands; the first national association, the forerunner of today's Royal Dutch Cricket Association, was formed in 1883 and the Netherlands achieved Associate Membership of the International Cricket Council in 1966. The Netherlands have taken part in all eleven ICC Trophy/World Cup Qualifier tournaments, winning the competition in Canada in 2001 and finishing as runners-up twice; the Netherlands participated in the 1996, 2003, 2007 and 2011 Cricket World Cups, from 1996 onwards the national team entered the English domestic NatWest Trophy competition.
In 2004 they played first-class cricket in the ICC Intercontinental Cup, drawing with Scotland in Aberdeen and going down to an innings defeat against Ireland in Deventer. The Netherlands enjoyed full One Day International status from 1 January 2006 until 1 February 2014, they regained Twenty20 International status in June 2014, having played their first match in this format in 2008. The Netherlands regained their ODI status after the conclusion of the 2018 Cricket World Cup Qualifier in March 2018, they had guaranteed this status before the tournament as a result of winning the 2015–17 ICC World Cricket League Championship and thus qualifying for the 2020–22 ICC ODI League, will retain the status until the 2022 Cricket World Cup Qualifier. In April 2018, the ICC decided to grant full Twenty20 International status to all its members. Therefore, all Twenty20 matches played between the Netherlands and other ICC members after 1 January 2019 will be a full T20I. Pieter Seelaar is the current team captain.
Cricket was introduced to the Netherlands by British soldiers during the Napoleonic Wars in the 19th century. Further clubs came into existence in the 1870s; the Netherlands national team played their first game in 1881. They still lost by an innings; the Dutch Cricket Union was formed in 1883, with 18 member clubs, four of which are still in existence today. The first national tournament was held the following year, was won by Haagsche CC. English touring teams began visiting in 1886 including one in 1891 that featured the author of Sherlock Holmes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. In 1894, the Gentlemen of Holland were the first Dutch team to visit England; the tour included a game against the MCC at Lord's. Tours by English sides continued for the rest of the 1890s, which saw the emergence of Carst Posthuma, the first Dutch player to play first class cricket, he took 2339 wickets at an average of 8.66 in his career in the Netherlands. 1901 saw another visit to England by the Gentlemen of Holland. They played five games on the tour, losing the remainder.
1905 saw the first international game against Belgium. Cricket began a decline in popularity in the first decade of the 20th century amongst young athletes, due, in part, to the Dutch sympathizing with the Boers in the Boer War and therefore not being attracted to a game with links to England. In 1910, the Dutch team visited Belgium to take part in an exhibition tournament, which featured the MCC, Belgium and France, they lost to the MCC by 2 wickets, to France by 63 runs, but beat Belgium by 116 runs. During World War I, in which the Netherlands remained neutral, large numbers of British officers were interned in the country, many of these joined local cricket clubs. A team made up of these players won the Dutch championship in 1918; the Flamingos, a Dutch touring side, was formed in 1921, made several tours of England. Tours by English teams continued in this period; the 1930s are said to be the heyday of Dutch cricket. In 1934, the first Dutch women's league was formed, the women's national team played two games against Australia in 1937, losing in both.
Cricket was of course curtailed after the German invasion in 1940. The 1950s saw visits to the Netherlands by Australia and the West Indies, in addition to their first match against Denmark. In 1958, the Cricket Board received a Royal Charter, became the "Koninklijke Nederlandse Cricket Bond", a name which it retains to this day. In August 1964, the Netherlands achieved their first victory against a Test-playing nation when they beat Australia by three wickets at The Hague, they were rewarded with associate membership of the ICC two years later. The first two ICC Trophy tournaments, in 1979 and 1982, brought little success to the Dutch, who were eliminated in the first round in both tournaments, but in the 1986 tournament, they finished as runners-up to Zimbabwe. The same year, Paul-Jan Bakker became the first Dutch player to play county cricket. In 1989, the Dutch beat a strong England XI that included two future England captains, Alec Stewart and Nasser Hussain, by 3 runs. In 1990 the Netherlands hosted the ICC Trophy, the first such tournament outside England, again finished runners-up to Zimbabwe.
