The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Castleford is the largest of the five towns in the metropolitan borough of the City of Wakefield in West Yorkshire, near the M62 motorway. Castleford has a population of 40,210, the wards in the 2011 and 2001 censuses. It is historically part of the Osgoldcross Wapentake in West Riding of Yorkshire, to the north of the town the River Calder joins the River Aire and the Aire and Calder Navigation canal. The town is the site of a Roman settlement, within the historical Castleford Borough lies the suburbs of Airedale, Ferry Fryston, Glasshoughton, Half Acres, Lock Lane and Whitwood. Castleford is home to the rugby league Super League team Castleford Tigers, castleford’s history dates back to Roman times, archaeological evidence points to modern day Castleford being built upon a Roman army settlement which was called Lagentium. Roman funeral urns have been found in modern-day Castleford, giving evidence to this theory. A Roman milestone was unearthed in Beancroft Road, now believed to be in Leeds City Museum, queen’s Park in Castleford provides evidence of round houses used by the Anglo Saxons.
This was an area due to the views of the entire settlement. The history of the area includes Oliver Cromwell’s encampment in nearby Knottingley, in the 19th century, Castleford became a boomtown with the population growing from 1,000 to 14,000 as collieries opened around the town, these collieries closed in the 20th century. Ferrybridge Power Station and Kellingley Colliery have closed and used to employ Castleford residents, the newer warehouses and distribution centres in Glasshoughton have brought in many new jobs to the area. In 2008 Grand Designs presenter Kevin McCloud and Channel 4 led a community regeneration scheme to redevelop Castleford, the retailer and designer label, has a factory in the town which is due to close when a new facility is built in Leeds. The new plant will be a combination of the Castleford and Cross Hills plants, a large Nestlé factory, which produced Toffee Crisp and After Eights for 40 years, closed in 2012 and demolition starting in 2014 to make way for housing.
Castleford has previously been home to Dunsford and Wesley Textiles, which at peak business times had three factories in Castleford which have all ceased production. According to the 2011 Census Castleford has a population of 39,192, Castleford was established as an urban district, in the administrative county of the West Riding of Yorkshire in 1894 under the Local Government Act 1894, with an urban district council. Whitwood and Glasshoughton were added to the district in the 1930s, the urban district was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1955. Following the Local Government Act 1972, the borough was abolished on 1 April 1974, it became an unparished area of the City of Wakefield. Castleford is now controlled by Wakefield Council, Three electoral wards cover the town and Ferry Fryston and Whitwood, and Castleford Central and Glasshoughton. Castleford is a major Labour stronghold, in recent years Castleford has seen economic growth through its retail and distribution centres
Jane Jacobs OC OOnt was an American-Canadian journalist and activist best known for her influence on urban studies. Her influential book The Death and Life of Great American Cities argued that urban renewal did not respect the needs of most city-dwellers, the book introduced sociological concepts such as eyes on the street and social capital. After moving to Toronto in 1968, she joined the opposition to the Spadina Expressway, as a mother and a writer who criticized experts in the male-dominated field of urban planning, Jacobs endured scorn from established figures. She did not have a degree or any formal training in urban planning. Jacobs was born Jane Butzner in Scranton, the daughter of John Decker Butzner, a doctor, and Bess Robison Butzner and they were a Protestant family in a heavily Roman Catholic town. Her brother, John Decker Butzner, Jr. served as a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, after graduating from Scranton High School, she worked for a year as the unpaid assistant to the womens page editor at the Scranton Tribune.
In 1935, during the Great Depression, she moved to New York City with her sister Betty, Jane Butzner took an immediate liking to Manhattans Greenwich Village, which did not conform to the citys grid structure. The sisters soon moved there from Brooklyn, during her first several years in the city, Jacobs held a variety of jobs, working mainly as a stenographer and freelance writer, often writing about working districts in the city. These experiences, she said, … gave me more of a notion of what was going on in the city and what business was like. Her first job was for a magazine, first as a secretary. She sold articles to the Sunday Herald Tribune, Cue magazine and she studied at Columbia Universitys School of General Studies for two years, taking courses in geology, law, political science, and economics. About the freedom to study across her wide-ranging interests, she said, For the first time I liked school. Fortunately my high-school marks had been so bad that Barnard decided I could not belong to it, after attending Columbia Universitys School of General Studies for two years, Butzner found a job at Iron Age magazine.
