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Cache-oblivious distribution sort

The cache-oblivious distribution sort is a comparison-based sorting algorithm. It is similar to quicksort, but it is a cache-oblivious algorithm, designed for a setting where the number of elements to sort is too large to fit in a cache where operations are done. In the external memory model, the number of memory transfers it needs to perform a sort of N items on a machine with cache of size Z and cache lines of length L is O, under the tall cache assumption that Z = Ω; this number of memory transfers has been shown to be asymptotically optimal for comparison sorts. This distribution sort achieves the asymptotically optimal runtime complexity of Θ. Distribution sort operates on a contiguous array of N elements. To sort the elements, it performs the following: Partition the array into N contiguous subarrays of size N, recursively sort each subarray. Distribute the elements of the sorted subarrays into q ≤ N buckets B 1, B 2, …, B q each of size at most 2 N such that for every i from 1 to q-1, every element of bucket B i is not larger than any element in B i + 1.

This distribution step is the main step of this algorithm, is covered in more detail below. Recursively sort each bucket. Output the concatenation of the buckets; as mentioned in step 2 above, the goal of the distribution step is to distribute the sorted subarrays into q buckets B 1, B 2, …, B q. The distribution step algorithm maintains two invariants; the first is that each bucket has size at most 2 N at any time, any element in bucket B i is no larger than any element in bucket B i + 1. The second is that every bucket has an associated pivot, a value, greater than all elements in the bucket; the algorithm starts with one empty bucket with pivot ∞. As it fills buckets, it creates new buckets by splitting a bucket into two when it would be made overfull; the split is done by performing the linear time median finding algorithm, partitioning based on this median. The pivot of the lower bucket will be set to the median found, the pivot of the higher bucket will be set to the same as the bucket before the split.

At the end of the distribution step, all elements are in the buckets, the two invariants will still hold. To accomplish this, each subarray and bucket will have a state associated with it; the state of a subarray consists of an index next of the next element to be read from the subarray, a bucket number bnum indicating which bucket index the element should be copied to. By convention, b n u m = ∞; the state of a bucket consists of the value of the bucket's pivot, the number of elements in the bucket. Consider the follow basic strategy: iterate through each subarray, attempting to copy over its element at position next. If the element is smaller than the pivot of bucket bnum place it in that bucket incurring a bucket split. Otherwise, increment bnum. Though this distributes all elements, it does not exhibit a good cache performance. Instead, the distribution step is performed in a recursive divide-and-conquer; the step will be performed as a call to the function distribute, which takes three parameters i, j, m. distribute will distribute elements from the i-th through -th subarrays into buckets, starting from B j.

It requires as a precondition. The execution of distribute will guarantee that each b n u m ≥ j + m; the whole distribution step is distribute {\displa

Nottinghamshire (UK Parliament constituency)

Nottinghamshire was a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. It was represented by two Members of Parliament, traditionally known as Knights of the Shire; the constituency was split into two two-member divisions, for Parliamentary purposes, by the Reform Act 1832. The county was represented by the North Nottinghamshire and South Nottinghamshire constituencies; the county of Nottinghamshire is located in the East Midlands of England. The county is known to have been represented in Parliament from 1290, although it sent knights of the shire to earlier meetings. From 1295 the county and the town of Nottingham each returned two members to parliament. In 1572 East Retford was represented by two members, in 1672 Newark-upon-Trent also. Under the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned four members in two divisions. By the act of 1885 it returned four members in four divisions.

1305 Sir Hugh de Hercy and Thomas Malet 1316 Sir Hugh de Hercy and Lawrence Chaworth The use of the term'Non Partisan' in the list does not mean that the MP was not associated with a particular party or faction in Parliament. Stooks Smith only gives Nottinghamshire candidates party labels for the contested 1722 election and not again until well into the 19th century; the county franchise, from 1430, was held by the adult male owners of freehold land valued at 40 shillings or more. Each elector had as many votes. Votes had to be cast by a spoken declaration, in public, at the hustings, which took place in Nottingham; the expense and difficulty of voting at only one location in the county, together with the lack of a secret ballot contributed to the corruption and intimidation of electors, widespread in the unreformed British political system. The expense, to candidates and their supporters, of contested elections encouraged the leading families of the county to agree on the candidates to be returned unopposed whenever possible.

Contested county elections were therefore unusual. Three families; the bloc vote electoral system was used in two seat elections and first past the post for single member by-elections. Each voter had up to as many votes. Votes had to be cast in public, at the hustings. Note on percentage change calculations: Where there was only one candidate of a party in successive elections, for the same number of seats, change is calculated on the party percentage vote. Where there was more than one candidate, in one or both successive elections for the same number of seats change is calculated on the individual percentage vote. Note on sources: The information for the election results given below is taken from Stooks Smith 1715–1754, Namier and Brooke 1754–1790 and Stooks Smith 1790–1832. Howe was a Peer of Ireland Seats vacated on Howe being appointed Governor of Barbados and Sutton being expelled from the House. Death of Bennet Sutton adopted the new surname of Manners-Sutton John Thornhagh adopted the new surname of Hewett Death of Manners-Sutton Succession of Willoughby as the 4th Baron MiddletonDeath of Lincoln Charles Medows adopted the surname of Pierrepont in 1788 Note: Stooks Smith incorrectly has Lord Edward Bentinck returned at this election rather than Lord William Bentinck Death of PierrepontResignation of BentinckPierrepont became known by the courtesy title of Viscount Newark, when his father was advanced in the peerage by being created Earl Manvers in 1806.