In 1991 they achieved a five-wicket win over a West Indies XI, followed in 1993 by a seven-wicket win over an England XI and in 1994 a nine-wicket win over a South Africa XI. In 1994 the Dutch qua
In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings. Firstly, it is one of two bails at either end of the pitch; the wicket is guarded by a batsman who, with his bat, attempts to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket. Secondly, through metonymic usage, the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket, thirdly, the cricket pitch itself is sometimes called the wicket; the origin of the word is from a small gate. Cricket wickets had only two stumps and one bail and looked like a gate; the third stump was introduced in 1775. The size and shape of the wicket has changed several times during the last 300 years and its dimensions and placing is now determined by Law 8 in the Laws of Cricket, thus: Law 8: The wickets; the wicket consists of three wooden stumps. The stumps are placed along the batting crease with equal distances between each stump, they are positioned. Two wooden bails are placed in shallow grooves on top of the stumps; the bails must not project more than 0.5 inches above the stumps, must, for men's cricket, be 4.31 inches long.
There are specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. There are different specifications for the bails for junior cricket; the umpires may dispense with the bails. Further details on the specifications of the wickets are contained in Appendix D to the laws. For a batsman to be dismissed by being bowled, run out, stumped or hit wicket, his wicket needs to be put down. What this means is defined by Law 29. A wicket is put down if a bail is removed from the top of the stumps, or a stump is struck out of the grounds by the ball, the striker's bat, the striker's person, a fielder. A 2010 amendment to the Laws clarified the rare circumstance where a bat breaks during the course of a shot and the detached debris breaks the wicket; the wicket is put down if a fielder pulls a stump out of the ground in the same manner. If one bail is off, removing the remaining bail or striking or pulling any of the three stumps out of the ground is sufficient to put the wicket down. A fielder may remake the wicket, if necessary, in order to put it down to have an opportunity of running out a batsman.
If however both bails are off, a fielder must remove one of the three stumps out of the ground with the ball, or pull it out of the ground with a hand or arm, provided that the ball is held in the hand or hands so used, or in the hand of the arm so used. If the umpires have agreed to dispense with bails, for example, it is too windy for the bails to remain on the stumps, the decision as to whether the wicket has been put down is one for the umpire concerned to decide. After a decision to play without bails, the wicket has been put down if the umpire concerned is satisfied that the wicket has been struck by the ball, by the striker's bat, person, or items of his clothing or equipment separated from his person as described above, or by a fielder with the hand holding the ball or with the arm of the hand holding the ball; the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket. The batsman is said to have lost his wicket, the batting side is said to have lost a wicket, the fielding side to have taken a wicket, the bowler is said to have taken his wicket, if the dismissal is one of the types for which the bowler receives credit.
This language is used if the dismissal did not involve the stumps and bails in any way, for example, a catch. Though note that the other four of the five most common methods of dismissal do involve the stumps and bails being put down, or prevented from being put down by the batsman; the word wicket has this meaning in the following contexts: A team's score is described in terms of the total number of runs scored and the total number of wickets lost. The number of wickets taken is a primary measure of a individual bowler's ability, a key part of a bowling analysis; the sequence of time over which two particular batsmen bat together, a partnership, is referred to as a numbered wicket when discriminating it from other partnerships in the innings. The first wicket partnership is from the start of the innings until the team loses its first wicket, i.e. one of the first two batsmen is dismissed. The second wicket partnership is from when the third batsman starts batting until the team loses its second wicket, i.e. a second batsman is dismissed.
Etc... The tenth wicket or last wicket partnership is from when the eleventh batsman starts batting until the team loses its tenth wicket, i.e. a tenth batsman is dismissed. A team can win a match by a certain number of wickets; this means that they were batting last, reached the winning target with a certain number of batsmen still not dismissed. For example, if the side scored the required number of runs to win with only three batsmen dismissed, they are said to have won by seven wickets; the word wicket is sometimes used to refer to the cricket pitch itself. According to the Laws of Cricket, this usage is incorrect, but it is in common usage and understood by cricket followers; the term sticky wicket refers to a situation in which the pitch has become damp due to rain or high humidity. This makes the path of the ball more unpredictable thus making the
Zimbabwe national cricket team
The Zimbabwe national cricket team is administered by Zimbabwe Cricket. Zimbabwe is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test and One Day International status; as of November 2018, Zimbabwe is ranked tenth in Tests, eleventh in ODIs and twelfth in Twenty20 Internationals by the ICC. Zimbabwe – known as Rhodesia until 1980 – had a national cricket team before it achieved Test status. A brief summary of key moments: Rhodesia was represented in the South African domestic cricket tournament, the Currie Cup, sporadically from 1904 to 1932, regularly from 1946 until independence. Following independence, the country began to play more international cricket. On 21 July 1981, Zimbabwe became an associate member of the ICC. Zimbabwe participated in the 1983 Cricket World Cup, as well as the 1992 events. Zimbabwe's first World Cup campaign in 1983 ended in the group stage, as they lost five of their six matches. However, they threw a surprise against Australia. Batting first, Zimbabwe reached a total of 239 for 6 in the allotted 60 overs, with skipper Duncan Fletcher top-scoring with 69 not out.
