1998 FIFA World Cup
The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It was held in France from 10 June to 12 July 1998; the country was chosen as the host nation by FIFA for the second time in the history of the tournament, defeating Morocco in the bidding process. It was the second time that France staged the competition and the ninth time that it was held in Europe. Qualification for the finals began in March 1996 and concluded in November 1997. For the first time in the competition, the group stage was expanded from 24 teams to 32, with eight groups of four. 64 matches were played in 10 stadiums in 10 host cities, with the opening match and final staged at the Stade de France, Saint-Denis. The tournament was won by host country France. France won their first title, becoming the seventh nation to win a World Cup, the sixth to win the tournament on home soil. Croatia, Jamaica and South Africa made their first appearances in the finals. France was awarded the 1998 World Cup on 2 July 1992 by the executive committee of FIFA during a general meeting in Zürich, Switzerland.
They defeated Morocco by 12 votes to 7. Switzerland withdrew; this made France the third country to host two World Cups, after Mexico and Italy in 1986 and 1990 respectively. France hosted the third edition of the World Cup in 1938. England, who hosted the competition in 1966 and won it, were among the original applicants, but withdrew their application in favour of an successful bid to host UEFA Euro 1996. On 4 June 2015, while co-operating with the FBI and the Swiss authorities, Chuck Blazer confirmed that he and other members of FIFA's executive committee were bribed during the 1998 and 2010 World Cups host selection process. Blazer stated that "we facilitated bribes in conjunction with the selection of the host nation for the 1998 World Cup". Since France won the selection process it was thought the bribery came from its bid committee, it transpired that the bribe payment was from the failed Moroccan bid. The qualification draw for the 1998 World Cup finals took place in the Musée du Louvre, Paris on 12 December 1995.
As tournament hosts, France was exempt from the draw. 174 teams from six confederations participated, 24 more than in the previous round. Fourteen countries qualified from the European zone. Ten were determined after group play - the best second-placed team. CONMEBOL and CAF were each given five spots in the final tournament, while three spots were contested between 30 CONCACAF members in the North and Central America and the Caribbean zone; the winner of the Oceanian zone advanced to an intercontinental play-off against the runner-up of the Asian play-off, determined by the two best second placed teams. Four nations qualified for the first time: Croatia, Jamaica and South Africa; the last team to qualify was Iran by virtue of beating Australia in a two-legged tie on 29 November 1997. This was Team Melli's first appearance in the finals since 1978, the last time Tunisia qualified for the tournament. Chile qualified for the first time since 1982, after serving a ban that saw them miss out on the two previous tournaments.
Paraguay and Denmark returned for the first time since 1986. Austria, England and Yugoslavia returned after missing out on the 1994 tournament, with the Balkan team now appearing under the name of FR Yugoslavia. Among the teams who failed to qualify were two-time winners Uruguay; as of 2018, this is the most recent time Austria, Norway, Bulgaria and Jamaica have qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals, as well as the last time Portugal missed out. The highest ranked team not to qualify was Czech Republic, while the lowest ranked team that did qualify was Nigeria; the following 32 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, qualified for the final tournament. France's bid to host the World Cup centered on a national stadium with 80,000 seats and nine other stadiums located across the country; when the finals were awarded in July 1992, none of the regional club grounds were of a capacity meeting FIFA's requirements – namely being able to safely seat 40,000. The proposed national stadium, colloquially referred to as the'Grand stade' met with controversy at every stage of planning.
