England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The Biografisch Portaal is an initiative based at the Huygens Institute for Dutch History in The Hague, with the aim of making biographical texts of the Netherlands more accessible. The project was started in February 2010 with material for 40,000 digitized biographies, with the goal to grant digital access to all reliable information about people of the Netherlands from the earliest beginnings of history up to modern times; the Netherlands as a geographic term includes former colonies, the term "people" refers both to people born in the Netherlands and its former colonies, to people born elsewhere but active in the Netherlands and its former colonies. As of 2011, only biographical information about deceased people is included; the system used is based on the standards of the Text Encoding Initiative. Access to the Biografisch Portaal is available free through a web-based interface; the project is a cooperative undertaking by ten scientific and cultural bodies in the Netherlands with the Huygens Institute as main contact.
The other bodies are: The Biografie Instituut The Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie The Digital Library for Dutch Literature Data Archiving and Networked Services The International Institute of Social History The Onderzoekscentrum voor Geschiedenis en Cultuur, The Parlementair Documentatie Centrum The Netherlands Institute for Art History Besides ongoing digital projects, Dutch biographical dictionaries published in book form that have been digitized and incorporated into the indexes of the Biografisch Portaal are: The work of Abraham van der Aa, the first Dutch biographical dictionary The BWN, or Biografisch Woordenboek van Nederland The NNBW, or Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek The work of Johan Engelbert Elias on the Amsterdam regency known as Vroedschap van Amsterdam The work of Barend Glasius known as Godgeleerd Nederland The work of Roeland van Eynden and Adriaan van der Willigen, known as Geschiedenis der vaderlandsche schilderkunst The work of Jan van Gool known as Nieuwe Schouburg The work of Jacob Campo Weyerman known as The Lives of Dutch painters and paintresses The BLNP, or Biografisch lexicon voor de geschiedenis van het Nederlands protestantismeAs of November 2012 the Biografisch Portaal contained 80,206 persons in 125,592 biographies.
In February 2012, a new project was started called "BiographyNed" to build an analytical tool for use with the Biografisch Portaal that will link biographies to events in time and space. The main goal of the three-year project is to formulate ‘the boundaries of the Netherlands’. List of Dutch people Official website
Louis XV of France
Louis XV, known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five; until he reached maturity on 15 February 1723, the kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom, his reign of 59 years was the second longest in the history of France, exceeded only by his predecessor and great-grandfather, Louis XIV, who had ruled for 72 years. In 1748, Louis returned the Austrian Netherlands, won at the Battle of Fontenoy of 1745, he ceded New France in North America to Spain and Great Britain at the conclusion of the disastrous Seven Years' War in 1763. He incorporated the territories of the Duchy of Lorraine and the Corsican Republic into the Kingdom of France, he was succeeded in 1774 by his grandson Louis XVI, executed by guillotine during the French Revolution.
Two of his other grandsons, Louis XVIII and Charles X, occupied the throne of France after the fall of Napoleon I. Historians give his reign low marks as wars drained the treasury and set the stage for the governmental collapse and French Revolution in the 1780s. Louis XV was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the third son of the Duke of Burgundy, his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, he was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710. When he was born, he was named the Duke of Anjou; the possibility of his becoming King seemed remote. However, the Grand Dauphin died of smallpox on 14 April 1711. On 12 February 1712 the mother of Louis, Marie Adélaïde, was stricken with measles and died, followed on 18 February by Louis's father, the former Duke of Burgundy, next in line for the throne. On 7 March, it was found that both Louis and his older brother, the former Duke of Brittany, had the measles; the two brothers were treated with bleeding.
On the night of 8–9 March, the new Dauphin died from the combination of the disease and the treatment. The governess of Louis, Madame de Ventadour, would not allow the doctors to bleed Louis further; when Louis XIV died on 1 September 1715, Louis, at the age of five, inherited the throne. The Ordinance of Vincennes from 1374 required that the kingdom be governed by a regent until Louis reached the age of thirteen; the title of Regent was given to his cousin Philippe, the Duke of Orleans. Louis XIV, distrusted Philippe, a renowned soldier, but was regarded by the King as an atheist and libertine; the King referred to Philippe as a Fanfaron des crimes. Louis XIV wanted France to be ruled by his favorite but illegitimate son, Duke of Maine, in the council. In August 1714, shortly before his own death, the King rewrote his will to restrict the powers of the regent. Philippe, nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but other members included the Duke of Maine and his allies. Decisions were to be made by majority vote, meaning that the Regent could be outvoted by Maine's party.
