Henryk Zygalski was a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who worked at breaking German Enigma ciphers before and during World War II. Zygalski was born on 15 July 1908 in Posen, German Empire, he was, from September 1932, a civilian cryptologist with the Polish General Staff's Biuro Szyfrów, housed in the Saxon Palace in Warsaw. He worked there with fellow Poznań University alumni and Cipher Bureau cryptology-course graduates Marian Rejewski and Jerzy Różycki. Together they developed methods and equipment for breaking Enigma messages. In late 1938, in response to growing complexities in German encryption procedures, Zygalski designed the "perforated sheets," known as "Zygalski sheets," a manual device for finding Enigma settings; this scheme, like the earlier "card catalog," was independent of the number of connections being used in the Enigma's plugboard, or commutator. After the war he remained in exile in the United Kingdom and worked, until his retirement, as a lecturer in mathematical statistics at the University of Surrey.
During this period he was prevented by the Official Secrets Act from speaking of his achievements in cryptology. He died on 30 August 1978 in Liss, was cremated and his ashes taken to London. Shortly before his death, he was honored by the Polish University in Exile with an honorary doctorate for his role in breaking Enigma. Cryptanalysis of the Enigma List of cryptographers Zygalski sheets Marian Rejewski List of Polish mathematicians Władysław Kozaczuk, Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken, How It Was Read by the Allies in World War II, edited and translated by Christopher Kasparek, Frederick, MD, University Publications of America, 1984, ISBN 0-89093-547-5
Maksymilian Ciężki was the head of the Polish Cipher Bureau's German section in the 1930s, during which time—from December 1932—the Bureau decrypted German Enigma messages. During the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, Ciężki escaped to France to continue work on breaking Enigma ciphers. In 1943 he was captured by the Germans and interned in an S. S. concentration camp. In the 1930s, Ciężki, as an army captain, was chief of the Polish General Staff Cipher Bureau's German section; this section "broke" German Enigma machine ciphers. Ciężki was deputy to the Cipher Bureau's chief, Major Gwido Langer, in addition supervised the radio-intercept stations at Starogard in the Polish Corridor, at Poznań in western Poland, at Krzesławice, near Kraków in southern Poland. In March 1943, now-Major Ciężki, Lt. Col. Langer, Lt. Antoni Palluth and civilians Edward Fokczyński and Kazimierz Gaca were betrayed by their French guide and captured by the Germans as they attempted to cross from German-occupied France into Spain.
Ciężki and Langer were sent to an SS concentration camp where, during interrogations, they managed to protect the secret of Enigma decryption. They convinced their interrogators that, while the Poles had had some success with solving the Enigma early on, changes introduced by the Germans just before the start of the war had prevented any further decryption. Palluth, Fokczyński and Gaca — according to Col. Stefan Mayer, prewar chief of the intelligence department in Section II of the Polish General Staff — "were acquainted to the last detail with the... breaking Enigma. They were kept by Germans in most awful conditions when Enigma secret was still of great importance for the Western Allies. Langer and his four comrades did not reveal to the Germans, thus exploiting this source of till the end of the war."In mid-1945, Major Ciężki and Lt. Colonel Langer arrived in London, where they were badly received by Colonel Gano, chief of the Polish Section II in Britain. Gano had believed a distorted account by Lt. Colonel Bertrand that represented the failure to evacuate Langer's group from France as having been due to Langer's hesitation and lack of nerve.