Resignation of BentinckSuccession of Newark as 2nd Earl ManversFrank adopted the new surname of Sotheron Constituency divided in List of former United Kingdom Parliamentary constituencies Unreformed House of Commons British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1885, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig The House of Commons 1754–1790, by Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith, second edition edited by F. W. S. Craig ) out of copyright Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 J E Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "N"

Ta-Ching Government Bank

The Ta-Ching Government Bank, known as the Ta-Ching Bank of the Ministry of Revenue from 1905 to 1908, was the name of the Bank of China as a government agency of the Manchu Qing dynasty until the empire's dissolution in 1911. It was created to serve as the central bank of China in 1905 as a division of the Ministry of Revenue, would serve as the country's de facto central bank until the establishment of the Central Bank of China in 1924; the Ta-Ching Government Bank was the first national bank in the history of China and served as both the country's central bank as well as a commercial bank to finance projects. It issued banknotes; the Ta-Ching Government Bank evolved into the Bank of China in Mainland China and the Mega International Commercial Bank in Taiwan. During the part of the Qing dynasty era there was a discussion on whether or not the imperial Chinese government would have to establish a national bank which it did in 1905. Peng Shu stated before the introduction of new banknotes that the national bank would have to keep sufficient reserves in "touchable" money at all times.

The large number of private notes that were being produced all over the empire was to be restricted by introducing a stamp duty. The reformer Liang Qichao campaigned for the government of the Qing dynasty to emulate the Western world and Japan by embracing the gold standard, unify refractory the currencies of China, issue government-backed banknotes with a ⅓ metallic reserve. In 1904 the Ministry of Revenue had authorised the creation of a central bank. At the time of its established, China was still on the silver standard; the Ta-Ching Government Bank was created to help finance government deficits by issuing paper money. At the end of 1905 the Ta-Ching Bank of the Ministry of Revenue was founded, the production of the banknotes was entrusted to the prints of the Beiyang Newspaper in Northern China; the Ta-Ching Government Bank was the earliest opened national bank in China, it opened its first office in the capital city of Beijing on September 27, 1905. The newly established national bank had a dual nature of being both a central bank and a commercial bank.

In 1906 the government of the Qing dynasty sent students to Japan to be educated about modern printing techniques, with the aim to have the Shanghai Commercial Press print the cheques of the Ministry's Bank. The Shanghai branch of the Ta-Ching Government Bank was located at Hankou Road. In 1907 it opened its Jinan branch. In 1912 the Ta-Ching Government bank was renamed to the Bank of China by government charter of the new Republican government. After the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949, the Bank of China split into two operations. Part of the bank relocated to Taiwan with the Kuomintang government, was privatised in 1971 to become the International Commercial Bank of China. In 2002, it merged with Chiao Tung Bank to become the Mega International Commercial Bank; the Mainland operation is the current entity known as the Bank of China. The Ta-Ching Bank of the Ministry of Revenue were still issuing two different types of banknotes, one series was denominated in "tael", these were known as the Yinliang Piao and had the denominations of 1 tael, 5 taels, 10 taels, 50 taels, 100 taels.

The other series was denominated in "yuan" and were known as Yinyuan Piao and were issued in the denominations of 1 yuan, 5 yuan, 10 yuan, 50 yuan, 100 yuan. In the year 1907 the Ta-Ching Bank of the Ministry of Revenue was renamed to the "Ta-Ching Government Bank", accordingly the inscription on all banknotes had to be changed to reflect this; because there is no advanced engraving technology for banknotes in China at the time and the banknotes that were printed by the Beiyang Newspaper's commercial press were both expensive to make and easy to imitate, the government of the Qing dynasty had commissioned the American Bank Note Company to print new banknotes for the Ta-Ching Government Bank. Following the Chinese tradition of issuing new money in a new reign, the Xuantong administration had the design of the official Ta-Ching Government Bank paper notes somewhat changed to herald in the new emperor; the new design was inspired by the designs of the banknotes of the United States dollar of this era.

