Nová Říše. The municipality covers an area of 7.85 square kilometres, has a population of 855. Nová Říše lies 30 kilometres south of Jihlava and 134 km south-east of Prague; the area has an old Norbertine monastery. Five members of the community were gassed to death by the Nazis in 1942. Surviving monks were sentenced to prison and labour camps by the Communists in 1950; the buildings were given back to the Order after the fall of Communism in 1991. Czech Statistical Office: Municipalities of Jihlava District
We is a dystopian novel by Russian writer Yevgeny Zamyatin, completed in 1921. The novel was first published in 1924 by E. P. Dutton in New York in an English translation by Gregory Zilboorg; the novel describes a world of conformity within a united totalitarian state. We is set in the future. D-503, a spacecraft engineer, lives in the One State, an urban nation constructed entirely of glass, which assists mass surveillance; the structure of the state is Panopticon-like, life is scientifically managed F. W. Taylor-style. People are uniformed. There is no way of referring to people except by their given numbers; the society is run by logic or reason as the primary justification for the laws or the construct of the society. The individual's behaviour is based on logic by way of formulas and equations outlined by the One State. One thousand years after the One State's conquest of the entire world, the spaceship Integral is being built in order to invade and conquer extraterrestrial planets. Meanwhile, the project's chief engineer, D-503, begins a journal that he intends to be carried upon the completed spaceship.
Like all other citizens of One State, D-503 lives in a glass apartment building and is watched by the secret police, or Bureau of Guardians. D-503's lover, O-90, has been assigned by One State to visit him on certain nights, she is considered too short to bear children and is grieved by her state in life. O-90's other lover and D-503's best friend is R-13, a State poet who reads his verse at public executions. While on an assigned walk with O-90, D-503 meets a woman named I-330. I-330 smokes cigarettes, drinks alcohol, shamelessly flirts with D-503 instead of applying for an impersonal sex visit. Both repelled and fascinated, D-503 struggles to overcome his attraction to I-330. I-330 invites him to visit the Ancient House, notable for being the only opaque building in One State, except for windows. Objects of aesthetic and historical importance dug up from around the city. There, I-330 offers him the services of a corrupt doctor to explain his absence from work. Leaving in horror, D-503 finds that he can not.
He begins to have dreams, which disturbs him, as dreams are thought to be a symptom of mental illness. I-330 reveals to D-503 that she is involved with the Mephi, an organization plotting to bring down the One State, she takes him through secret tunnels inside the Ancient House to the world outside the Green Wall, which surrounds the city-state. There, D-503 meets the inhabitants of the outside world: humans whose bodies are covered with animal fur; the aims of the Mephi are to destroy the Green Wall and reunite the citizens of One State with the outside world. Despite the recent rift between them, O-90 pleads with D-503 to impregnate her illegally. After O-90 insists that she will obey the law by turning over their child to be raised by the One State, D-503 obliges. However, as her pregnancy progresses, O-90 realizes that she cannot bear to be parted from her baby under any circumstances. At D-503's request, I-330 arranges for O-90 to be smuggled outside the Green Wall. In his last journal entry, D-503 indifferently relates that he has been forcibly tied to a table and subjected to the "Great Operation", mandated for all citizens of One State in order to prevent possible riots.
This operation removes the imagination and emotions by targeting parts of the brain with X-rays. After this operation, D-503 willingly informed the Benefactor about the inner workings of the Mephi. However, D-503 expresses surprise that torture could not induce I-330 to denounce her comrades. Despite her refusal, I-330 and those arrested with her have been sentenced to death, "under the Benefactor's Machine". Meanwhile, the Mephi uprising gathers strength. Although D-503 expresses hope that the Benefactor shall restore "reason", the novel ends with One State's survival in doubt. I-330's mantra is; the dystopian society depicted in We is presided over by the Benefactor and is surrounded by a giant Green Wall to separate the citizens from primitive untamed nature. All citizens are known as "numbers"; every hour in one's life is directed by "The Table". The action of We is set at some time after the Two Hundred Years' War, which has wiped out all but "0.2 of the earth's population". The war was over a rare substance only mentioned in the book through a biblical metaphor.