Langer and Ciężki were sent to a Polish signals camp at Kinross, where Langer, bitter and convinced that he had been betrayed by the French when they no longer had need of him, died on 30 March 1948. Ciężki died on 9 November 1951, after living the last three years on subsidies from the Assistance Board. List of Poles Władysław Kozaczuk, Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken, How It Was Read by the Allies in World War Two and translated by Christopher Kasparek, Frederick, MD, University Publications of America, 1984, ISBN 0-89093-547-5. Hugh Sebag-Montefiore, Enigma: the Battle for the Code, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2000, ISBN 0-297-84251-X
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
University of Warsaw
The University of Warsaw, established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland. It employs over 6,000 staff including over 3,100 academic educators, it provides graduate courses for 53,000 students. The University offers some 37 different fields of study, 18 faculties and over 100 specializations in Humanities, technical as well as Natural Sciences, it was founded as a Royal University on 19 November 1816, when the Partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the oldest and most influential University of Kraków. Alexander I granted permission for the establishment of five faculties – law and political science, philosophy and the humanities; the university expanded but was closed during November Uprising in 1830. It was reopened in 1857 as the Warsaw Academy of Medicine, now based in the nearby Staszic Palace with only medical and pharmaceutical faculties. All Polish-language campuses were closed in 1869 after the failed January Uprising, but the university managed to train 3,000 students, many of whom were important part of the Polish intelligentsia.
The university was resurrected during the First World War and the number of students reached 4,500 in 1918. After Poland's independence the new government focused on improving the university, in the early 1930s it became the country's largest. New faculties were established and the curriculum was extended. Following the Second World War and the devastation of Warsaw, the University reopened in 1945. Today, the University of Warsaw consists of 126 buildings and educational complexes with over 18 faculties: biology, chemistry and political science and sociology, physics and regional studies, history, applied linguistics and Slavic philology, philology, Polish language and public administration, applied social sciences and mathematics, computer science and mechanics; the University of Warsaw is one of the top Polish universities. It was ranked by Perspektywy magazine as best Polish university in 2010, 2011, 2014 and 2016. International rankings such as ARWU and University Web Ranking rank the university as the best Polish higher level institution.
On the list of 100 best European universities compiled by University Web Ranking, the University of Warsaw was placed as 61st. QS World University Rankings positioned the University of Warsaw as the best higher level institution among the world's top 400. In 1795 the partitions of Poland left Warsaw with access only to the Academy of Vilnius. In 1815, the newly established autonomous Congress Poland de facto belonging to the Russian Empire found itself without a university at all, as Vilnius was incorporated into Russia; the first to be established in Congress Poland were the Medical School. In 1816 Tsar Alexander I permitted the Polish authorities to create a university, comprising five departments: Law and Administration, Philosophy and Art and Humanities; the university soon grew to 50 professors. After most of the students and professors took part in the November 1830 Uprising the university was closed down. After the Crimean War, Russia entered a brief period of liberalization, the permission was given to create a Polish medical and surgical academy in Warsaw.
In 1862 departments of Law and Administration and History, Mathematics and Physics were opened. The newly established academy gained importance and was soon renamed the "Main School". However, after the January 1863 Uprising the liberal period ended and all Polish-language schools were closed down again. During its short existence, the Main School educated over 3,000 students, many of whom became part of the backbone of the Polish intelligentsia; the Main School was replaced with a Russian-language "Imperial University of Warsaw". Its purpose was to provide education for the Russian military garrison of Warsaw, the majority of students were Poles; the tsarist authorities believed that the Russian university would become a perfect way to Russify Polish society and spent a significant sum on building a new university campus. However, various underground organizations soon started to grow and the students became their leaders in Warsaw. Most notable of these groups joined the ranks of the 1905 Revolution.