A1943 article on economic decline in Scranton was well-publicized and led the Murray Corporation to locate a warplane factory there, encouraged by this success, Butzner petitioned the War Production Board to support more operations in Scranton. Experiencing discrimination at Iron Age, she advocated for equal pay for women. She became a writer for the Office of War Information, and a reporter for Amerika. While working there she met Robert Hyde Jacobs Jr. a Columbia-educated architect who was designing warplanes for Grumman and Jacobs married in 1944. Together they had two sons and Ned, and a daughter and they bought a three-story building at 555 Hudson St. Jane continued to write for Amerika after the war, while Robert left Grumman and resumed work as an architect
Prince Eugen Medal
The Prince Eugen Medal, is a medal conferred by the King of Sweden for outstanding artistic achievement. The medal was established in 1945 by the King of Sweden, Gustaf V, in connection with the birthday of his brother Prince Eugen who was a noted painter. It is awarded every year on 5 November, the day of Eugen. The following people have received the Prince Eugen Medal since its inception, winners are Swedish unless denoted otherwise. Orders and medals of Sweden List of prizes and awards Prizes named after people List of recipients 1945-2007
Transport for London
Transport for London is a local government body responsible for the transport system in Greater London, England. Its head office is in Windsor House in the City of Westminster, the underlying services are provided by a mixture of wholly owned subsidiary companies, by private sector franchisees and by licensees. In 2015-16, TfL had a budget of £11.5 billion, the rest comes from government funding, other income and Crossrail funding. On 21 January 2016, it was announced that the responsibility for franchising all of Londons inner suburban services would be transferred from the DfT to TfL. This transfer will take place as current franchises fall due for renewal, TfL was created in 2000 as part of the Greater London Authority by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. It gained most of its functions from its predecessor London Regional Transport in 2000, the first Commissioner of TfL was Bob Kiley. The first Chair was then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, and the first Deputy Chair was Dave Wetzel and Wetzel remained in office until the election of Boris Johnson as Mayor in 2008.
Johnson took over as Chairman, and in February 2009 fellow-Conservative Daniel Moylan was appointed as his Deputy, TfL did not take over responsibility for the London Underground until 2003, after the controversial Public-private partnership contract for maintenance had been agreed. Management of the Public Carriage Office had previously been a function of the Metropolitan Police, Transport for London Group Archives holds business records for TfL and its predecessor bodies and transport companies. Some early records are held on behalf of TfL Group Archives at the London Metropolitan Archives. After the bombings on the underground and bus systems on 7 July 2005 and they helped survivors out, removed bodies, and got the transport system up and running, to get the millions of commuters back out of London at the end of the work day. Those mentioned include Peter Hendy, who was at the time Head of Surface Transport division, and Tim OToole, head of the Underground division, carrying open containers of alcohol was banned on public transport operated by TfL.
The Mayor of London and TfL announced the ban with the intention of providing a safer, there were Last Round on the Underground parties on the night before the ban came into force. Passengers refusing to observe the ban may be refused travel and asked to leave the premises, the Greater London Authority reported in 2011 that assaults on London Underground staff had fallen by 15% since the introduction of the ban. In an effort to reduce sexual offences and increase reporting, TfL—in conjunction with the British Transport Police, Metropolitan Police Service, TfL is controlled by a board whose members are appointed by the Mayor of London, a position held by Sadiq Khan since May 2016. The Commissioner of Transport for London reports to the Board and leads a management team with individual functional responsibilities, the body is organised in three main directorates and corporate services, each with responsibility for different aspects and modes of transport. This network is sub-divided into three service units, BCV, Central and Waterloo & City lines.
JNP, Jubilee and Piccadilly lines, SSL, District and Hammersmith & City lines
Human scale is the set of physical qualities, and quantities of information, characterizing the human body, its motor, sensory, or mental capabilities, and human social institutions. Many of the objects of scientific interest in the universe are much larger than human scale or much smaller than human scale, many time periods studied in science involve time scales much greater than human timescales or much shorter than human timescales. Mathematicians and scientists use very large and small numbers to describe physical quantities, the field of anthropometrics has unanswered questions, but its still true that human physical characteristics are fairly predictable and objectively measurable. Buildings scaled to human physical capabilities have steps, railings, work surfaces, shelves, walking distances, humans interact with their environments based on their sensory capabilities. So human scale in architecture can describe buildings with sightlines, acoustic properties, task lighting, ambient lighting, one important caveat is that human perceptions are always going to be less predictable and less measurable than physical dimensions.
Human scale in architecture is deliberately violated, for monumental effect, buildings and memorials are constructed in a scale larger than life as a social/cultural signal that the subject matter is larger than life. One extreme example is the Rodina statue in Volgograd. for aesthetic effect, many architects, particularly in the Modernist movement, design buildings that prioritize structural purity and clarity of form over concessions to human scale. This became the dominant American architectural style for decades, some notable examples among many are Henry Cobbs John Hancock Tower in Boston, much of I. M. Peis work including the Dallas City Hall, and Mies van der Rohes Neue Nationalgalerie in Berlin. Commercial buildings that are designed to be legible from roadways assume a different shape. The human eye can distinguish about 3 objects or features per second, a pedestrian steadily walking along a 30-metre length of department store can perceive about 68 features, a driver passing the same frontage at 50 km/h can perceive about six or seven features.