The war only ended after the use of weapons of mass destruction, so that the One State is surrounded with a post-apocalyptic landscape. Many of the names and numbers in We are allusions to personal experiences of Zamyatin or to culture and literature. For example, "Auditorium 112" refers to cell number 112, where Zamyatin was twice imprisoned, the name of S-4711 is a reference to the Eau de Cologne number 4711. Zamyatin, who worked as a naval architect, refers to the specifications of the icebreaker St. Alexander Nevsky; the numbers of the chief characters in WE are taken directly from the specifications of Zamyatin's favourite icebreaker, the Saint Alexander Nevsky, yard no. A/W 905, round tonnage 3300, where O–90 and I-330 appropriately divide the hapless D-503 Yu-10 could de
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
Karel Zeman was a Czech film director, production designer and animator, best known for directing fantasy films combining live-action footage with animation. Because of his creative use of special effects and animation in his films, he has been called the "Czech Méliès." Zeman was born on 3 November 1910 in Ostroměř in what was Austria-Hungary. At his parents' insistence, he studied business at high school in Kolín. In the 1920s, he studied at a French advertising school, worked at an advertising studio in Marseilles until 1936, it was in France. He returned to his home country, after visiting Egypt and Greece. Back in Czechoslovakia, Zeman advertised for Czech firms like Tatra. In 1939 he attempted to make an extended stay in Casablanca, but was barred by the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia established by Nazi Germany. At Baťa's window-dressing school, where he was teaching, Zeman met the animator Elmar Klos and showed him a sample of his work. Klos offered Zeman a job at Zlín's animation studio.
After some consideration, Zeman accepted the job in 1943. At the studio, Zeman worked as an assistant to the pioneering animator Hermína Týrlová, in 1945 he became the director of the stop-motion animation production group; the same year, in collaboration with his brother Bořivoj Zeman, he made his first short film, Vánoční sen. The short, which combined animated puppets with live-action footage, marked the beginning of Zeman's experiments with new techniques and genres. Zeman went on to solo work, including a series of satirical cartoon shorts starring a puppet called Mr. Prokouk. A bet Zeman accepted, challenging him to discover a method of working with glass in animation, led to the unusual short Inspirace, which tells a wordless, poetic love story using animated glass figurines. Zeman went on to the half-hour film Král Lávra, based on the satirical poem by Karel Havlíček Borovský. In 1952, Zeman completed his first feature film, Poklad ptačího ostrova, it was based on a Persian fairy tale and took its visual inspiration from Persian paintings, combining multiple animation techniques in two- and three-dimensional space.
It was in 1955, that Zeman began the work for which he is most well-known: six feature films designed artistically to combine live-action and animation techniques. These were: Cesta do pravěku, inspired by Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth and the paintings of Zdeněk Burian. In 1966 a re-filmed US version was released as Journey to the Beginning of Time. Vynález zkázy, based on Verne's Facing the Flag, filmed to emulate the original illustrations for Verne's novels Baron Prášil, celebrating the legendary Baron Munchausen and the engravings of Gustave Doré Bláznova kronika, a satire of the Thirty Years' War, suggested by the drawings of Matthäus Merian Ukradená vzducholoď, inspired by the Verne novels Two Years' Vacation and The Mysterious Island, the Art Nouveau style, the 1891 Prague Centennial Exhibition Na kometě, an anti-war fantasy based on Verne's Hector ServadacHe was a member of the jury at the 2nd Moscow International Film Festival in 1961 and at the 7th Moscow International Film Festival in 1971.
The Czechoslovakian government awarded him the title of National Artist in 1970. After his live-action films, Zeman experimented with more classical forms of animation, beginning with seven shorts about Sinbad the Sailor which were expanded into the feature film Pohádky tisíce a jedné noci, his final films were Čarodějův učeň, from the novel The Satanic Mill by Otfried Preußler, Pohádka o Honzíkovi a Mařence. On 3 November 1980, in celebration of Zeman's seventieth birthday, President Gustáv Husák awarded him the Order of the Republic. Zeman died in Gottwaldov on 5 April 1989, a few months before the Velvet Revolution. Zeman's works were influential to the Czech animator Jan Švankmajer, as well as to the American filmmaker Terry Gilliam, who said of Zeman: "He did what I'm still trying to do, to try and combine live action with animation, his Doré-esque backgrounds were wonderful." The American filmmaker Tim Burton described Zeman's creative process as "extremely inspirational" to his own work, identified Zeman and the American animator Ray Harryhausen as his influences "in terms of doing stop motion and a more handmade quality … Karel Zeman did that amazingly."
Harryhausen himself spoke in interviews of his admiration for Zeman, the films of the American director Wes Anderson have included homages to Zeman's works. The film historian Georges Sadoul identified Zeman as having "widened the horizons of the eighth art, animation," adding: He is justly considered Méliès's successor, he undoubtedly brings the old master to mind, not only because he is an artisan impassioned by art, creating his "innocent inventions" with infinite patience rather than with large budgets, but because of his ingenuous and always ingenious fantasies. Less intellectual than Trnka, but nonetheless his equal, he has great zest and a marvelous sense of baroque oddities and poetic gags. On the occasion of an animation exhibition in 2010, curators at the Barbican Centre said of Zeman: "although his influence outweighs his global fame
Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin, sometimes anglicized as Eugene Zamyatin, was a Russian author of science fiction and political satire. He is most famous for a story set in a dystopian future police state. Despite having been a prominent Old Bolshevik, Zamyatin was disturbed by the policies pursued by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union following the October Revolution. In 1921, We became the first work banned by the Soviet censorship board. Zamyatin arranged for We to be smuggled to the West for publication; the subsequent outrage this sparked within the Party and the Union of Soviet Writers led directly to Zamyatin's successful request for exile from his homeland. Due to his use of literature to criticize Soviet society, Zamyatin has been referred to as one of the first Soviet dissidents. Zamyatin was born in Tambov Governorate, 300 km south of Moscow, his father was a Russian Orthodox priest and schoolmaster, his mother a musician. In a 1922 essay, Zamyatin recalled, "You will see a lonely child, without companions of his own age, on his stomach, over a book, or under the piano, on which his mother is playing Chopin."He may have had synesthesia since he gave letters and sounds qualities.