As Mayor of Paris, Jacques Chirac negotiated a deal with Prime Minister Édouard Balladur to bring the Stade de France – as it was named now, to the commune of Saint-Denis just north of the capital city. Construction on the stadium started in December 1995 and was completed after 26 months of work in November 1997 at a cost of ₣2.67 billion. The choice of stadium locations was drafted from an original list of 14 cities. FIFA and CFO monitored the progress and quality of preparations, culminating in the former providing final checks of the grounds weeks before the tournament commenced. Montpellier was the surprise inclusion from the final list of cities because of its low urban hierarchy in comparison to Strasbourg, who boasted a better hierarchy an
Bellingwolde is a village with a population of 2,655 people in the municipality Westerwolde in the Netherlands. It is situated in the southeast of the region Oldambt, in the north of the region Westerwolde, in the east of the province Groningen, at the border with Germany; the settlement dates back to the 11th century. It flooded multiple times until the 16th century. In the 18th and 19th century agriculture prospered and large farmhouses were built, it was a separate municipality until it merged with Wedde into Bellingwedde in 1968. Bellingwolde has a state protected village area with several monumental farmhouses. Other attractions are the Magnus Church, the Law House, Veldkamp's Mill, Museum de Oude Wolden. There are a secondary school in the village; the origins of Bellingwolde, built on a sand ridge dividing the clay and peat ground, are in the 11th century. The settlement flooded many times; the agricultural settlement started to prosper in the 18th century. Large farmhouses were built in the 19th century.
Bellingwolde was a separate municipality until 1 September 1968, when it was merged with Wedde to form the new municipality Bellingwedde. The former municipality contained the villages of Bellingwolde and Vriescheloo, the hamlets of Klein-Ulsda and Rhederbrug. Bellingwolde became part of the new municipality of Westerwolde in 2018, when the municipalities of Bellingwedde and Vlagtwedde merged. Bellingwolde is located at 53°7′13″N 7°10′19″E in the northeast of the municipality Westerwolde in the east of the province Groningen in the northeast of the Netherlands; the village is in the southeast of the region Oldambt and in the north of the region Westerwolde, situated between the river Westerwoldse Aa in the west and the canal B. L. Tijdenskanaal in the east; the nearest city Winschoten is 8 km to the west. In between Winschoten and Bellingwolde is the village Blijham. In the northwest it is close to the village Oudeschans. In the south Bellingwolde is connected with the hamlet Rhederbrug. Bellingwolde is at the border of the Germany.
The nearest German city is Papenburg, 16 km to the east, the closest village is Wymeer. Bellingwolde is neighbourhood; the Bellingwolde district has a total area of 4,364 ha of which 4,295 ha is land and 69 ha is water. It is one of three districts in the municipality of Bellingwedde, the other two being Oost and Blijham; the Bellingwolde district contains the neighbourhoods Bellingwolde, Rhederbrug, Klein-Ulsda, some scattered houses. The Bellingwolde neighbourhood has a total area of 451 ha of which 445 ha is land and 6 ha is water. In 2015, the Bellingwolde neighborhood had a total population of 2,400, of which 1,230 were men and 1,170 are women; the population density was 530/km2. Of the total population 43% was unmarried, 42% was married, 8% was widowed, 7% was divorced; the district had 1,130 households, 37% were single-person households, 32% were multi-person households without children, 30% were multi-person households with children.20% of the total population was allochtoon, a person with at least one parent born outside the Netherlands.
This percentage is divided into 10 % non-Western allochtonen. There is an asylum seekers' center in Bellingwolde, where refugees from Syria and other countries are housed pending the outcome of their asylum procedures. In 2015, the Bellingwolde district had a total population of 4,205 and a population density of 96/km2. Since 2009, Bellingwolde has a state protected village area with many monumental buildings among which are the Magnus Church, the Law House, the Veldkamp's Mill, about twenty farmhouses; the Museum de Oude Wolden is a regional museum about the history of Oldambt and Westerwolde. It has a permanent exhibition of paintings by magic realist Lodewijk Bruckman and temporary exhibitions. There is a public library, opened three days per week; the provincial road N969 connects Bellingwolde to Blijham in the west and Rhederbrug and the German border in the southeast. The provincial road N973 connects Bellingwolde to Vriescheloo and Wedde in the southwest, but is discontinued as a numbered road in northeastern direction.
