A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are positioned on the field between their team's defenders and forwards; some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being more mobile and efficient in passing: they are referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box, or holding midfielders; the number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the team's formation. Most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing team's attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who travel the greatest distance during a match; because midfielders arguably have the most possession during a game they are among the fittest players on the pitch. Central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided equally between attack and defence and to dominate the play around the centre of the pitch.
These players will try to pass the ball to the team's attacking midfielders and forwards and may help their team's attacks by making runs into the opposition's penalty area and attempting shots on goal themselves. When the opposing team has the ball, a central midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward and press the opposition ball-carrier to recover the ball. A centre midfielder defending their goal will move in front of their centre-backs in order to block long shots by the opposition and track opposition midfielders making runs towards the goal; the 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders. The 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder; the term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who are hard-working and who have good all-round abilities, which makes them skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can therefore track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots and run to the opponents' box to try to score.
The change of trends and the deviation from the standard 4–4–2 formation to the 4–2–3–1 formation imposed restrictions on the typical box-to-box midfielders of the 80s, as teams' two midfield roles were now divided into "holders" or "creators". Notable examples of box-to-box midfielders are Bastian Schweinsteiger, Yaya Touré, Radja Nainggolan. Left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch, they may be asked to cross the ball into the opponents' penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates, when defending they may put pressure on opponents who are trying to cross. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1 and the 4−5−1 formations. Jonathan Wilson describes the development of the 4−4−2 formation: "…the winger became a wide midfielder, a shuttler, somebody who might be expected to cross a ball but was meant to put in a defensive shift."
Notable examples of wide midfielders are Ryan Giggs. The historic position of wing-half was given to midfielders, it became obsolete as wide players with defensive duties have tended to become more a part of the defence as full-backs. Defensive midfielders are midfield players; these players may defend a zone in front of their team's defence, or man mark specific opposition attackers. Defensive midfielders may move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude: "The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someone's position, great." A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of opponent's play, tackling, interceptions and great stamina and strength. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their team's defence, while other midfielders may move forward to attack; the holding midfielder may have responsibilities when their team has the ball.
This player will make short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the team's strategy. Marcelo Bielsa is considered as a pioneer for the use of a holding midfielder in defence; this position may be seen in the 4 -- 2 -- 3 -- 4 -- 4 -- 2 diamond formations. A defensive midfielder, or "destroyer", a playmaker, or "creator", were fielded alongside each other as a team's two holding central midfielders; the destroyer was responsible for making tackles, regaining possession, distributing the ball to the creator, while the creator was responsible for retaining possession and keeping the ball moving with long passes out to the flanks, in the manner of a more old-fashioned deep-lying playmaker or "regista". Early examples of a destroyer are Nobby Stiles, Herbert Wimmer, Marco Tardelli, while examples include Claude Makélélé and Javier Mascherano, although several of these players possessed qualities of other types of midfielders, were therefore not confined to a single role.
Early examples of a creator would be Gérson, Glenn Hoddle, Sunday Oliseh, while more recent examples Xabi Alonso, Michael Carrick. The latest and third type of holding midfielder developed as a box-to-box midfielder, or "carrier", neither destructive nor creative, capable of winning b
Romsås is a neighborhood in the city of Oslo, Norway. Located northeast of Groruddalen, at the edge of Lillomarka, Romsås was its own borough but was merged into the larger borough of Grorud on January 1, 2004; the name Romsås originated with the Romsås farm which by 1850 was one of the biggest farms in Østre Aker. With the expansion of Oslo after the Second World War, Oslo kommune granted OBOS a permit to build a new borough in 1967. Construction started in 1969; the borough was formally established in 1973. Romsås is divided into six borettslag named after local geographical features: Orremyr, Svarttjern, Røverkollen and Tiurleiken. There are six kindergartens, two elementary schools, a middle school, an assisted living facility, a center with social housing, a retirement home and services, a swimming pool. A subway station is located under 50 m below ground level. With the exception of Romsåslia and the church, all buildings are located on the inside of a single road which starts at Grorud and loops back on itself in the shape of an elongated “q”.
