Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, peoples and archaeology. Traditional Oriental studies in Europe is today focused on the discipline of Islamic studies, while the study of China traditional China, is called Sinology; the study of East Asia in general in the United States, is called East Asian studies, while the study of Israel and Jews are called Israel studies and Jewish studies although they are considered the same field. European study of the region known as "the Orient" had religious origins, which has remained an important motivation until recent times. Learning from Arabic medicine and philosophy, the Greek translations from Arabic, was an important factor in the Middle Ages. Linguistic knowledge preceded a wider study of cultures and history, as Europe began to encroach upon the region and economic factors encouraged growth in academic study. From the late 18th century archaeology became a link from the discipline to a wide European public, as treasures pillaged during colonial contacts filled new European museums.
The modern study was influenced both by imperialist attitudes and interests, the sometimes naive fascination of the exotic East for Mediterranean and European writers and thinkers, captured in images by artists, embodied in a repeatedly-surfacing theme in the history of ideas in the West, called "Orientalism". In the last century, scholars from the region itself have participated on equal terms in the discipline; the original distinction between the "West" and the "East" was crystallized in the Greco-Persian Wars of the 5th century BC, when Athenian historians made a distinction between their "Athenian democracy" and the Persian monarchy. An institutional distinction between East and West did not exist as a defined polarity before the Oriens- and Occidens-divided administration of the Emperor Diocletian's Roman Empire at the end of the 3rd century AD, the division of the Empire into Latin and Greek-speaking portions; the classical world had intimate knowledge of their Ancient Persian neighbours, but imprecise knowledge of most of the world further East, including the "Seres".
However, there was substantial direct Roman trade with India in the Imperial period. The rise of Islam and Muslim conquests in the 7th century established a sharp opposition, or a sense of polarity, between medieval European Christendom and the medieval Islamic world. During the Middle Ages and Jews were considered the "alien" enemies of Christendom. Popular medieval European knowledge of cultures farther to the East was poor, dependent on the wildly fictionalized travels of Sir John Mandeville and legends of Prester John, although the famous, much longer, account by Marco Polo was a good deal more accurate. Scholarly work was very linguistic in nature, with a religious focus on understanding both Biblical Hebrew and languages like Syriac with early Christian literature, but from a wish to understand Arabic works on medicine and science; this effort called the Studia Linguarum existed sporadically throughout the Middle Ages, the "Renaissance of the 12th century" witnessed a particular growth in translations of Arabic texts into Latin, with figures like Constantine the African, who translated 37 books medical texts, from Arabic to Latin, Herman of Carinthia, one of the translators of the Qur'an.
The earliest translation of the Qur'an into Latin was completed in 1143, although little use was made of it until it was printed in 1543, after which it was translated into other European languages. Gerard of Cremona and others based themselves in Al-Andaluz to take advantage of the Arabic libraries and scholars there. With the Christian Reconquista in full progress, such contacts became rarer in Spain. Chairs of Hebrew and Aramaic were established at Oxford, four other universities following the Council of Vienne. There was vague but increasing knowledge of the complex civilizations in China and India, from which luxury goods were imported. Although the Crusades produced little in the way of scholarly interchange, the eruption of the Mongol Empire had strategic implications for both the Crusader kingdoms and Europe itself, led to extended diplomatic contacts. From the Age of Exploration, European interest in mapping Asia, the sea-routes, became intense, though pursued outside the universities.
University Oriental studies became systematic during the Renaissance, with the linguistic and religious aspects continuing to dominate. There was a political dimension, as translations for diplomatic purposes were needed before the West engaged with the East beyond the Ottoman Empire. A landmark was the publication in Spain in 1514 of the first Polyglot Bible, containing the complete existing texts in Hebrew and Aramaic, in addition to Greek and Latin. At Cambridge University there has been a Regius Professor of Hebrew since 1540, the chair in Arabic was founded in about 1643. Oxford followed for Hebrew in 1546. Distinguished scholars included Edmund Castell, who published his Lexicon Heptaglotton Hebraicum, Syriacum, Aethiopicum, Arabicum, et Persicum in 1669, whilst some scholars like E
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants; the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, in the larger Leiden urban area Teylingen and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south and some 40 km from Amsterdam to its north; the recreational area of the Kaag Lakes lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden has been one of Europe's most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Leiden is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling and international atmosphere.
Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden's motto: ‘City of Discoveries’. The city houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden University is one of Europe's top universities, with thirteen Nobel Prize winners, it is a member of the League of European Research Universities and positioned in all international academic rankings. It is twinned with the location of the United Kingdom's oldest university. Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences together have around 35,000 students. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave. Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but in the arts. One of the world's most famous painters, was born and educated in Leiden. Other famous Leiden painters include Jan van Goyen and Jan Steen. Leiden was formed on an artificial hill at the confluence of the rivers Nieuwe Rijn.
In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- "canal" in dative pluralis, thus meaning "at the canals". "Canal" is not the proper word. A leitha was a human-modified natural river natural artificial. Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum; this particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, the city's name was thought to be derived from the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in fact closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden was called Matilo; the landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holland. Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland.
He captured Ada. Leiden received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons. In 1420, during the Hook and Cod wars, Duke John III of Bavaria along with his army marched from Gouda in the direction of Leiden in order to conquer the city since Leiden did not pay the new Count of Holland Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, his niece and only daughter of Count William VI of Holland. Burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels, but John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first. He rolled the cannons along with his army but one, too heavy went by ship. By firing at the walls and gates with iron balls the citadels fell one by one. Within a week John of Bavaria conquered the castles of Poelgeest, Ter Does, Hoichmade, de Zijl, ter Waerd, Warmond and de Paddenpoel. On 24 June the army appeared before the walls of Leiden. On 17 August 1420, after a two-month siege the city surrendered to John of Bavaria.
The burgrave Filips of Wassenaar was stripped of his offices and rights and lived out his last years in captivity. Leiden flourished in the 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments of Leiden were important, after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. In the same period, Leiden developed an important publishing industry; the influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir, who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants through 1712 and the name subsequently adopted by contemporary publisher Elsevier. In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town.
As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on 3 Oc
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Herborn is a historic town on the Dill in the Lahn-Dill district of Hesse in Germany. Before World War I, it was granted its own title as Nassauisches Rothenburg; the symbol or mascot of this town is a bear. Scenic attractions include its half-timbered houses. Herborn hosted the 26th Hessentag state festival in 1986, the 56th Hessentag in 2016; the town's coordinates are 50°41′4″N 8°18′15″E. It has an area of 64 km², of which 28 km² is forest. Herborn is connected by the A45 motorway with Siegen and Gießen. Herborn is bordered on the north by the town of Dillenburg, on the northeast by the community of Siegbach, on the east by the community of Mittenaar, on the southeast by the community of Sinn, on the south by the community of Greifenstein, on the west by the communities of Driedorf and Breitscheid. Herborn is divided into the communities of Amdorf, Guntersdorf, Hirschberg, Hörbach, Schönbach and Uckersdorf as well as the main town of Herborn. 1998 - 21,334 1999 - 21,415 2000 - 21,380 2001 - 21,254 2002 - 21,304 2003 - 21,214 2004 - 21,158 2005 - 21,260 2006 - 20,810 2007 - 20,921 2008 - 20,962 2009 - 20,975 Herborn had its first documentary mention in 1048, was granted the privilege of a city in 1251 by the Counts of Nassau.
In 1584 the Herborn Academy, a Reformed institution, was founded by John VI of Nassau-Dillenburg, younger brother of William the Silent and namesake of today's Gymnasium Johanneum. Herborn was where Johannes Piscator published the Reformed Church translation of the Bible into German, in 1602; this work has had a decisive effect in shaping church life among followers of the Reformed movement in Germany, the Netherlands and the United States. It was printed in Herborn in the akademische Druckerei von Corvinus, known today as the Corvinsche Druckerei or Paul's Hof, after the Paul family who own it. In 1626, the town lost 214 houses in a fire started by accident in soldiers' quarters. Soon after and the surrounding area were the scene of a number of witch trials. Towards the end of the Thirty Years' War, the townsfolk were looking after 50 Swedish soldiers, which brought them protection by the Swedish Army, thereby a reputation as a "field hospital town" that lasted until the end of the Second World War.