The nearest highway is the A7 with its nearest exit at Oudeschans just north of Bellingwolde. The nearest railway is the Harlingen–Nieuweschans railway north of Bellingwolde, with its nearest stations in Winschoten and Bad Nieuweschans. There are two bus lines, operated by Qbuzz, passing through Bellingwolde and connecting it to nearby settlements and the two railway stations: Line 12: Winschoten – Blijham – Bellingwolde – Blijham – Winschoten Line 811: Bad Nieuweschans – Klein-Ulsda – Oudeschans – Bellingwolde – Vriescheloo – Veelerveen – Vlagtwedde There are three primary schools located in Bellingwolde; the two public schools are Westerschool. The Protestant school is De Wegwijzer; the secondary school Dollard College has a location with 170 students in Bellingwolde. At this school location, the students can do the first two years of vmbo and vwo, the final two years of the vmbo theoretical program. There are no institutions for tertiary education located in Bellingwolde. Jan Mulder, footballer and commentator Media related to Bellingwolde at Wikimedia Commons
Amsterdamsche Football Club Ajax known as AFC Ajax, Ajax Amsterdam or Ajax, is a Dutch professional football club based in Amsterdam, that plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. Ajax has been the most successful club in the Netherlands, with 33 Eredivisie titles and 18 KNVB Cups, it has continuously played in the Eredivisie, since its inception in 1956 and, along with Feyenoord and PSV, it is one of the country's "big three" clubs that have dominated that competition. Ajax has been one of the most successful clubs in the world. According to the IFFHS, Ajax were the seventh-most successful European club of the 20th century and The World's Club Team of the Year in 1992. According to German magazine Kicker, Ajax were the second-most successful European club of the 20th century; the club is one of the five teams that has earned the right to keep the European Cup and to wear a multiple-winner badge. In 1972, they completed the continental treble by winning the Eredivisie, KNVB Cup, the European Cup.
It won the first organized UEFA Super Cup in 1972 against Glasgow Rangers. Ajax's last international trophies were the 1995 Intercontinental Cup, 1995 UEFA Super Cup and the 1995 Champions League, where they defeated Milan in the final. In 1995, Ajax was crowned as World Team of the Year by World Soccer magazine. Ajax is one of four teams to win the continental treble and the Intercontinental Cup or Club World Cup in the same season/calendar year. Ajax, Bayern Munich and Manchester United are the five clubs to have won all three major UEFA club competitions, they have won the Intercontinental Cup twice, the 1991–92 UEFA Cup, as well as the Karl Rappan Cup, a predecessor of the UEFA Intertoto Cup in 1962. Ajax plays at the Johan Cruyff Arena, which opened as the Amsterdam ArenA in 1996 and was renamed in 2018, they played at De Meer Stadion and the Amsterdam Olympic Stadium. Ajax was founded in Amsterdam on 18 March 1900; the club achieved promotion to the highest level of Dutch football in 1911 and had its first major success in 1917, winning the KNVB Beker, the Netherlands' national cup.
The following season, Ajax became national champion for the first time. The club defended its title in 1918–19, becoming the only team to achieve an unbeaten season in the Netherlands Football League Championship. Throughout the 1920s, Ajax was a strong regional power, winning the Eerste Klasse West division in 1921, 1927 and 1928, but could not maintain its success at national level; this changed in the 1930s, with the club winning five national championships, making it the most successful Dutch team of the decade. Ajax won its second KNVB Cup in 1942–43, an eighth Dutch title in 1946–47, the last season the club was managed by Englishman Jack Reynolds, who, up to this point, had overseen all of its national championship successes as well as its 1917 KNVB Cup win. In 1956, the first season of the Netherlands' new professional league, the Eredivisie, was played with Ajax participating as a founding member; the Amsterdam club became the first national champions under the new format and made its debut in the European Champion Clubs' Cup the following year, losing to Hungarian champions Vasas SC 6–2 on aggregate at the quarter-final stage.
The team were again Eredivisie champions in 1960 and won a third KNVB Cup in 1961. In 1965, Rinus Michels, who had played for the club between 1946 and 1958, was appointed manager of Ajax, implementing his philosophy of Total Football, to become synonymous with both Ajax and the Netherlands national team. A year earlier, Johan Cruyff, who would go on to become the greatest Dutch footballer of all-time, made his debut. Between them and Cruyff led Ajax through the most successful period in its history, winning seven Eredivisie titles, four KNVB Cups and three European Cups. Ajax won the Dutch championship in 1966, 1967 and 1968, reached the 1969 European Cup final, losing to Milan. During the 1966–67 season, Ajax scored a record 122 goals in an Eredivisie season and won the KNVB Cup to achieve its first league and cup double. In 1969–70, Ajax won a fourth Dutch league championship and second league and cup double in five seasons, winning 27 out of 34 league matches and scoring 100 goals; the 1970–71 season saw Ajax retain the KNVB Cup and reach the 1971 European Cup final, where they defeated Panathinaikos 2–0 with goals from Dick van Dijk and Arie Haan to become continental champions for the first time, with Cruyff being named European Footballer of the Year.
After this success, Michels departed to become manager of Barcelona and was replaced by the Romanian Ștefan Kovács. In Kovács' first season, Ajax completed a treble of the European Cup, the Eredivisie and a third consecutive KNVB Cup; the following season, the team beat Argentine club Independiente to win the 1972 Intercontinental Cup and retained their Eredivisie and European Cup titles, becoming the first club to win three consecutive European Cups since Real Madrid in the 1950s. In 1973, Michels' Barcelona broke the world transfer record to bring Cruyff to Catalonia. Kovács departed to become manager of the France national team, signalling the end of this period of international success. In 1976–77, Ajax won its first domestic championship in four seasons and recorded a double of the Eredivisie and KNVB Cup two years later; the early 1980s saw the return of Johan Cruyff to the club, as well as the emergence of young players Marco van Basten and Frank Rijkaard. The team won back-to-back Eredivisie ti
Raymond "Ray" Ernest Michel Braine was a Belgian football striker. He was the first Belgian professional player, when he obtained a transfer to Sparta Prague in 1930. Braine played in 54 matches for the Belgium national football team and scored 26 times, making him Belgium's 5th top all-time scorer, his first club was Beerschot in Antwerp. Braine made his Belgian Championship debut on 11 February 1923 against Daring Club de Bruxelles, he scored 4 times in 4 appearances that Beerschot finished second. Raymond's brother, was part of the team; the next year, Braine obtained his first trophy by earning a Championship title. Three more titles followed in 1925, 1926 and 1928. At the time, the Belgian football was not a professional club. However, certain players did receive money based on performance; some other players supplemented their incomes by opening cafés. At one point the Belgian Football Association published a paper stating: "Considering it is important to stop the progression of player-café owners, the executive Committee takes the decision that at this day, except for a player whose parents ran the café for more than 5 years, the authorisation to open a café will be subordinated to the condition that the player will not be a part of the first team."
Braine, who just opened a café in December 1929, decided to play abroad. His first attempt was in England with London side Clapton Orient, but he could not obtain a work permit, he signed a lucrative contract in 1930 with Sparta Prague and subsequently became the first Belgian professional player. With Sparta, Braine won Czechoslovak First League titles in 1932 and 1936, as well as 1935's Mitropa Cup, he finished as top scorer twice with Sparta Prague. Before the 1934 World Cup, Braine had received an offer of 100,000 Koruna from the Czechoslovak FA to become a citizen of Czechoslovakia which he refused. Afterwards, Czechoslovakia lost the final game to Italy, he won the Championship twice again. This time, he played in the 1938 World Cup. In 1943, Braine was transferred to C. S. La Forestoise as a defender for one season, a team that had just been promoted the year before to the first division, because of the War. Belgian League - 1924, 1925, 1926, 1928, 1938, 1939 Czechoslovak First League - 1932, 1936 Mitropa Cup - 1935 Belgian League top scorer - 1928, 1929 Czechoslovakia championship top scorer - 1932, 1934 List of Czechoslovakia championship top scorers
Tien (TV channel)
Tien known as Talpa, was the name of a commercial television channel in the Netherlands. Tien opened on August 13, 2005 following a name dispute with SBS Broadcasting. SBS objected to the use of the word Tien; the owner of Tien, Dutch media mogul John de Mol, decided to rebrand the channel as Talpa, the Latin word for "mole", mol in Dutch. Subsequently Talpa became the name of De Mol's holding company. In the first months Talpa shared its channel with Nickelodeon. On December 16, 2006, Nickelodeon switched to The Box and Tien started broadcasting full days. In December 2006, Talpa and SBS Broadcasting solved their dispute. Talpa was renamed as Tien. In the summer of 2007, the assets of Talpa Media were sold to RTL Nederland, which meant the end of the Tien television channel. RTL Nederland used the vacated cable spot to launch a new television channel called RTL 8. Included in the deal were the broadcasting rights for the Dutch football league and radio station Radio 538. Tien closed on August 17, 2007.