For instance, he saw the letter Л as having pale and light blue qualities. He studied naval engineering in Saint Petersburg from 1902 until 1908, during which time he joined the Bolsheviks, he was sent into internal exile in Siberia. However, he escaped and returned to Saint Petersburg where he lived illegally before moving to the Grand Duchy of Finland in 1906 to finish his studies. After returning to Russia, he began to write fiction as a hobby, he was arrested and exiled a second time in 1911, but amnestied in 1913. His Uyezdnoye in 1913, which satirized life in a small Russian town, brought him a degree of fame; the next year he was tried for maligning the Imperial Russian Military in his story Na Kulichkakh. He continued to contribute articles to various Marxist newspapers. After graduating as an engineer for the Imperial Russian Navy, Zamyatin worked professionally at home and abroad. In 1916 he was sent to the United Kingdom to supervise the construction of icebreakers at the shipyards in Walker and Wallsend while living in Newcastle upon Tyne.
Zamyatin recalled, "In England, I built ships, looked at ruined castles, listened to the thud of bombs dropped by German zeppelins, wrote The Islanders. I regret that I did not see the February Revolution, know only the October Revolution; this is the same as never having been in love and waking up one morning married for ten years or so.."Zamyatin's The Islanders, satirizing English life, the themed A Fisher of Men, were both published after his return to Russia in late 1917. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 he edited several journals, lectured on writing, edited Russian translations of works by Jack London, O. Henry, H. G. Wells, others. Zamyatin supported the October Revolution, but opposed the increasing use of censorship which followed, his works became satirical and critical toward the CPSU. Although he supported them before they came to power he came to disagree more and more with their policies those regarding censorship of the arts. In his 1921 essay "I Am Afraid," Zamyatin wrote: "True literature can exist only when it is created, not by diligent and reliable officials, but by madmen, heretics, dreamers and skeptics."
This attitude made his position difficult as the 1920s wore on. In 1923, Zamyatin arranged for the manuscript of his novel We to be smuggled to E. P. Dutton and Company in New York City. After being translated into English by Gregory Zilboorg, the novel was published in 1924. In 1927, Zamyatin went much further, he smuggled the original Russian text to Marc Lvovich Slonim editor of a Russian émigré journal and publishing house based in Prague. To the fury of the State, copies of the Slonim edition began being smuggled back to the USSR and secretly passed from hand to hand. Zamyatin's dealing with Western publishers triggered a mass offensive by the Soviet State against him; as a result, he was blacklisted from publishing anything in his homeland. We has been discussed as a political satire aimed at the police state of the Soviet Union. There are many other dimensions, however, it may variously be examined as a polemic against the optimistic scientific socialism of H. G. Wells, whose works Zamyatin had published, with the heroic verses of the Proletarian Poets, as an example of Expressionist theory, as an illustration of the archetype theories of Carl Jung as applied to literature.
George Orwell believed that Aldous Huxley's Brave New World must be derived from We. However, in a 1962 letter to Christopher Collins, Huxley says that he wrote Brave New World as a reaction to H. G. Wells' utopias. Kurt Vonnegut said that in writing Player Piano he "cheerfully ripped off the plot of Brave New World, whose plot had been cheerfully ripped off from Yevgeny Zamyatin's We." In 1994, We received a Prometheus Award in the Libertarian Futurist Society's "Hall of Fame" category. In addition to We, Zamyatin wrote a number of short stories, in fairy tale form, that constituted satirical criticism of Communist ideology. In one story, the mayor of a ci
We (1982 film)
We is a 1982 German science fiction film written by Claus Hubalek, directed by Vojtěch Jasný and produced by German TV network ZDF. The film presents a world of harmony and conformity within a united state of technocratic progressivism, it is based on the 1921 novel We by the Russian writer Yevgeny Zamyatin. One thousand years after the One State's conquest of the entire world, the spaceship Integral is being built in order to invade and conquer extraterrestrial planets. Meanwhile, the project's chief engineer, D-503, begins a diary that he intends to be carried upon the completed spaceship; the Glass Fortress, a 2016 film based on the same novel We on IMDb
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website