Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Prague
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Prague is a Metropolitan Catholic archdiocese of the Latin Rite in Bohemia, in the Czech Republic. The cathedral archiepiscopal see is St. Vitus Cathedral, in the Bohemian and Czech capital Prague situated inside the Prague Castle complex. Msgr Dominik Duka, O. P. is the current archbishop. As per 2014, it pastorally served 558,000 Catholics on 8,590 km² in 145 parishes and 34 missions with 340 priests, 30 deacons, 538 lay religious and 8 seminarians, its suffragan sees are: Roman Catholic Diocese of České Budějovice Roman Catholic Diocese of Hradec Králové Roman Catholic Diocese of Litoměřice Roman Catholic Diocese of Plzeň The diocese was founded in 973 as the Diocese of Prague, through the joint efforts of Duke Boleslav II of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperors Otto I and Otto II. It was a suffragan of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Mainz It lost territories in 1000 to establish the Diocese of Wrocław and in 1063 to establish the Diocese of Olomouc It was elevated to Metropolitan Archdiocese of Prague on 30 April 1344, having lost territory again to establish the Diocese of Litomyšl.
The first official statutes date from 1349 and incorporated the Manipulus florum of Thomas of Ireland. Gained territory in 1474 from the suppressed Diocese of Litomyšl Lost territories repeatedly: on 1655.07.03 to establish the Diocese of Litoměřice, on 1664.11.10 to establish Diocese of Hradec Králové, on 1785.09.20 to establish Diocese of České Budějovice and on 1993.05.31 to establish Diocese of Plzeň, all four Bohemian and its suffragans. It enjoyed Papal visits from Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI in September 2009.. The names of the following list of bishops and archbishops of Prague are given in Czech, with English equivalent or otherwise as suitable. Suffragan Bishops of PragueDětmar St. Vojtěch (Adalbert of Prague, Benedictine Order (19 January 982 – 988 and, died 996 Kristian Thiddag Ekkhard Hyza Šebíř Gebhart Kosmas Heřman Menhart Jan I? Silvestr (1139 – abdication 1140 Ota Daniel I Gotpold Bedřich z Puttendorfu Valentin Bretislaus III of Bohemia = Jindřich Břetislav Daniel II Ondřej Pelhřim z Vartenberka Budilov Jan II Bernhard Kaplíř ze Sulevic Mikuláš z Reisenburku/Rýzmburka Jan III z Dražic Tobiáš z Bechyně Řehoř Zajíc z Valdeka Jan IV z Dražic?
Jindřich Berka z Dubé Bishop of Olomouc? Arnošt z Pardubic Metropolitan Archbishops of PragueArnošt z Pardubic see above? Jan Očko z Vlašimi. XII Apostoli Jan z Jenštejna.
Count Francis Lützow
Franz Heinrich Hieronymus Valentin Graf von Lützow or Hrabě František Lützow or Count Francis Lützow was a Bohemian author, historian and revivalist. Hrabe František Lützow was the son of Franz Joseph Johann Nepomuk Gottfried von Lützow and Henriette Seymour, he was followed a diplomatic career. He was active in Bohemian politics and became a member of the Austrian parliament and Chamberlain to the Emperor Franz Joseph from 1881, he married Anna Gustava von Bornemann on 18 Jan 1881 in London. A tireless champion of Bohemian independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he was a member of the Royal Society of Sciences in Bohemia, of the Bohemian Academy, he was Ilchester lecturer at Oxford, in 1912 lectured at American universities. His greatest accomplishments are his various books regarding the history of Bohemia, Slavic poetry and Literature, his works were intentionally written in the English language and were thus more accessible to Western decision-makers who would agree to the formation of an independent Czechoslovakia after the end of World War I.
The first president of Czechoslovakia, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk wrote a touching introduction to Lützow's 1939 edition of'Bohemia, An Historical Sketch' and expressed gratitude for Lützow's various contributions to Czechoslovakia's independence. History of Bohemian Literature, Heinemann. London. London 1902. Lectures on the Historians of Bohemia 1905 London: Henry Frowde. Life and Times of Master John Hus E. P. Dutton & Co. London 1909. London 1896; the Hussite Wars London: J. M. Dent & Sons New York "Lützow genealogy". Patricus.info. Retrieved 2 August 2011; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Lützow, Franz Heinrich Valentin, Count". Encyclopedia Americana. Works by Count Francis Lützow at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Count Francis Lützow at Internet Archive ♣ Czech Information Center Žampach - of Dr. František Lützow
The Czechs or the Czech people, are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture and Czech language. Ethnic Czechs were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", formed a principality in the 9th century, part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic; the Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Russia and Brazil, among others. The Czech ethnic group is part of the West Slavic subgroup of the larger Slavic ethno-linguistical group; the West Slavs have their origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period.