Programmes included ` Big Brother and Expeditie Robinson. Tien is noted for programming original Dutch drama, such as Gooische Vrouwen, Van Speijk, Boks and the daily comedy show Samen. Van Speijk, a publicized police series, attracted an average amount of 900,000 viewers weekly. Season one of "Gooische Vrouwen" attracted more than a million viewers each episode. Samen was the world's first daily comedy show. From the beginning, the channel struggled with disappointing ratings. Expectations were high, because Talpa owned the rights to summaries of matches played in the Eredivisie, the Dutch top-flight football league; the live broadcasting rights were owned by another De Mol venture. In the beginning, football programme De Wedstrijden scored disappointing ratings. Although by far the most-watched programme on Talpa, De Wedstrijden failed to attract the audience that NOS programme Studio Sport used to have. Dutch celebrities like Ivo Niehe and Henny Huisman failed to attract their former audiences on Talpa.
Niehe returned to his former employer TROS in January 2007. Niehe was one of the most outspoken critics on the failure of the station in general. Huisman left for EO after his unsuccessful stint with Talpa. With Jack Spijkerman Talpa thought to have a guaranteed ratings hit, but his audience at Talpa was just one quarter of his former ratings at VARA; the football discussion program Spijkerman hosted with Humberto Tan was unsuccessful and axed. Not all programmes flopped on Talpa; the controversial show Joling & Gordon over de Vloer scored 1.2 million viewers. Other major hits were comedy drama series Gooische Vrouwen and Voetbalvrouwen, the Dutch version of Footballers' Wives. Expeditie Robinson and Postcodeloterij Miljoenenjacht and 1 vs. 100 were among the reasonably scoring shows, albeit with much smaller audiences than at the former broadcaster. Television networks in the Netherlands Versteeg, D.. Talpa — de geboorte van een televisiezender. Naarden: Strengholt's Boeken. ISBN 90-5860-233-8. Official Site
Royal Sporting Club Anderlecht known as Anderlecht or RSCA, is a Belgian professional football club based in Anderlecht, Brussels Capital-Region. Anderlecht plays in the Belgian First Division A and is the most successful Belgian football team in European competitions, with five trophies, as well as in the Belgian domestic league, with 34 championship wins, they have won nine Belgian Cups and hold the record for most consecutive Belgian championship titles, winning five between the 1963–64 and 1967–68 seasons. Founded in 1908, the club first reached the highest level in Belgian football in 1921–22 and have been playing in the first division continuously since 1935–36 and in Europe since 1964-65, they won their first major trophy after World War II with a championship win in 1946–47. Since they have never finished outside the top six of the Belgian first division, they are ranked 12th amongst all-time UEFA club competition winners, tenth in the International Federation of Football History & Statistics continental Clubs of the 20th Century European ranking and were 41st in the 2012 UEFA team rankings.