Auto-scale buildings tend to be smooth and shallow, readable at a glance, presented outward and this urban form is traceable back to the innovations of developer A. W. Ross along Wilshire Boulevard in Los Angeles in 1920. Common sense ideas tend to relate to events within human experience, there is thus no commonsense intuition of, for example, interstellar distances or speeds approaching the speed of light. Weights and measures tend to reflect human scale, and many systems of measurement featured units based directly on the dimensions of the body, such as the foot. The metric system, which is based on precisely reproducible and measurable physical quantities such as the speed of light, man is the measure of all things, of things that are, that they are, and of things that are not, that they are not. -- Protagoras Anthropic principle Anthropic units Anthropometrics Ergonomics List of human-based units of measure Scales of measurement Small Is Beautiful Standard temperature and pressure
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
International Union of Architects
The International Union of Architects is an international non-governmental organization that represents over a million architects in 124 countries. The UIA was founded in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1948, the General Secretariat is located in Paris. It is recognized by most United Nations agencies as the association in its field, including UNESCO, UNCHS, ESOSOC, UNIDO. The current president is Esa Mohamed from Malaysia, the UIA helds a triennal World Congress of Architecture each organised at a time by a member section in its respective country. In connection with the congress the general assembly of the organisation is held in which the office bearers. The next congress will be held in Seoul 2017 on the topic, Soul of City
Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was initially established, due to its pivotal role in Australias early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country. Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south, at the 2011 Australian Census, the CBD recorded a population of 14,308. Sydney CBD is very used to refer not only to the CBD proper. The Sydney CBD is Australias main financial and economic centre, as well as a hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region. The city centre employs approximately 13% of the Sydney regions workforce and it produced $64.1 billion worth of goods and services in 2011–12. Culturally, the city centre is Sydneys focal point for nightlife and it is home to some of the citys most significant buildings and structures.
The Sydney CBD is an area of very densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens. George Street is the Sydney CBDs main north–south thoroughfare, the CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie Street and York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream, bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east–west that once crossed this stream. Pitt Street is the heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The New South Wales state government has authority over some aspects of the CBD, the Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies. Sydneys CBD is serviced by rail, light rail, buses.
There is a largely-underground CBD rail loop, accessed in both directions via Central, which services five additional CBD stations, plus a spur line to Bondi Junction which services two. The only light rail line currently operating links the southern part of the CBD, both government-run and privately owned, service the CBD along several dozen routes to both inner and more remote suburbs. NightRide is an bus service that operates between midnight and 5, 00am, with most services running from George Street outside the Sydney Town Hall. Sydney Ferries operate largely from Circular Quay, on the edge of the CBD
Melbourne City Centre
Melbourne City Centre is an area of Melbourne, Australia. It is the area in which Melbourne was established in 1835, by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, today it comprises the two oldest areas of Melbourne, the Hoddle Grid and Queen Victoria Market, as well as sections of the redeveloped areas of Docklands and Southbank/Wharf. It is not to be confused with the local government area of the City of Melbourne. The City Centre is home to five of the six tallest buildings in Australia. In recent times, it has placed alongside New York City and Berlin as one of the worlds great street art meccas. He sailed across Bass Strait, into the bay of Port Phillip, the last sentence of Batmans journal entry on this day became famous as the founding charter of the settlement. So the boat went up the large river, and, I am glad to state about six miles up found the river all good water and very deep. This will be the place for a village, upon returning to Van Diemens Land, Batmans treaty was deemed invalid by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, under the Proclamation of Governor Bourke in August 1835.
The proclamation formally declared, under the doctrine of terra nullius, that The Crown owned the whole of the Australian continent and that only it alone could sell and distribute land. It therefore voided any contracts or treaties made without the consent of the government, at the same time, the Port Phillip Association had funded a second expedition, which sailed from Launceston aboard the Rebecca. The settlement party aboard the Enterprize entered the Yarra River, and anchored close to the chosen by Batman. The party went ashore the following day and landed their stores, Batman was dismayed to discover the settlers of the Enterprize had established a settlement in the area and informed the settlers that they were trespassing on the Associations land. However, according to the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, both the parties were in fact trespassing on Crown land, when Fawkner arrived in October, and following tense arguments between the two parties, negotiation were made for land to be shared equally.
As Fawkner had arrived after the two parties, he was aware of the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, which had gained approval from the Colonial Office in October and he knew that cooperation would be vital if the settlement was to continue to exist fait accompli. Land was divided, and the settlement existed peacefully, and it was referred to by a number of names, including and Bearbrass of which the latter was agreed upon by Batman and Fawkner. Fawkner assumed a role in the establishment of Bearbrass, which, by early 1836. The Secretary of State for the Colonies, Charles Grant, recognised the settlements fait accompli that same year and the Port Phillip Association were compensated £7,000 for the land. And, in March 1837, it was officially renamed Melbourne by Governor Bourke in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, the City Centre is bordered by Spencer Street to the west and extends north as far as Grattan Street which borders Carlton
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange