Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Sofia Asgatovna Gubaidulina is a Tatar-Russian composer. Gubaidulina was born in Chistopol, Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union to an ethnically mixed family of a Volga Tatar father and an ethnic Russian mother, her father, Asgat Masgudovich Gubaidulin, was an engineer and her mother, Fedosiya Fyodorovna, was a teacher. After discovering music at the age of 5, Gubaidulina immersed herself in ideas of composition. While studying at the Children’s Music School with Ruvim Poliakov, Gubaidulina discovered spiritual ideas through Judaism and found them in the works of composers such as Bach and Beethoven. Gubaidulina learned to keep her spiritual interests secret from her parents and other adults since the Soviet Union was against any religious ideas; these early experiences with music and spiritual ideas led her to treat the two domains of thought as conceptually similar and explains her striving to write music expressing and exploring spiritually based concepts.
She studied composition and piano at the Kazan Conservatory, graduating in 1954. In Moscow she undertook further studies at the Conservatory with Nikolay Peyko until 1959, with Shebalin until 1963, she was awarded a Stalin fellowship. Her music was deemed "irresponsible" during her studies in Soviet Russia, due to its exploration of alternative tunings, she was supported, however, by Dmitri Shostakovich, who in evaluating her final examination encouraged her to continue down her path despite others calling it "mistaken". She was allowed to express her modernism in various scores she composed for documentary films, including the 1968 production, On Submarine Scooters, a 70mm film shot in the unique Kinopanorama widescreen format, she composed the score to the well-known Russian animated picture "Adventures of Mowgli". In the mid-1970s Gubaidulina founded Astreja, a folk-instrument improvisation group with fellow composers Viktor Suslin and Vyacheslav Artyomov. In 1979, she was blacklisted as one of the "Khrennikov's Seven" at the Sixth Congress of the Union of Soviet Composers for unapproved participation in some festivals of Soviet music in the West.
Gubaidulina became better known abroad during the early 1980s through Gidon Kremer's championing of her violin concerto Offertorium. "She sprang to international fame in the late 1980s". She composed an homage to T. S. Eliot, using the text from the poet's Four Quartets. In 2000, along with Tan Dun, Osvaldo Golijov, Wolfgang Rihm, was commissioned by the Internationale Bachakademie Stuttgart to write a piece for the Passion 2000 project in commemoration of Johann Sebastian Bach, her contribution was the Johannes-Passion. In 2002 she followed this by the Johannes-Ostern, commissioned by Hannover Rundfunk; the two works together form a "diptych" on the death and resurrection of Christ, her largest work to date. Invited by Walter Fink, she was the 13th composer featured in the annual Komponistenporträt of the Rheingau Musik Festival in 2003, the first female composer of the series, her work The Light at the End preceded Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 in the 2005 proms. In 2007 her second violin concerto In Tempus Praesens was performed at the Lucerne Festival by Anne-Sophie Mutter.
Its creation has been depicted in Jan Schmidt-Garre's film Sophia - Biography of a Violin Concerto. Since 1992, Gubaidulina has lived in Germany, she is a member of the musical academies in Frankfurt and the Royal Swedish Academy of Music. For Gubaidulina, music was an escape from the socio-political atmosphere of Soviet Russia. For this reason, she associated music with human transcendence and mystical spiritualism, which manifests itself as a longing inside the soul of humanity to locate its true being, a longing she continually tries to capture in her works; these abstract religious and mystical associations are concretized in Gubaidulina's compositions in various ways. Gubaidulina is a devout member of the Russian Orthodox church; the influence of electronic music and improvisational techniques is exemplified in her unusual combination of contrasting elements, novel instrumentation, the use of traditional Russian folk instruments in her solo and chamber works, such as De profundis for bayan, Et expecto- Sonata for bayan, In croce for cello and organ or bayan.
The koto, a traditional Japanese instrument is featured in her work In the Shadow of the Tree, in which one solo player performs three different instrument—Koto, Bass Koto, Chang. The Canticle of the Sun is a cello concerto/choral hybrid, dedicated to Mstislav Rostropovich; the use of the lowest possible registers on the cello opens new possibilities for the instrument while the limited use of chorus adds a mystical ambience to the work. Another influence of improvisation techniques can be found in her fascination with percussion instruments, she associates the indeterminate nature of percussive timbres with the mystical longing and the potential freedom of human transcendence. In an interview with the modern British composer Ivan Moody, Gubaidulina provides an explanation for how percussion is utilized in her works to show spiritualism, she says, "... percussion has an acoustic cloud around it, a cloud that cannot be analyzed. These instruments are at the boundary between palpable reality and the subconscious, because they have these acoustics.