Romsås Church is a 220-seat brick church designed in a postmodern style by architect Arne E. Sæther, with an altarpiece by Nina Sundbye, it was built on the ruins of an earlier wooden structure which burned down in 1986, was inaugurated in 1995. As the site was a landfill, the church has suffered significant subsidence damage since its construction. Romsås Janitsjar
Vålerenga Fotball is a Norwegian association football club from Oslo and a part of the multi-sport club Vålerengens IF. Founded in 1913, the club is named after the neighbourhood of Vålerenga. Vålerenga's home ground is Intility Arena, located in Valle-Hovin. Vålerenga are five-time league champions and four-time Norwegian Football Cup champions, having last won the league in 2005 and the cup in 2008; the history of Vålerenga Fotball goes back to Fotballpartiet Spark, founded in 1898 by pastor Hans Møller Gasmann. An early mission for Gasmann was to give the local youth social exercise. On a larger scale, the club was part of the movement known as Muscular Christianity. A successor to this football club, Idrettslaget Spring, was founded on 29 July 1913 by a group of teenage factory workers. A year the club changed its name to Vaalerengens Idrættsforening. Rooted in the neighborhood of Vålerenga on the east end of Oslo, the club would recruit players and supporters from the many workers in the area, in a society characterized for its low mobility between social strata.
Within its first seasons, Vålerengen would compete with the major clubs in Oslo at that time. Where Lyn and Frigg had a strong identity with the academia and the upper classes, Vålerengen developed a working class identity. Vålerengens Idrettsforening had mixed success in its first years, but fortunes improved as the 1920s came around and the club secured promotion to the Oslo Championships in 1921. Vålerengen won the Oslo Championships four times before a national league was established in 1937. In the 1948–49 season, Vålerengen finished second. After this period, Vålerengen entered a period of instability, being relegated from the top division two times in the 1950s; the charismatic Helmuth Steffens became a central figure in building up the culture in the club after the war. At the beginning of the 1960s, a new generation of local players broke into Vålerengen's first squad. Players like Einar Bruno Larsen, Terje Hellerud and Leif Eriksen became core personalities of a group of players which became known as Bohemene.
The club would become known for its brilliant style of football as the number of people in the audience increased. The players became popular for their witty comments and light hearted humour. Vålerengen secured a third place in 1961. In 1965, Vålerengen won the First Division for the first time. By the help of manager Helmuth Steffens and head coach Anton Ploderer, the club had managed to win the title with a team of local players; the league was won in dramatic fashion, with arch-rivals Lyn giving Vålerengen a fight for the title until the last matches of the season. The Bohemian era came to an end when the club was relegated from the First Division in 1968 and again to the Third Division in 1970. Vålerengen did not achieve promotion to the top league again until 1974. In 1976, Vålerenga signed Odd Iversen. Iversen would help the club reestablish itself in the First Division; the 80s saw the emergence of a new generation. With the help of players like Tom Jacobsen and Vidar Davidsen, Vålerengen would win its first cup title in 1980.
Led by head coach Leif Eriksen, the team won the First Division title for the second time in 1981 with a style of play characterized by intensity and discipline. The club was unable to reclaim the league title in 1982, but won it again in 1983 and 1984. During the decade, Vålerengen would become twice runners-up in the cup and achieve a third place in the league in 1985. Vålerengen had become a stable top team for the first and, to date, only time. 1985 saw the signing of striker Jørn Andersen, who would go on to score 23 goals in 22 matches in his sole season for Vålerengen. However, as the club had miscalculated the home crowd average, the club entered severe financial difficulties. Vålerenga was saved from bankruptcy in 1987. In 1990, now known as Vålerenga, the club was relegated after 14 seasons in the top division. Vålerenga was close to further relegation in the 1992 season, but managed to remain in the second highest division thanks to a last round 3–0 win against Eik-Tønsberg IF. In 1994, Vålerenga returned to the top division, but were relegated again in 1996.