Fletcher produced career-best figures of 4 for 42 to restrict Australia to 226 for 7, thereby recording a stunning upset in cricket history. In the 1987 World Cup, Zimbabwe lost all six of their group-stage matches, though they came close to winning against New Zealand. Chasing 243 to win from 50 overs, wicketkeeper-batsman David Houghton scored 142, but Zimbabwe were all out for 239 in the final over, thus losing by three runs. In the 1992 tournament, Zimbabwe failed to progress beyond the round-robin stage, losing seven of their eight matches, though there were two notable achievements. Against Sri Lanka in their first match, Zimbabwe posted their then-highest total of 312 for 4, with wicketkeeper-batsman Andy Flower top-scoring with 115 not out. However, the Sri Lankans chased this total down with four balls to spare. In their final match, Zimbabwe faced England in an inconsequential encounter, England having made the semi-finals. Batting first, Zimbabwe were all out for 134. Eddo Brandes produced a stunning spell of 4 for 21, including dismissing Graham Gooch first ball, to help restrict England to 125 all out and thus give Zimbabwe a shock nine-run victory.
These twenty World Cup matches were Zimbabwe's only international games during this period. Zimbabwe was granted Test status by the ICC in July 1992 and played its first Test match in October that year, against India at Harare Sports Club, they became the ninth Test nation. Zimbabwe's early Test performances were weak, leading to suggestions that they had been granted Test status prematurely. Of their first 30 Test matches, they won just one, at home against Pakistan in early 1995. In the one-day arena, the team soon became competitive, if not strong. In particular, world respect was gained for their fielding ability. In spite of his team's difficulties, wicket-keeper/batsman Andy Flower was at one point rated the best batsman in world cricket. During this era, Zimbabwe produced such cricketers as Flower's brother Grant, allrounders Andy Blignaut and Heath Streak. Murray Goodwin was a world-class batsman. Another world-class batsman was David Houghton, who holds the record for the highest individual Test score for Zimbabwe of 266 against Sri Lanka in 1994/95.
Sometime captain and middle order batsman Alistair Campbell, leg-spinning all rounder Paul Strang, Eddo Brandes, pace bowler/opener Neil Johnson were other important contributors for Zimbabwe on the world stage at this time. With the appearance of these quality players, a breakthrough was achieved in levels of performance in the late 1990s where the Zimbabwean team began winning Tests against other nations, which included a series win against Pakistan; the political situation in Zimbabwe declined at around the same time, which had a detrimental effect on the national team's performances. Zimbabwe excelled at the 1999 Cricket World Cup, coming in fifth place in the Super Sixes and only missing out on a semi-final place due to having an inferior net run-rate than New Zealand. In the group stage, Zimbabwe beat India by three runs, before facing their neighbours South Africa the best team in the world. Batting first, Zimbabwe made 233 for 6, with a well-fought 76 by opening batsman Neil Johnson.
In reply, South Africa collapsed to 40 for 6, before Lance Klusener and Shaun Pollock scored half-centuries to reduce the margin of defeat to 48 runs. This was one of Zimbabwe's most famous wins. Neil Johnson excelled with the ball, taking three wickets and claiming the Man of the Match award. Johnson quit playing for Zimbabwe after this tournament. During this period, Zimbabwe beat all Test-playing nations regularly. Zimbabwe beat New Zealand both home and away in 2000–2001; the team reached finals of many multi-national one day tournaments. Increasing politicisation of cricket, including selectorial policy, along with the declining situation in Zimbabwe disrupted the 2003 Cricket World Cup, jointly hosted by Zimbabwe and South Africa. England forfeited a match scheduled to be played in Zimbabwe, risking their own progress through the competition, citing "security concerns" as their reason. Zimbabwean players Andy Flower and fast bowler Henry Olonga wore black armbands, for "mourning the death of democracy" in Zimbabwe.
Both were dismissed from the team and applied for political asylum overseas. This public political protest caused considerable embarrassment to the co-h
In cricket, a player's bowling average is the number of runs they have conceded per wicket taken. The lower the bowling average is, the better the bowler is performing, it is one of a number of statistics used to compare bowlers used alongside the economy rate and the strike rate to judge the overall performance of a bowler. When a bowler has taken only a small number of wickets, their bowling average can be artificially high or low, unstable, with further wickets taken or runs conceded resulting in large changes to their bowling average. Due to this, qualification restrictions are applied when determining which players have the best bowling averages. After applying these criteria, George Lohmann holds the record for the lowest average in Test cricket, having claimed 112 wickets at an average of 10.75 runs per wicket. A cricketer's bowling average is calculated by dividing the numbers of runs they have conceded by the number of wickets they have taken; the number of runs conceded by a bowler is determined as the total number of runs that the opposing side have scored while the bowler was bowling, excluding any byes, leg byes, or penalty runs.