Afterwards a boycott of Russian educational facilities was proclaimed and the number of Polish students dropped to below 10%. Most of the students who wanted to continue their education left for Western Europe. After the fall of the January Uprising, the Tsarist authorities' decided to convert the Main School into a Russian-language university, which functioned under the name of Imperial University for 46 years. There were two times. During the 1905–1907 revolution, such a proposal was made by some of the professors, in the face of a boycott of the university by Polish students. Talks on that subject were conducted with a number of Russian cities, including Voronezh and Saratov; the Russian government decided to keep a university in Warsaw, but as a result of the boycott, the university was Russian not only in the sense of the language used, but of the nationality of its professors and students. For the second time the question emerged during th
Anton Ivanovich Denikin was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War. Denikin was born in Szpetal Dolny village, now part of the Polish city Włocławek in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, his father, Ivan Efimovich Denikin, had been born a serf in the province of Saratov. Sent as a recruit to do 25 years of military service, the elder Denikin became an officer in the 22nd year of his army service in 1856, he retired from the army in 1869 with the rank of major. In 1869 Ivan Denikin married Polish seamstress Elżbieta Wrzesińska as his second wife. Anton Denikin, the couple's only child, spoke both Polish growing up, his father's Russian patriotism and devotion to the Russian Orthodox religion led Anton Denikin to the Russian army. The Denikins lived close to poverty, with the retired major's small pension as their only source of income, their finances worsened after Ivan's death in 1885. Anton Denikin at this time began tutoring younger schoolmates to support the family.
In 1890 Denikin enrolled at the Kiev Junker School, a military college from which he graduated in 1892. The twenty-year-old Denikin joined an artillery brigade. In 1895 he was first accepted into the General Staff Academy, where he did not meet the academic requirements in the first of his two years. After this disappointment, Denikin attempted to attain acceptance again. On his next attempt he finished fourteenth in his class. However, to his misfortune, the Academy decided to introduce a new system of calculating grades and as a result Denikin was not offered a staff appointment after the final exams, he protested the decision to the highest authority. After being offered a settlement according to which he would rescind his complaint in order to attain acceptance into the General Staff school again, Denikin declined, insulted. Denikin first saw active service during the 1905 Russo-Japanese War. In 1905 he won promotion to the rank of colonel. In 1910 he became commander of the 17th infantry regiment.
A few weeks before the outbreak of the First World War, Denikin reached the rank of major-general. By the outbreak of World War I in August 1914 Denikin was a Chief of staff of the Kiev Military District, he was appointed Quartermaster of General Brusilov's 8th Army. Not one for staff service, Denikin petitioned for an appointment to a fighting front, he was transferred to the 4th Rifle Brigade. His brigade was transformed into a division in 1915, it was with this brigade. In 1916, he was appointed to command the Russian 8th Army Corps and lead troops in Romania during the last successful Russian campaign of the war, the Brusilov Offensive. Following the February Revolution and the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II, he became Chief of Staff to Mikhail Alekseev Aleksei Brusilov, Lavr Kornilov. Denikin supported the attempted coup of his commander, the Kornilov Affair, in September 1917 and was arrested and imprisoned with him. After this Alekseev would be reappointed commander-in-Chief. Following the October Revolution both Denikin and Kornilov escaped to Novocherkassk in the Northern Caucasus and, with other Tsarist officers, formed the anti-Bolshevik Volunteer Army commanded by Alekseev.
Kornilov was killed in April 1918 near Ekaterinodar and the Volunteer Army came under Denikin's command. There was some sentiment to place Grand Duke Nicholas in overall command but Denikin was not interested in sharing power. In the face of a Communist counter-offensive he withdrew his forces back towards the Don area in what came to be known as the Ice March. After that, in June-November 1918, Denikin launched the successful Second Kuban Campaign which gave him control of the entire area between the Black and Caspian Sea. In the summer of 1919, Denikin led the assault of the southern White forces in their final push to capture Moscow. For a time, it appeared. Makhno duly turned his Black Army east and led it against Denikin's extended lines of supply, forcing the Whites to retreat. Denikin's army would be decisively defeated at Orel in October 1919, some 360 km south of Moscow; the White forces in southern Russia would be in constant retreat thereafter reaching the Crimea in March 1920. Meanwhile, the Soviet government tore up its agreement with Makhno and attacked his anarchist forces.
After a seesaw series of battles in which both sides gained ground, Trotsky's more numerous and better equipped Red Army troops decisively defeated and dispersed Makhno's Black Army. During the Russian Civil War, an estimated 50,000 Jews perished in pogroms. Ukrainian forces, nominally under the control of Symon Petliura, perpetrated 40 percent of the recorded pogroms; the White Army is associated with 17 percent of the attacks, was responsible for the most active propaganda campaign against Jews, whom they associated with communism. The Red Army is blamed for 9 percent of the pogroms. In the territories it occupied, Denikin's army carried out mass executions and plunder, in what was known as the White Terror. In the town of Maykop in Circassia during
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Cadix was a World War II clandestine intelligence center at Uzès, in southern France, from September 1940 to 9 November 1942. During this period southern France was under the control of Vichy France and not occupied by Nazi Germany. At Cadix, the predominantly Polish team of cryptanalysts who had worked at PC Bruno was reassembled, worked against German and other Axis ciphers, including the German Enigma machine cipher. Cadix shut down. After the German conquest of Poland in 1939, key personnel of the Polish Cipher Bureau escaped to France. Major Gustave Bertrand of French intelligence established PC Bruno, where the Poles worked, via teletype line, with British cryptologists at Bletchley Park to break Enigma. During the German invasion of France, PC Bruno had to be evacuated. On 22 June 1940, France signed an armistice with Germany. Two days Major Bertrand flew the essential personnel of PC Bruno to French-controlled Algeria. Bertrand remained an officer of the official French intelligence service, nominally controlled by "Vichy France", the quasi-collaborationist regime headed by Marshal Pétain.
But Bertrand and the service retained substantial independence. In September 1940, Bertrand secretly returned the PC Bruno staff to the unoccupied area of southern France. At the Château des Fouzes, near Uzès on the Mediterranean coast, they formed a new intelligence center codenamed Cadix. There they resumed work against Axis ciphers; the staff at Cadix comprised 15 Poles, 9 Frenchmen, 7 Spaniards. One unusual task came in July 1941; the Polish Cipher Bureau chiefs asked Polish analysts Marian Rejewski and Henryk Zygalski to test the security of the Polish Lacida rotor cipher machine. The device had evidently never been subjected to rigorous testing before being approved for production and wartime use. To the consternation of the Cipher Bureau chiefs, the two mathematicians made short work of the Lacida. Cadix had a branch office in Algeria, directed by Maksymilian Ciężki, which periodically exchanged staff with Uzès; when the passenger ship Lamoricière mysteriously sank on 9 January 1942, several Cadix staff sailing to France in one of these exchanges were lost.
Those lost included Jerzy Różycki, one of the Cipher Bureau's three mathematician-cryptologists, Piotr Smoleński and Jan Graliński of the prewar Cipher Bureau's Russian section, Captain François Lane, a French officer accompanying the three Poles. On 8 November 1942, Allied forces landed in French North Africa; when the French authorities there submitted to the Allies and broke with Vichy France, Germany occupied southern France. Major Bertrand, anticipating this outcome, evacuated Cadix on 9 November, two days before the German forces moved; the Cadix staff dispersed. Rejewski and Zygalski crossed into Spain, where they were arrested and imprisoned. Released after Red Cross intercessions, they went to Britain. There they were employed by British intelligence until the war's end, against German SS "hand" ciphers. Cadix's Polish military chiefs, Gwido Langer and Maksymilian Ciężki, were captured by the Germans as they tried to cross from France into Spain on the night of 10–11 March 1943. Three other Poles were captured with them, Antoni Palluth, Edward Fokczyński, Kazimierz Gaca.
Langer and Ciężki became prisoners of war. The other three men were sent as slave labor to Germany, where Fokczyński perished. All five men protected the secret of Allied decryption of the Enigma cipher. Cipher Bureau Saxon Palace Kabaty Woods PC Bruno Enigma cipher Ultra Jerzy Różycki Bertrand, Enigma ou la plus grande énigme de la guerre 1939–1945, Librairie Plon, 1973. Kozaczuk, Władysław, Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken, How It Was Read by the Allies in World War Two and translated by Christopher Kasparek, Frederick, MD, University Publications of America, 1984, ISBN 0-89093-547-5