In 1986, they achieved their best UEFA ranking with a joint first place with Juventus. Anderlecht have been playing their matches in the Astrid Park in the municipality of Anderlecht since 1917, their current stadium, Constant Vanden Stock Stadium, was first opened in 1983, replaced the former Emile Versé Stadium. They play in white outfits, they have long-standing rivalries with Standard Liège. Founded as Sporting Club Anderlechtois on 27 May 1908 by a dozen football lovers at the Concordia café, the club beat Institut Saint-Georges in their first match, 11–8, they joined the official competition in 1909–10, starting at the lowest level in the Belgian football league system the third provincial division. In 1912–13, they gained promotion to the second-higher level of football named the Promotion. After only one season at that level, the championships were suspended due to World War I, resumed in 1919–20. With the popularity of the team increasing, Anderlecht had moved to a new stadium in the Astrid Park in 1917.
They baptized the stadium Stade Emile Versé in honor of the club's first major patron, the industrialist Emile Versé. At the end of the 1920–21 season, Anderlecht were promoted to the first division for the first time in their history. In the next 14 seasons, Anderlecht were relegated four times and promoted four times, earning themselves the mockery of local rival clubs Union Saint-Gilloise and Daring Club de Bruxelles, who nicknamed them the "lift club". In 1933, 25 years after their formation, the club changed their name to Royal Sporting Club Anderlechtois. Since their promotion in 1935, Anderlecht has remained at the top level of football. With Jef Mermans, a striker signed from K Tubantia FC in 1942 for a record fee of 125,000 Belgian francs, Anderlecht won their first league title in 1947, their success increased in the following years as they won six more titles between 1949–50 and 1955–56 and two more in 1958–59 and 1961–62. In the 1960s, under the coaching of Pierre Sinibaldi and of Andreas Beres, the club won five titles in a row, still a Belgian league record.
The star of this team was Paul Van Himst, topscorer in 1965, 1967 and 1969 and Belgian Golden Shoe winner in 1960, 1961, 1965 and 1974. Anderlecht played in the first European Champion Clubs' Cup in 1955–56, lost both legs of their tie against Vörös Lobogo, they had to wait until the 1962–63 season to win their first European tie, with a 1–0 victory over Real Madrid, which followed a 3–3 draw in Spain. For the first time, they advanced to the second round, where they beat CSKA Sofia before losing to Dundee in the quarter-finals. In the 1969–70 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, Anderlecht lost in the final against Arsenal. Between 1975 and 1984, Anderlecht only won one championship but they achieved considerable European success: they won the 1975–76 and 1977–78 European Cup Winners' Cups against West Ham United and Austria Wien as well as the two subsequent European Super Cups; the 1982–83 season was a noteworthy season for the club for numerous reasons: former Anderlecht favourite Paul Van Himst was named the new coach, they won the 1982–83 UEFA Cup and the rebuilding of the club stadium began.
But in the domestic league, Anderlecht had to settle for second place behind Standard. Their bid to retain the UEFA Cup in 1983–84 failed at the final hurdle against English side Tottenham Hotspur. Anderlecht reached the final controversially by beating another English side, Nottingham Forest, with a debatable extra time penalty to win 3–2 on aggregate, it was found Anderlecht had bribed the referee the equivalent of £27,000 to ensure passage to the final. After three second-place finishes in a row, the Purple and Whites secured an easy 18th title in 1984–85, 11 points ahead of Club Brugge. In 1985–86, Anderlecht won the championship again, but this time after a two-legged play-off against Club Brugge. Anderlecht won their 20th championship on the last matchday of the 1986–87 season, they lost key players Franky Vercauteren, Enzo Scifo and Juan Lozano. A weakened team coached by Raymond Goethals finished only fourth in 1988 behind Club Brugge, KV Mechelen and Royal Antwerp, but they nonetheless managed to lift the Belgian Cup for the sixth time in cl
Henri'Rik' François Louis Coppens was a Belgian footballer who played as a striker. He played 389 games and scored 261 goals for Beerschot AC. Coppens won the first Belgian Golden Shoe in 1954. After his career as a player, he became a coach with Tubantia Borgerhout, Berchem and Club Brugge. Henri Coppens at WorldFootball.net