The bowler receives credit for any wickets taken during their bowling that are either bowled, hit wicket, leg before wicket or stumped. B o w l i n g a v e r a g e = R u n s c o n c e d e d W i c k e t s t a k e n A number of flaws have been identified for the statistic, most notable among these the fact that a bowler who has taken no wickets can not have a bowling average, as dividing by zero does not give a result; the effect of this is that the bowling average can not distinguish between a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one run, a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one hundred runs. The bowling average does not tend to give a true reflection of the bowler's ability when the number of wickets they have taken is small in comparison to the number of runs they have conceded. In his paper proposing an alternative method of judging batsmen and bowlers, Paul van Staden gives an example of this: Suppose a bowler has bowled a total of 80 balls, conceded 60 runs and has taken only 2 wickets so that..
30. If the bowler takes a wicket with the next ball bowled 20. Due to this, when establishing records for bowling averages, qualification criteria are set. For Test cricket, the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack sets this as 75 wickets, while ESPNcricinfo requires 2,000 deliveries. Similar restrictions are set for one-day cricket. A number of factors other than purely the ability level of the bowler have an effect on a player's bowling average. Most significant among these are the different eras; the bowling average tables in Test and first-class cricket are headed by players who competed in the nineteenth century, a period when pitches were uncovered and some were so badly looked after that they had rocks on them. The bowlers competing in the Howa Bowl, a competition played in South African during the apartheid-era, restricted to non-white players, during which time, according to Vincent Barnes: "Most of the wickets we played on were underprepared. For me, as a bowler, it was great." Other factors which provided an advantage to bowlers in that era was the lack of significant safety equipment.
Other variations are caused by frequent matches against stronger or weaker opposition, changes in the laws of cricket and the length of matches. Due to the varying qualifying restrictions placed on the records by different statisticians, the record for the lowest career bowling average can be different from publication to publication. In Test cricket, George Lohmann is listed as having the superior average by each of the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive. Though all three use different restrictions, Lohmann's average of 10.75 is considered the best. If no qualification criteria were applied at all, three players—Wilf Barber, A. N. Hornby and Bruce Murray—would tie for the best average, all having claimed just one wicket in Test matches, without conceding any runs, thus averaging zero. ESPNcricinfo list Betty Wilson as having the best Women's Test cricket average with 11.80, while CricketArchive accept Mary Spear's average of 5.78. In One Day Internationals, the varying criteria set by ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive result in different players being listed as holding the record.
ESPNcricinfo has the stricter restriction, requiring 1,000 deliveries: by this measure, Joel Garner is the record-holder, having claimed his wickets at an average of 18.84. By CricketArchive's more relaxed requirement of 400 deliveries, John Snow leads the way, with an average of 16.57. In women's One Day International cricket, Caroline Barrs tops the CricketArchive list with an average of 9.52, but by ESPNcricinfo's stricter guidelines, the record is instead held by Gill Smith's 12.53. The record is again split for the two websites for Twenty20 International cricket. George O'Brien's average of 8.20 holds the record using those criteri
Namibia the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence, its capital and largest city is Windhoek, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since the Bantu groups, the largest being the Ovambo, have dominated the population of the country. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate.
It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa, it imposed its laws, including racial rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid to what was known as South West Africa. In the 20th century and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation as the official representative of the Namibian people. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994.
Namibia has a population of a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, gold and base metals – form the basis of its economy; the large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, considered to be the oldest desert in the world; the name Namib itself is of Nama origin and means "vast place". Before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans; the dry lands of Namibia have been inhabited since early times by San and Nama. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people began to arrive during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onward, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.
Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were peaceful. They received the missionaries accompanying the Oorlam well, granting them the right to use waterholes and grazing against an annual payment. On their way further north, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment; the Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama and Herero. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, but the Portuguese did not try to claim the area. Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers came principally from Sweden. In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola; some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey.
Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall perceived British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa. The Palgrave Commission by the British governor in Cape Town determined that only the natural deep-water harbor of Walvis Bay was worth occupying and thus annexed it to the Cape province of British South Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, government officials ordered extinction of the natives in the Herero and Namaqua genocide. In what has been called the "first genocide of the 20th century", the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama and 65,000 Herero; the survivors, when released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, forced labor, racial segregation, and