After the Congress of Vienna Herborn was in a border area next to Prussia, its economy suffered due to import tariffs. Hesse-Nassau joined the Zollverein only in 1836, in 1866 it was annexed by Prussia. In the Second World War, Herborn was spared by the bombers, but its Jewish community was obliterated in 1942, many of the patients of the psychiatric clinic were deported and murdered. During much of the Cold War there was a small American military garrison in the community, district Seelbach; the town became nationally known for a truck disaster that happened on 7 July 1987. After losing control because of faulty brakes, a tanker truck carrying about 34 000 L of fuel ran into a house containing an ice cream parlour and a pizzeria; the escaping fuel flowed into the sewers and exploded, setting several houses on fire. All together, six people lost their lives, 40 were injured; the municipal elections on 26 March 2006 yielded the following results: Note: FWG is a citizens' coalition. Herborn maintains partnerships with the following towns: Pertuis, since 1965 Guntersdorf, Lower Austria, since 1970 Schönbach, Lower Austria, since 1996 Iława, since 1998Also, Herborn is partner of: Post Falls, United States Museum Herborn in der Hohen Schule Heimatmuseum Herborn-Seelbach Heimat- und Industriemuseum Burg Heimatstube Hörbach This was built in the 16th century and built anew after a fire in the 17th century.
Worthy of note is the frieze around the building showing local family coats of arms. Evangelical historic town church dating back to at least 1219 earlier, with many interesting building styles and features like a gothic choir with net-vault, romanic window, renaissance style in the main nave etc. Many half-timbered houses dating from the 15th to 18th century. Market fountain from 1730 Paulshof the printing works from Corvin The "High School" founded 1584, remodelled in 1645 Town wall with many preserved towers and gates like the Stone Gate Herborn Castle, the stately home; the constituent community of Uckersdorf has a known attraction with its bird park. You find more information on the web-site http://www.vogelpark-herborn.de The Old Town is not the only attraction in Herborn. The surrounding countryside features the low mountains of the Westerwald range. Sommerfest, last Saturday each July Rock in the city park Martinimarkt, November Ponyfest in Herborn/Schönbach Strawberry Sunday wine festival Herborn lies on the Deutsche Fachwerkstraße, featuring many places with many half-timbered houses, on the Solmser Straße, a scenic road leading through many historic and artistically important places in Hesse.
Herborn is served today by two railway stations and four more have been abandoned. Herborn station was opened in 1862 on the Dill Railway; the current station building dates from 1908 and was designed by the church architect Ludwig Hoffmann. In t
The Biografisch Portaal is an initiative based at the Huygens Institute for Dutch History in The Hague, with the aim of making biographical texts of the Netherlands more accessible. The project was started in February 2010 with material for 40,000 digitized biographies, with the goal to grant digital access to all reliable information about people of the Netherlands from the earliest beginnings of history up to modern times; the Netherlands as a geographic term includes former colonies, the term "people" refers both to people born in the Netherlands and its former colonies, to people born elsewhere but active in the Netherlands and its former colonies. As of 2011, only biographical information about deceased people is included; the system used is based on the standards of the Text Encoding Initiative. Access to the Biografisch Portaal is available free through a web-based interface; the project is a cooperative undertaking by ten scientific and cultural bodies in the Netherlands with the Huygens Institute as main contact.
The other bodies are: The Biografie Instituut The Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie The Digital Library for Dutch Literature Data Archiving and Networked Services The International Institute of Social History The Onderzoekscentrum voor Geschiedenis en Cultuur, The Parlementair Documentatie Centrum The Netherlands Institute for Art History Besides ongoing digital projects, Dutch biographical dictionaries published in book form that have been digitized and incorporated into the indexes of the Biografisch Portaal are: The work of Abraham van der Aa, the first Dutch biographical dictionary The BWN, or Biografisch Woordenboek van Nederland The NNBW, or Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek The work of Johan Engelbert Elias on the Amsterdam regency known as Vroedschap van Amsterdam The work of Barend Glasius known as Godgeleerd Nederland The work of Roeland van Eynden and Adriaan van der Willigen, known as Geschiedenis der vaderlandsche schilderkunst The work of Jan van Gool known as Nieuwe Schouburg The work of Jacob Campo Weyerman known as The Lives of Dutch painters and paintresses The BLNP, or Biografisch lexicon voor de geschiedenis van het Nederlands protestantismeAs of November 2012 the Biografisch Portaal contained 80,206 persons in 125,592 biographies.
In February 2012, a new project was started called "BiographyNed" to build an analytical tool for use with the Biografisch Portaal that will link biographies to events in time and space. The main goal of the three-year project is to formulate ‘the boundaries of the Netherlands’. List of Dutch people Official website
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012