Orléans saw the trap, after the death of the King, he went to the Parlement of Paris, an assembly of nobles where he had many allies, had the Parlement annul the King's will. In exchange for their support, he restored to the Parlement its droit de remontrance – the right to challenge the King's decisions, removed by Louis XIV; the droit de remontrance would impair the monarchy's functioning and marked the beginning of a conflict between the Parlement and King which led to the French Revolution in 1789. On 9 September 1715, the Regent had the young King transported away from the court in Versailles to Paris, where the Regent had his own residence in the Palais Royal. On 12 September, he performed his first official act, opening the first lit de justice of his reign at the Palais Royal. From September 1715 until January 1716 he lived in the Château de Vincennes, before moving to the Tuileries Palace. In February 1717, when he reached the age of seven, he was taken from his governess Madame Ventadour and placed in the care of François de Villeroy, the 73-year-old Duke and Maréchal de France, named as his governor in Louis XIV's will of August 1714.
Villeroy instructed the young King in court etiquette, taught him how to review a regiment, how to receive royal visitors. His guests included the Russian Tsar Peter the Great in 1717. Louis learned the skills of horseback riding and hunting, which became the great passion of the young King. In 1720, following the example of Louis XIV, Villeroy had the young Louis dance in public in two ballets at the Tuileries Palace on 24 February 1720, again in The Ballet des Elements on 31 December 1721; the shy Louis evidently did not enjoy the experience. The King's tutor was the Abbé André-Hercule de Fleury, the bishop of Fréjus, who saw that he was instructed in Latin, history
James Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Derwentwater
James Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Derwentwater was an English Jacobite, executed for treason. Radclyffe was the son of Edward Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater and Lady Mary Tudor, the natural daughter of Charles II by Moll Davis, he was brought up at the exiled court of St Germain as a companion to the young prince, James Francis Edward Stuart, remained there at the wish of Queen Mary of Modena, until his father's death in 1705. He succeeded to the family titles and estates in Northumberland on the death of his father in 1705. After that he travelled on the continent, sailed from Holland for London in November 1709, set out to visit his Cumberland estates for the first time early in 1710, he spent the next two years at Dilston Hall, the mansion built by his grandfather on the site of the ancestral home from 1521. He regained those and began the construction of a grand mansion to replace the old Hall, a task, never completed, he joined the conspiracy of 1715. A messenger was sent to Durham to secure him.
He heard that Thomas Forster had raised the standard of the Pretender, Radclyffe joined him at Greenrigg, on 6 October 1715, at the head of a company of gentlemen and armed servants from Dilston Hall. His following, at most 70, was under the immediate command of Charles Radclyffe, their plan was to march through Lancashire to Staffordshire, where they looked for support, the expedition was left in the hands of Colonel Henry Oxburgh, who had served under the Duke of Marlborough in Flanders. When the rebels occupied Preston, Derwentwater encouraged the men to throw up trenches; the Jacobite army was defeated at the Battle of Preston. Radclyffe acquiesced in Forster's decision to capitulate to the inferior force of General Wills, he was escorted with the other prisoners to London by General Henry Lumley, lodged in the Devereux tower of the Tower of London, along with the Earls of Nithsdale and of Carnwath, Lords Widdrington and Nairne. He was examined before the Privy Council on 10 January 1716, impeached with the other lords on 19 January.
Derwentwater pleaded guilty, urging in extenuation his inexperience, his advice to those who were about him to throw themselves upon the royal clemency. He was attainted, condemned to death. Efforts were made to procure his pardon. Petitions were brought before both Houses of Parliament, an address was carried from the upper house to the throne on 22 February, praying that his majesty George I of Great Britain would reprieve'such of the condemned lords as might appear to him deserving of clemency.' Widdrington and Nairn were reprieved. The countess, accompanied by her sister, their maternal aunt, Anne Brudenell, Duchess of Richmond, the Duchess of Cleveland, other ladies, was introduced by the Duke of Richmond into the king's bedchamber, where the countess, in French, asked for his majesty's mercy; the king, prompted by Robert Walpole, was obdurate. Derwentwater was beheaded on Tower Hill on 24 February 1716. On the scaffold he expressed regret at having pleaded guilty, declared his devotion to his Roman Catholic religion and to James III.
Lord Kenmure suffered at the same time. The Earl of Nithsdale escaped from the Tower the day before. Charles Radclyffe escaped to France but was captured in 1745 on his return to support the 1745 uprising and was executed in 1746. Nairne was still in the Tower of London in 1717, so was able to benefit from the Indemnity Act 1717 and was released. On the day of his beheading the northern lights were said to be unusually brilliant, have since been known as Lord Derwentwater's Lights. Derwentwater was stripped of his titles. In 1748 Dilston Hall and the rest of the Derwentwater estates were granted by Act of Parliament to the Royal Hospital, Greenwich. Radclyffe married Anna Maria Webb on 10 July 1712, she was the eldest daughter of Sir John Webb, 3rd baronet, of Odstock, Wiltshire, by Barbara and coheiress of John Belasyse, 1st Baron Belasyse. Their only son John Radclyffe, titular 4th Earl of Derwentwater succeeded. John is accepted to have died at the age of 19 after a cutting for the stone. In the mid 19th century a woman claiming to be his great granddaughter and referring to herself as the Countess of Derwentwater made claim upon the Derwentwater estates, but was discredited.
She claimed that John had not died in 1731 but had fled to Germany to avoid an attempt on his life by the Hanoverian government. They had a daughter, Lady Mary Radclyffe, who married Robert James Petre, 8th Baron Petre. Lady Derwentwater and her children fled to Brussels in 1721, she died there of smallpox in 1723. Radclyffe's death is recounted in two English traditional ballads: "Lord Derwentwater", collected by Francis James Child and published as Child Ballad 208 in English and Scottish Popular Ballads. "Lord Allenwater", collected by Ralph Vaughan Williams in 1904 from the singing of Emily Stears. Radclyffe figures prominently in the historical novels Dorothy Forster by Walter Besant and Devil Water by Anya Seton. Northumbrian Jacobites; the Jacobit
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Alexander van Bredael
Alexander van Bredael was a Flemish painter known for Italianate landscapes and genre scenes of fairs, cattle markets and villages. He was a prominent member of the Antwerp artistic family van Bredael, he was born in Antwerp into an artist family as the son of Peeter van Bredael, a well-known painter specializing in market scenes and village feasts set in Italianate landscapes. His mother was the daughter of the prominent sculptor Jenijn Veldener. Two of his brothers, Jan Peeter the Elder and Joris became painters. Alexander trained under his father, he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1685. On 11 August 1685, he married Cornelia Sporckmans, daughter of the Antwerp history painter Hubert Sporckmans, they had six sons of whom Jan Frans became a painter. Alexander van Bredael died in Antwerp, his pupils include his son Jan Frans, Peeter Busschop, Johan Baptist Govaerts, Guielmus van Ryn and Pieter Snyers. Alexander van Bredael painted in a wide variety of genres including cattle market scenes, Italianate landscapes and village scenes.
He is best known for his depiction of festivals and processions set in his native Antwerp. His village scenes are reminiscent of the genre scenes of David Teniers the Younger, he took his inspiration from other Flemish artists. For instance, his composition A Festival in Antwerp drew its inspiration from similar paintings representing processions in cities by Flemish artists such as Pieter van Aelst and Erasmus de Bie, he painted many scenes of cattle markets, which offered him the opportunity to showcase his skill in depicting group scenes populated with many figures as well as his ability to paint animals. He made various Italianate landscapes including harbour scenes such as the Harbour Scene with View of a Town. Alexander van Bredael produced designs for the tapestry workshops in Oudenaarde. In 1698 he is recorded as supplying designs for six tapestries with genre scenes depicting peasants and gypsies, he provided designs for tapestries that are referred to as Teniers tapestries. This refers to tapestries related to the Flemish genre painters David Teniers the Younger and David Teniers III.
Though it is not possible to connect the tapestries known as Teniers tapestries, which were woven in numerous weaving centers in Flanders, to any specific designs of these genre painters, these tapestries have been called Teniers tapestries since the early 18th century. Correspondences between the merchant Pieter van Verrren and Alexander van Bredael of 1700 make clear Alexander van Bredael designed some Teniers tapestries. A tapestry depicting an eyeglass vendor was sold by Christie’s on 5 February 2003 in New York, it is possible that the landscape in this tapestry was drawn by Pieter Spierinckx since such a collaboration between Bredael and Spierinckx on Teniers tapestries is mentioned in documents of 1707. Media related to Alexander van Bredael at Wikimedia Commons
Joseph van Bredael
Jozef van Bredael, Joseph van Bredael, or Josef van Bredael was a Flemish painter known for Italianate landscapes and genre scenes of fairs, cattle markets and villages. Jozef van Bredael was born into an artist family in Antwerp as the second son of Joris van Bredael and Johanna Maria van Diepenbeeck, his father as well as his grandfather Peeter van Bredael were painters. His uncles Jan Frans van Bredael and Jan Peeter van Bredael the Elder were painters, his mother was the daughter of the prominent Baroque painter Abraham van Diepenbeeck. His brother Jan Peeter was a painter who had a successful career in Vienna. Jozef trained under his father. In 1706 Jozef van Bredael and his cousin Jan Frans entered into a contract with the Antwerp art dealer Jacob de Witte to produce copies after the paintings of Philips Wouwerman and Jan Brueghel the Elder for a number of years. Under the contract, Jozef was to receive for each copy he produced 6 guilders in the first year, 8 guilders in the second and 10 guilders in the third and fourth years plus a bonus of 1 shilling.
At the end of the contract he would get a blue coat. Jan Frans was paid a marginally higher fee as he was more experienced than his 18-year cousin but Jan Frans was bound by an exclusivity obligation to work only for Jacob de Witte. Since they did not sign the copies, it is not possible to distinguish, responsible for individual copies, it is possible that the not so scrupulous art dealer de Witte sold these copies as originals since the copies were such good imitations of the style of the original artists. Jozef was contracted to work for de Witte for a period of four years but he may have worked for him for a longer period, it is not clear. There is mention of him going to France to work in 1725. Here he worked as a copyist and made several copies after Claude Lorrain for Jean-François Leriget de La Faye, an important French art collector. Other historians state that Jozef only moved to France in 1735 or 1736 after he had completed the paperwork related to the inheritance of his brother Jan Peeter who had died in Vienna.
He had appointed the Flemish painter Frans van Stampart, a court painter in Vienna, to act as the administrator of his brother’s estate. In France he became a member of the Royal Academy of the court of Duke of Orléans, he never married and died in Paris in 1739. Joseph Bredael painted landscapes and battles and made both copies and pastiches of compositions of 17th-century painters who were still popular in the 18th century such as Jan Brueghel the Elder, Philips Wouwerman and Claude; as he signed his paintings with the monogram JB, like Jan Brueghel, there have been a number of erroneous attributions of his work to Jan Breughel the Elder. Jozef van Bredael was thus inspired by their style, he interpreted the Brueghelian idiom through the aesthetics of his day and added a personal note to the contours of his figures and his strokes. Van Bredael’s quality of execution and delicate naturalism placed him amongst the best followers and imitators of Jan Brueghel the Elder, alongside Peeter Gijsels, Théobald Michau and Mathys Schoevaerdts.
He paid particular attention to detail, meticulously executing his figures and décor in the style of a miniaturist. He was able to create the illusion of a succession of planes in his compositions through the use of lateral screens and a subtle and nuanced palette, which tended towards tones of dominant blues and browns, though always gentle and subtle, he executed his successful compositions in many identical versions as is shown by the two versions of A village with a windmill, one of which sold by Christie’s on 4 July 2012 in London, lot 148 and the other of, sold by De Jonckheere Master paintings. Media related to Joseph van Bredael at Wikimedia Commons