The West Slavic tribe of Bohemians settled in the area of Bohemia during the migration period, assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations. They formed a principality in the 9th century, the Duchy of Bohemia, under the Přemyslid dynasty, part of the Great Moravia under Svatopluk I. According to mythology, the founding father of the Czech people were Forefather Čech, who according to legend brought the tribe of Czechs into its land; the Czech are related to the neighbouring Slovaks. The Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two distinct languages. Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having been much higher than the other way around. Czech people have a long history of coexistence with Germanic people. In the 17th century, German replaced Czech in local administration; the Czech National Revival took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language and national identity. The Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism; the Czech ethnonym was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia that subdued the surrounding tribes in the late 9th century and created the Czech/Bohemian state.
The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown. According to legend, it comes from their leader Čech. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel-; the Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians in the 19th century. The population of the Czech lands has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line, Czechs have shown a mix of Eastern and Western European traits. According to a 2007 study, 34.2% of Czech males belong to R1a. Within the Czech Republic, the proportion of R1a seems to increase from west to east According to a 2000 study, 35.6% of Czech males have haplogroup R1b, common in Western Europe among Germanic and Celtic nations, but rare among Slavic nations. A mtDNA study of 179 individuals from Western Bohemia showed that 3% had East Eurasian lineages that entered the gene pool through admixture with Central Asian nomadic tribes in the early Middle Ages. A group of scientists suggested that the high frequency of a gene mutation causing cystic fibrosis in Central European and Celtic populations supports the theory of some Celtic ancestry among the Czech population.
The population of the Czech Republic descends from diverse peoples of Slavic and Germanic origin. Presence of West Slavs in the 6th century during the Migration Period has been documented on the Czech territory. Slavs settled in Bohemia and Austria sometime during the 6th or 7th centuries, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations". According to a popular myth, the Slavs came with Forefather Čech. During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, the Samo's Empire; the principality Great Moravia, controlled by the Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century and reached its zenith in the 9th when it held off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, the crucial role played Byzantine mission of Methodius; the Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century. In 880, Prague Castle was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty and the city of Prague was established.
Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a hereditary kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198. The second half of the 13th century was a period of advancing German immigration into the Czech lands; the number of Czechs who have at least German ancestry today runs into hundreds of thousands. The Habsburg Monarchy focused much of its power on religious wars against the Protestants. While these religious wars were taking place, the Czech estates revolted against Habsburg from 1546 to 1547 but were defeated. Defenestrations of Prague in 1618, signaled an open revolt by the Bohemian estates against the Habsburgs and started the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle
A priest or priestess is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They have the authority or power to administer religious rites, their office or position is the priesthood, a term which may apply to such persons collectively. According to the trifunctional hypothesis of prehistoric Proto-Indo-European society, priests have existed since the earliest of times and in the simplest societies, most as a result of agricultural surplus and consequent social stratification; the necessity to read sacred texts and keep temple or church records helped foster literacy in many early societies. Priests exist in many religions today, such as all or some branches of Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism, they are regarded as having privileged contact with the deity or deities of the religion to which they subscribe interpreting the meaning of events and performing the rituals of the religion. There is no common definition of the duties of priesthood between faiths.
These include blessing worshipers with prayers of joy at marriages, after a birth, at consecrations, teaching the wisdom and dogma of the faith at any regular worship service, mediating and easing the experience of grief and death at funerals – maintaining a spiritual connection to the afterlife in faiths where such a concept exists. Administering religious building grounds and office affairs and papers, including any religious library or collection of sacred texts, is commonly a responsibility – for example, the modern term for clerical duties in a secular office refers to the duties of a cleric; the question of which religions have a "priest" depends on how the titles of leaders are used or translated into English. In some cases, leaders are more like those that other believers will turn to for advice on spiritual matters, less of a "person authorized to perform the sacred rituals." For example, clergy in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy are priests, but in Protestant Christianity they are minister and pastor.