At the eve of the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, there were 5,400,000 tael worth of Yinliang banknotes circulating in China, 12,400,000 yuan in Yinyuan banknotes

Mesilat Zion

Mesilat Zion is a moshav in central Israel. Located near Beit Shemesh with an area of 1,000 dunams, it falls under the jurisdiction of Mateh Yehuda Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 1,248; the moshav was established on the land of the depopulated Palestinian village of Bayt Mahsir in 1950. The moshav was established as a work village in 1950 by immigrants from Yemen. After a few years the founders were replaced by Cochin Jews; the name of the village is symbolic. It symbolizes the breaking of the siege over Jerusalem during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, it is based on verses from the Book of Isaiah, chapter 62, "For Zion's sake will I not hold my peace, for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest.... Go through, go through the gates. Say ye to the daughter of Zion, thy salvation comes."The Jerusalem Culinary Institute founded in 2001 by chef Yochanan Lambiase is located in Mesilat Zion. JCI is the world's first glatt kosher cooking school. Yuval Noah Harari

Scott Redding

Scott Christopher Redding is a British Grand Prix motorcycle racer and former MotoGP rider. In 2019, he competed in the British Superbike Championship riding a Ducati Panigale V4 for Paul Bird's PBM team, he won the championship on his first attempt. In 2020 he will compete in the Superbike World Championship riding a factory Ducati Panigale V4 for the Racing team. He was the youngest rider in Grand Prix motorcycle racing to win a race, breaking Marco Melandri's ten-year record, until Can Öncü broke this record in 2018, he is the youngest rider to contest both 50 and 100 Grands Prix. Born in Quedgeley, Redding started racing Mini Motos in 2001, winning the 2004 FAB-Racing Metrakit 50cc British MiniGP championship and switching to the 80cc Metrakit "Calypso Cup" in 2005 in Spain, where he won all six rounds of the series. In 2006 he tested for the Red Bull sponsored MotoGP academy cup and was offered a ride; however he had a mixed season with only one podium finish at the last round in Jerez.

For 2007 he signed for team BLU:sens Aprilia riding in the Spanish CEV 125cc championship finishing second overall to Stefan Bradl with a difference of eight points, taking a second place at round four and winning at the final rounds of five and seven. 2008Redding left the CEV championship in 2008, being entered by team BLU:sens Aprilia in the 125cc Grand Prix World championship. Redding made a sensational start at the opening round of Qatar, by being the youngest rider in the 125cc class to qualify on the front row of the grid, in fourth place, he went on to take fifth place in the race setting the lap record for the 125cc class of 2'05.635 in the process. He was on the front row in Spain. On 22 June 2008 Redding became the back youngest Grand Prix winner, aged 15 years and 170 days, when he won the 2008 British 125cc Grand Prix at Donington Park. Redding took the lead with six laps remaining after pressuring Andrea Iannone into pushing too hard and going off at Craner Curves. Redding held off Frenchman Mike Di Meglio and Spaniard Marc Márquez to win in only his eighth 125cc outing.

He became the first British winner of a 125cc race since Chas Mortimer won the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix and the first British winner of a British motorcycle Grand Prix in the 125cc class since 1973, when Tommy Robb won at the 1973 Isle of Man TT, the British round of the world championship. He is the first British rider to win a British round of any Grand Prix class since the British motorcycle Grand Prix moved to Donington Park in 1987. In the first two-wheeled race at the famous Indianapolis Motor Speedway in America, Redding secured 4th place, having been in that position when it started to rain due to Hurricane Ike and Red Flag brought the race to a premature end. Redding won Rookie of the Year for being the highest placed new rider, finishing the season in eleventh overall. 2009For the 2009 125cc Motorcycle Grand Prix season Redding rode a factory Aprilia machinery and remained with team BLU:sens Aprilia. Redding had a difficult season, handling difficulties, he got on the podium at his second career podium.

2010 Redding signed with new team Marc VDS Racing Team in the Moto2 600cc class for 2010, having grown too big to continue competing in the 125cc class. He struggled in the initial pre-season tests, but was more competitive in ones. Redding struggled at the beginning of the season, but improved to finish fourth in the British Grand Prix at Silverstone and became the youngest rider to score a podium finish in the 250cc/Moto2 class by finishing third in Indianapolis. At the San Marino Grand Prix in Misano, Redding was involved in an accident which resulted in the death of Japanese rider Shoya Tomizawa. After Tomizawa fell from his bike on the twelfth lap of the race, he was hit by Redding and Alex de Angelis, who were unable to avoid him. Redding escaped major injury. On 29 September 2010, Redding signed a two-year contract with Marc VDS, keeping him in Moto2 until 2012. 2011Redding finished the season in 15th place with 63 points, with a best result of fifth place, obtained on three occasions: at Silverstone and Misano.

2012Redding finished in fifth position with four podium finishes, all third places. 2013Riding again for Marc VDS, Redding finished a close second in the championship after a season-long battle against Pol Espargaró. During the season, Redding obtained three victories, three second places, a third place, three pole-positions. With three races left in the season he held a lead of 10 points over Espargaró. In the following Japanese Grand Prix, Redding collided with the motorcycle of Esteve Rabat who had crashed in front of him in the second turn of the race; the race was restarted without an injured Redding. Redding switched to MotoGP with the FUN Gresini team on a Honda RCV1000R production racer, his teammate was Álvaro Bautista. He was consistent over the year, his best result was a seventh-place finish, on two occasions, at the season-opening round in Qatar and at Phillip Island. He finished 12th in the championship, he was runner-up in the "Open" class, albeit 45 points behind Aleix Espargaró. In 2015 Redding remained in MotoGP, re-joining his former team Marc VDS.

He was riding a factory-specification Honda RC213V. At the San Marino Grand Prix, Redding achieved his maiden MotoGP podium with a third-place fini