In 1997 Vålerenga won the cup and the 1. Divisjon and were again promoted to Tippeligaen; as earlier in the 1990s, the stay in the top division lasted only a few years. In the 2000 season Vålerenga lost the play-off matches against Sogndal and was relegated to the 1. Divisjon. Vålerenga returned to Tippeligaen and won the cup in 2002; the 2003 season was poor for Vålerenga and they wound up third last in the league sending them into play-offs against Sandefjord to avoid relegation. The result was a 0–0 draw in Sandefjord and a 5–3 victory in Oslo and so Vålerenga retained the position in the top league and avoided relegation. Vålerenga rebounded nicely in the 2004 season and proved a serious challenge to the dominant Rosenborg team in the bid for the league's gold medal. After a frantic final round where Vålerenga beat Stabæk 3–0, they missed out on the league title since Rosenborg beat FK Lyn, Vålerenga's city rivals 4–1. Vålerenga won the silver medal, finishing 2nd to Rosenborg equal on points and goal difference, but Vålerenga had scored fewer goals than Rosenborg during the season, leaving Rosenborg as league champions.
At the start of the 2005 season it was apparent that Rosenborg was in bad shape and it seemed like Vålerenga's season to go all the way. After a strong season opening, the surprise of the season IK Start – newly promoted to the Tippeligaen – looked to give Vålerenga a fight to the finish, the two clubs alternated on lead
Rosenborg Ballklub referred to as Rosenborg or RBK, is a Norwegian professional football club from Trondheim that plays in the Eliteserien. The club have won a record 26 league titles, twelve Norwegian Football Cup titles and have played more UEFA matches than any other Norwegian team. RBK play their home games at the all-seater Lerkendal Stadion which has a capacity of 21,421. Eirik Horneland was appointed head coach in January 2019; the club was founded as Odd in 1917 but were not allowed to play amateur league matches until 1928, when they took the present name. They reached the League of Norway in 1937–38, but were relegated to lower divisions during the 1940s; the club moved to Lerkendal in 1957 and their first title was the 1960 Cup, resulting in their first participation in a UEFA tournament. It was not until the 1960s. In 1967 RBK was promoted to the top league where they, except for the 1978 season, have remained since, they won three league titles between 1967 and 1971. The club's golden era started with the 1985 league title.
From 1991 through 2004 the team won 10 under manager Nils Arne Eggen. During this period, they participated in the group stage of Champions League 11 times, reaching the quarter-finals in 1996–97. On 19 May 1917, 12 young men from Rosenborg in Trondheim founded Sportsklubben Odd; the name Odd was a tribute to Odd of Skien, the most successful team in Norway at the time. Odd spent their first few years playing against other local teams before attempting to join the regional series in 1920; as with most of the "buddy" clubs formed at the time, they were denied access. Since many of these players played for the bigger teams, the authorities feared a possible shortage of players if too many small clubs were let in; as the years went by, disillusioned players began leaving the club, in 1923 the first team played only a single match. By 1926, management of the club had passed on to a new generation of members, it was through their efforts that Odd were admitted into the regional series in 1927, ten years after the club was founded.
A year they were set for entry into the Football Association of Norway, but their entry was blocked as the association refused to have two member clubs with the same name. The club therefore took on its current name, Rosenborg Ballklub, on 26 October 1928. Rosenborg is a residential area in Trondheim. Rosenborg enjoyed little success at first, moving between the lower divisions of the regional series, yet their performance was improving and in 1931 the team qualified for the highest level, one year they played in the Norwegian Cup for the first time. It was at this time that Rosenborg started planning for a new home ground at Lerkendal, although this project was not completed until after World War II. Rosenborg's youth team has been one of the best in the country since the club was founded and an talented generation of youth players during the 1950s would grow up to form the basis for the first team's success in the 1960s and onwards. In 1960 Rosenborg progressed all the way to the cup final where they faced Odd, the team from which they had adopted their original name and colours from in 1917.
It took a rematch to decide the winner. Rosenborg won the cup again in 1964. Rosenborg was promoted from the regional league to group A of the main Norwegian league in 1960; the following season the two groups of the top flight were combined into a single league of 16 teams with the teams finishing in the bottom half being relegated to the 2nd division. Rosenborg finished as number 9 out of the 16 teams and was relegated to the new 2nd division where they played from 1963 until they won promotion by winning group B in 1966. In 1967 Rosenborg was promoted to the highest level in Norwegian football, the Main League for the first time; this would prove to be a successful year for the club. Led on by such players as Harald Sunde, Nils Arne Eggen, the talented young forward Odd Iversen, Rosenborg won their first league title. Iversen scored 17 goals in 18 matches that year, would go on to score a massive 30 goals in the following season, although he alone could not prevent Rosenborg from being beaten to the title by Lyn.
By the end of the 1960s it was clear that Rosenborg had emerged as one of Norway's leading football clubs. The 1960s saw Rosenborg venture onto the European stage for the first time; as winners of the cup in 1964, the club debuted in the Cup Winners' Cup the following year. Three years Rosenborg entered the European Cup as winners of the league. Rosenborg hired Englishman George Curtis as coach ahead of the 1969 season. Curtis introduced the new 4–4–2 formation and shifted focus towards tactics and organization rather than all-out attacking football; this move worked well to begin with. However, when both Odd Iversen and Harald Sunde left the club, Rosenborg stopped scoring goals and failed to win again in 1970. Curtis was criticized for being too defensively minded and was replaced by retired player Nils Arne Eggen, who reverted to a more crowd-pleasing style of play. Eggen's first of five tenures as coach was a resounding success; the double-win in 1971 marked the end of the club's first golden age.
Rosenborg began to struggle in the league. A flurry of coaches came and went without making an impact and in 1977 the team won only one match the entire season, finishing dead last. Nils Arne Eggen was called in for
Norway national football team
The Norway men's national football team represents Norway in international association football and is controlled by the Football Association of Norway, the governing body for football in Norway. Norway's home ground is Ullevaal Stadion in Oslo and their head coach is Lars Lagerbäck, it is, as of February 2019. Norway has participated three times in the FIFA World Cup, once in the UEFA European Championship. Norway is notable as the only national team that has never lost any of the matches it has played against Brazil. In four matches played, Norway has a 2–2–0 record against Brazil, with one of those victories coming in a friendly in 1997 and the other in a 1998 World Cup group stage match. Norway's performances in international football have been weaker than those of their Scandinavian neighbours Sweden and Denmark, but they did have a golden age in the late 1930s. An Olympic team achieved third place in the 1936 Olympics, after beating the hosts Germany earlier in the tournament. Norway qualified for the 1938 FIFA World Cup, where they lost 2–1 after extra time against eventual champions Italy.
This turned out to be Norway's last World Cup finals appearance in 56 years. In the post-war years, up to and including the 1980s, Norway was considered as one of the weaker nations in Europe, they never qualified for a World Cup or European Championship in this period, finished near the bottom of their qualifying group. Norway had a reputation for producing the occasional shock result, such as the 3–0 win against Yugoslavia in 1965, the 1–0 away win against France in 1968, the 2–1 victory against England in 1981 that prompted radio commentator Bjørge Lillelien's famous "Your boys took a hell of a beating" rant. Norway had their most successful period from 1990 to 1998 under the legendary coach Egil "Drillo" Olsen. At its height in the mid-90s the team was ranked second on the FIFA World Rankings. Olsen started his training career with Norway with a 6–1 home victory against Cameroon on 31 October 1990 and ended it on 27 June 1998 after a 0–1 defeat against Italy in the second stage of the 1998 World Cup.
In the 1994 World Cup in the United States, Norway was knocked out at the group stage after a win against Mexico, a defeat against Italy and a draw against the Republic of Ireland. The Norwegians lost out on second round qualification on goal difference as all 4 teams finished with 4 points in the group. In the 1998 World Cup in France, Norway was once again eliminated by Italy in the first round of the knock out stage after finishing second in their group, having drawn against Morocco and Scotland and won 2–1 against Brazil. Former under-21 coach Nils Johan Semb replaced Olsen after the planned retirement of the latter. Under Semb's guidance, Norway qualified for Euro 2000, which remains their last finals appearance to date. Semb resigned at the end of an unsuccessful qualifying campaign in 2003, was replaced by Åge Hareide. Under Hareide, Norway came close to reaching both the 2006 World Cup and Euro 2008, but fell short on both occasions. In 2008, it all fell apart as Norway failed to win a single game the entire calendar year.
Hareide resigned at the end of 2008. His replacement on a temporary basis, was the returning Egil Olsen, who began his second spell in charge with an away win against Germany, subsequently signed a three-year contract. Olsen resigned in September 2013 after Norway lost at home to Switzerland and had limited chances to qualify for the 2014 World Cup with one game to spare, he was replaced with Per-Mathias Høgmo. Olsen claimed he was sacked. Norway used the national flag on a white circle as their badge from the 1920s onwards. In May 2008 the NFF unveiled a new crest, a Viking-style Dragon wrapped around the NFF logo. After massive public pressure the crest was dropped. Between the 1980s and the 1990s, Norway used the NFF logo in the opposite breast of the shirt together with the national flag on a white circle. On 12 December 2014, a new crest was presented; the crest features the national flag, in addition, there are two lions taken from the Coat of arms of Norway on the top. The lions are facing each other while holding a blue miniature of the NFF logo, between the lions and above the NFF logo, it says "NORGE" in blue letters.
The following 23 players were called up for the two UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying matches: Match date: 23 and 26 March 2019 Opposition: Spain and Sweden Caps and goals correct as of: 26 March 2019, after the match against Sweden. The following players have been called up for the Norway squad within the last 12 months. NotesWIT Withdrew from squad. INJ Injured, ill or recovering from surgery. RET Retired from international football. Last updated: 9 September 2014Source: RSSSF.no Last updated: 9 September 2014Source: RSSSF.no The following is a list of all managers of the national team. Prior to 1953, the team was selected by a selection committee, which continued to select the team until 1969; the table lists the manager, his nationality, the period he was manager, games played, games won, games drawn, games lost, goals for and goals against. It lists any finals reached and how far the team progressed; the list is up to date as of 26 March 2019. The following table shows Norway's all-time international record, correct as of 19 November 2018.
Between 1996 and 2014, Norway's kits were supplied by Umbro. They took over from Adidas who supplied Norway's kit between 1992 and 1996. On 10 September 2014, the NFF and Nike announced a new partnership that made the sportswear provider the official Norwegian team k
2001–02 UEFA Cup
The 2001–02 UEFA Cup was won by Feyenoord at their home ground in the final against Borussia Dortmund. It was the second time. A total of 145 teams from 51 UEFA associations participated in the 2001–02 UEFA Cup. Associations are allocated places according to their 2000 UEFA league coefficient. Below is the qualification scheme for the 2001–02 UEFA Cup: Associations 1–6 each enter three teams Associations 7–8 each enter four teams Associations 9–15 each enter two teams Associations 16–21 each enter three teams Associations 22–49 each enter two teams, with the exception of Liechtenstein who enter one. Associations 50-51 each enter one team The top three associations of the 2000–2001 UEFA Fair Play ranking each gain an additional berth 16 teams eliminated from the 2001–02 UEFA Champions League qualifying rounds 8 teams eliminated from the 2001–02 UEFA Champions League group stage are transferred to the UEFA Cup 3 winners of the Intertoto Cup The winner of the 2000–01 UEFA Cup Notes: Additional fair play berth: Additional teams transferred from the UEFA Champions League: Additional teams from Intertoto Cup A UEFA Cup place is vacated when a team qualify for both the Champions League and the UEFA Cup, or qualify for the UEFA Cup by more than one method.
When a place is vacated, it is redistributed within the national association by the following rules:< When the domestic cup winners qualify for the Champions League, their UEFA Cup place is vacated, the remaining UEFA Cup qualifiers are moved up one place, with the final place taken by the domestic cup runners-up, provided they do not qualify for the Champions League or the UEFA Cup. Otherwise, this place is taken by the highest-placed league finisher which do not qualify for the UEFA Cup yet; when the domestic cup winners qualify for the UEFA Cup through league position, their place through the league position is vacated, the UEFA Cup qualifiers which finish lower in the league are moved up one place, with the final place taken by the highest-placed league finisher which do not qualify for the UEFA Cup yet. A place vacated by the League Cup winners is taken by the highest-placed league finisher which do not qualify for the UEFA Cup yet. A Fair Play place is taken by the highest-ranked team in the domestic Fair Play table which do not qualify for the Champions League or UEFA Cup yet.
The labels in the parentheses show how each team qualified for the place of its starting round: CW: Cup winners CR: Cup runners-up LC: League Cup winners Nth: League position P-W: End-of-season European competition play-off winners FP: Fair play IT: Intertoto Cup winners UCL: Relegated from the Champions League GS: Third-placed teams from the group stage Q3: Losers from the third qualifying round All times are CEST. Marítimo won 2–0 on aggregate. 1 Only one leg was played, in a neutral venue in Warsaw, due to security concerns in Russia. 2 PSG won 3–0 because there was a blackout in Bucharest at that time and the match was stopped in favour of the visitors. Wacker Innsbruck won 1–0 on aggregate. Paris Saint-Germain were awarded a 3–0 victory for the second leg as Rapid București walked out, therefore winning 3–0 on aggregate 3–3 on aggregate. Maccabi Tel Aviv won on away goals. Osijek won 3–1 on aggregate. Freiburg won 2–1 on aggregate. Valencia won 6–0 on aggregate. 3–3 on aggregate. Helsingborg won on away goals.
Sporting CP won 6–2 on aggregate. CSCA Kyiv won 3–2 on aggregate. Internazionale won 6–0 on aggregate. Chelsea won 5–0 on aggregate. Milan won 6–0 on aggregate. Parma won 3–0 on aggregate. Wisła Kraków won 3–2 on aggregate. Standard Liège won 4–2 on aggregate. AEK Athens won 4–3 on aggregate. 3–3 on aggregate. Varteks won on away goals. Fiorentina won 2–1 on aggregate. CSKA Sofia won. Rapid Wien won 5–2 on aggregate. Ipswich Town won 3–2 on aggregate. Viking won 3–1 on aggregate. Leeds United won 3–1 on aggregate. Roda JC won 5–3 on aggregate. Valencia won 7–2 on aggregate. Freiburg won 4–2 on aggregate. Bordeaux won 4–0 on aggregate. Fiorentina won 4–2 on aggregate. Ipswich Town won 3–1 on aggregate. Paris Saint-Germain won 6–2 on aggregate. Litex Lovech won 2–0 on aggregate. Copenhagen won 1–0 on aggregate. Internazionale won 2–1 on aggregate. PAOK won 8–3 on aggregate. Rangers won 7–2 on aggregate. Sporting CP won 7–2 on aggregate. Servette won 1–0 on aggregate. Leeds United won 6–5 on aggregate. Club Brugge won 7–0 on aggregate.
Parma won 3–1 on aggregate. AEK Athens won 5–3 on aggregate. Hertha BSC won 3–0 on aggregate. Grasshoppers won 6–4 on aggregate. Brøndby won 6–3 on aggregate. Hapoel Tel Aviv won 3–1 on aggregate. Slovan Liberec won 4–3 on aggregate. Milan won 3–0 on aggregate. PSV Eindhoven won 6–4 on aggregate. Lille won 3–0 on aggregate. 1–1 on aggregate. Valencia won 5–4 on penalties. Servette won 3–0 on aggregate. Internazionale won 4–2 on aggregate. 0–0 on aggregate. Rangers won 4–3 on penalties. Feyenoord won 3–2 on aggregate. AEK Athens won 4–3 on aggregate. Leeds United won 4–3 on aggregate. Parma won 4–1 on aggregate. Roda JC won 2–1 on aggregate. Slovan Liberec won 5–2 on aggregate. Hapoel Tel Aviv won 3–1 on aggregate. Borussia Dortmund won 2–0 on aggregate. Milan won 3–1 on aggregate. 4–4 on aggregate. Lyon won on away goals. Internazionale won 5–3 on aggregate. Valencia won 5–2 on aggregate. PSV Eindhoven won 1–0 on aggregate. Feyenoord won 4–3 on aggregate. Slovan Liberec won 5–2 on aggregate. 1–1 on aggregate. Borussia Dortmund won on away goals.
Hapoel Tel Aviv won 2–1 on aggregate. 1–1 on aggregate. Milan won 3–2 on penalties. Match played in GSP Stadium
Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study; as of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467. The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.
This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y". To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre; the urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2; the city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842; the rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate, it is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered likely. Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros; the name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his etymology