The terms priest and priestess are sufficiently generic that they may be used in an anthropological sense to describe the religious mediators of an unknown or otherwise unspecified religion. In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, ruling out any other career. Many Christian priests and pastors choose or are mandated to dedicate themselves to their churches and receive their living directly from their churches. In other cases it is a part-time role. For example, in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning "priest"; as seen in the saga of Hrafnkell Freysgoði, being a priest consisted of offering periodic sacrifices to the Norse gods and goddesses. In some religions, being a priest or priestess is by human election or human choice. In Judaism the priesthood is inherited in familial lines. In a theocracy, a society is governed by its priesthood; the word "priest", is derived from Greek via Latin presbyter, the term for "elder" elders of Jewish or Christian communities in late antiquity.
The Latin presbyter represents Greek πρεσβύτερος presbúteros, the regular Latin word for "priest" being sacerdos, corresponding to ἱερεύς hiereús. It is possible that the Latin word was loaned into Old English, only from Old English reached other Germanic languages via the Anglo-Saxon mission to the continent, giving Old Icelandic prestr, Old Swedish präster, Old High German priast. Old High German has the disyllabic priester, priestar derived from Latin independently via Old French presbtre. Αn alternative theory makes priest cognate with Old High German priast, from Vulgar Latin *prevost "one put over others", from Latin praepositus "person placed in charge". That English should have only the single term priest to translate presbyter and sacerdos came to be seen as a problem in English Bible translations; the presbyter is the minister who both presides and instructs a Christian congregation, while the sacerdos, offerer of sacrifices, or in a Christian context the eucharist, performs "mediatorial offices between God and man".
The feminine English noun, was coined in the 17th century, to refer to female priests of the pre-Christian religions of classical antiquity. In the 20th century, the word was used in controversies surrounding the women ordained in the Anglican communion, who are referred to as "priests", irrespective of gender, the term priestess is considered archaic in Christianity. In historical polytheism, a priest administers the sacrifice to a deity in elaborate ritual. In the Ancient Near East, the priesthood acted on behalf of the deities in managing their property. Priestesses in antiquity performed sacred prostitution, in Ancient Greece, some priestesses such as Pythia, priestess at Delphi, acted as oracles. Sumerian en were top-ranking priestesses who were distinguished with special ceremonial attire and held equal status to high priests, they owned property, transacted business, initiated the hieros gamos with priests and kings. Enheduanna was the first known holder of the title en. Nadītu served as priestesses in the temples of Inanna in the city of Uruk.
They were recruited from the highest families in the land and were supposed to remain childless, own
Alfons Maria Mucha, known in English and French as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorative theatrical posters of Sarah Bernhardt. He produced illustrations, decorative panels, designs, which became among the best-known images of the period. In the second part of his career, at the age of 43, he returned to his homeland and devoted himself to painting a series of twenty monumental canvases known as The Slav Epic, depicting the history of all the Slavic peoples of the world, which he painted between 1912 and 1926. In 1928, on the 10th anniversary of the independence of Czechoslovakia, he presented the series to the Czech nation, he considered it his most important work. It is now on display in the National Gallery in Prague. Alphons Maria Mucha was born on 24 July 1860 in the small town of Ivančice in southern Moravia a province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, his family had a modest income.
He showed an early talent for drawing. In 1871, Mucha became a chorister at the Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul, where he received his secondary school education, he became devoutly religious, wrote "For me, the notions of painting, going to church, music are so knit that I cannot decide whether I like church for its music, or music for its place in the mystery which it accompanies." He grew up in an environment of intense Czech nationalism in all the arts, from music to literature and painting. He designed posters for patriotic rallies, his singing abilities allowed him to continue his musical education at the Gymnázium Brno in the Moravian capital of Brno, but his true ambition was to become an artist. He found some employment designing other decorations. In 1878 he applied without success to the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague, but was rejected and advised "to find a different career". In 1880, at the age of 19, he traveled to Vienna, the political and cultural capital of the Empire, found employment as an apprentice scenery painter for a company which made sets for Vienna theaters.
While in Vienna, he discovered the museums, churches and theaters, for which he received free tickets from his employer. He discovered Hans Makart, a prominent academic painter, who created murals for many of the palaces and government buildings in Vienna, was a master of portraits and historical paintings in grand format, his style turned Mucha in that artistic direction and influenced his work. He began experimenting with photography, which became an important tool in his work. To his misfortune, a terrible fire in 1881 destroyed the major client of his firm. In 1881 without funds, he took a train as far north as his money would take him, he arrived in Mikulov in southern Moravia, began making portraits, decorative art and lettering for tombstones. His work was appreciated, he was commissioned by Count Eduard Khuen Belasi, a local landlord and nobleman, to paint a series of murals for his residence at Emmahof Castle, at his ancestral home in the Tyrol, Gandegg Caste. (The paintings at Emmahof were destroyed by fire in 1948, but his early versions in small format exist He showed his skill at mythological themes, the female form, lush vegetal decoration.
Belasi, an amateur painter, took Mucha on expeditions to see art in Venice and Milan, introduced him to many artists, including the famous Bavarian romantic painter, Wilhelm Kray, who lived in Munich. Count Belasi decided to bring Mucha to Munich for formal training, paid his tuition and cost of living at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts, he moved there in September, 1885. It is not clear how Mucha studied at the Academy. However, he did become friends with a number of notable Slavic artists there, including the Czechs Karel Vítězslav Mašek, Ludek Marold and the Russian Leonid Pasternak, father of the famous novelist Boris Pasternak, he founded a Czech students' club, contributed political illustrations to nationalist publications in Prague. In 1886 he received a notable commission for a painting of the Czech patron saints Cyril and Methodius, from a group of Czech emigrants, including some of his relatives, who had founded an Orthodox church in the town of Pisek, North Dakota, he was happy with the artistic environment of Munich: he wrote to friends, "Here I am in my new element, painting.
I cross all sorts of currents, but without effort, with joy. Here, for the first time, I can find the objectives to reach which used to seem inaccessible." However, he found. Count Belasi suggested that he travel either to Paris. With Belasi's financial support, he decided in 1887 to move to Paris. Mucha moved to Paris in 1888 where he enrolled in the Académie Julian and the following year, 1889, Académie Colarossi; the two schools taught a wide variety of different styles. His first professors at the Academie Julien were Jules Lefebvre who specialized in female nudes and allegorical paintings, Jean-Paul Laurens, whose specialties were historical and religious paintings in a realistic and dramatic style. At the end of 1889, as he approached
Kroměříž is a Moravian town in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. The town's main landmark is the Baroque Kroměříž Archbishop's Palace, where some scenes from Amadeus and Immortal Beloved were filmed; the Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž were added to the list of World Heritage Sites in 1998. The city's National Museum is home to The Flaying of Marsyas, a late painting by Titian; the settlement, inhabited by Slavs since at least the 7th century, was founded in 1260 by Bruno von Schauenburg, bishop of Olomouc. Bruno chose Kroměříž to become his see and he made his castle the centre of his dominion, which consisted of more than 60 vassals from all over Moravia. Kroměříž is referred to as a market village in a document by Přemysl Otakar II from 1256, but by 1266 it was referred to as a town. Bruno established; the town was badly damaged in the Thirty Years' War, was plundered twice by Swedish troops, after this the Black Death took its toll on the population. Bishop Karl II von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn rebuilt the palace after that war.
The Constitutive Imperial Congress sat in Kroměříž in 1848. Heinrich Ignaz Biber and violinist Filip Chytil, ice hockey player Miloslav Gajdoš, composer and double bassist Gabriela Gunčíková, singer Jaroslav Koutecký, chemist Karel Kryl, musician Robert Land, film director Jan Milíč z Kroměříže, ideal predecessor of Jan Hus. Martin Miller, actor Jan Rypka, translator, professor of Iranology and Turkology at Charles University, Prague. Josef Silný, football player. Pepča Stejskal graphic designer, surrealist Max Švabinský, painter Ludvík Svoboda, army general and president Václav Talich, conductor Kroměříž is twinned with: Châteaudun, France Nitra, Slovakia Krems an der Donau, Austria Piekary Śląskie, Poland Râmnicu Vâlcea, Romania Official website Kroměříž guide Photos of Kroměříž and Background Information FULLSCREEN QTVR virtual tour of Kromeriz UNESCO listing for Kroměříž Visit Kroměříž - Unofficial Tourist guide