Their purely physical characteristics, of the timpani and membranophones and so on, when the skin vibrates, or the wood is touched, respond. They enter into that layer of our consciousness, not logical, they are at the boundary between the conscious and
The Athanor Academy of Performing Arts Passau is a Bavarian higher education academy. It is a federally approved Fachakademie in private ownership training actors and directors in theatre and film. Founded in Burghausen in 1995 by Romanian director David Esrig, the Athanor Academy was located in the Burg zu Burghausen in Oberbayern. In 2014, the academy was relocated to a former primary school in Passau; the Athanor Academy is a member of several institutions, including the International Theatre Institute ITI. The degree is a state approved diploma as actor or director and is equivalent to a higher education as actor or director.. The formation is held 5 days per week; the monthly fee is 180€, the education is entitled to be supported by the BAföG. Around 50 students study and 25 teachers work there. So far, around 120 alumni have studied at the Athanor Academy since its foundation in 1995; the courses are structured according to nine basic dramatic categories: performance dramatic space language body rhythm and sound acting directing theatre and film aesthetics market structuresThe Academy is based on a teaching method developed by David Esrig, described in the book The Road to the Performance by the David Esrig Method by Florin Vidamski.
A teacher at the Academy. Since its foundation, there have been strong ties with the Romanian theatre The academy's name is derived from Athanor, a furnace, used for alchemical digestion; the Road to the Performance by the David Esrig Method by Florin Vidamski, 2015 Die Vorstellung kann beginnen, Passauer Neue Presse, 2015 Am Dienstag beginnt die Athanor Akademie ihren Betrieb, Wochenblatt, 2014 About David Esrig and the Romanian Theatre by Sorina Bălănescu, 2011 Talent-Schmiede, Die Athanor-Schauspielschule in Burghausen, InFranken, 2010 Das Leben ist ein großer Schmelztiegel, Passauer Neue Presse 2015
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Anne-Sophie Mutter is a German violinist. She was supported early in her career by Herbert von Karajan, has had several works composed for her, including ones by Sebastian Currier, Henri Dutilleux, Sofia Gubaidulina, Witold Lutosławski, Norbert Moret, Krzysztof Penderecki, André Previn, Wolfgang Rihm, John Williams. Mutter was born in the German town of Rheinfelden, which lies some 15 km East of Basel on the northern bank of the High Rhine river, across which lies the Swiss town of the same name, she began playing the piano at the age of five, shortly afterwards took up the violin, studying with Erna Honigberger, a pupil of Carl Flesch. After Honigberger's death she continued her studies with Aida Stucki at the Winterthur Conservatory. After winning several prizes, Mutter was exempted from school to dedicate herself to music full-time. At age 13, she was invited by Herbert von Karajan to play with the Berlin Philharmonic, she made her public debut on stage in 1976 at the Lucerne Festival, playing Mozart’s Violin Concerto No. 4 in D major.
In 1977, she made her debut at the Salzburg Festival and with the English Chamber Orchestra under Daniel Barenboim. At 15, Mutter made her first recording of the Mozart Third and Fifth violin concerti with Karajan and the Berlin Philharmonic. In 1980, Mutter made her American debut with the New York Philharmonic under Zubin Mehta. In 1985, at the age of 22, she was made an honorary fellow of the Royal Academy of Music and head of its faculty of international violin studies and in 1986 an honorary member. In 1988, she made a grand tour of Canada and the United States, playing for the first time at Carnegie Hall. In 1998 she played and recorded for CD and DVD the complete set of Beethoven's Violin Sonatas, accompanied by Lambert Orkis. Though her repertoire includes many classical works, Mutter is known for her performances of contemporary music. Several pieces have been specially written for or dedicated to her, including Henri Dutilleux's Sur le même accord, Krzysztof Penderecki's Second Violin Concerto, Witold Lutosławski's Chain 2 and the orchestral version of Partita, Wolfgang Rihm's Gesungene Zeit, Lichtes Spiel, Dyade.
In August 2007, she premiered Sofia Gubaidulina's Violin Concerto No. 2 "In tempus praesens." She has received various prizes, including several Grammys. In October 2006, on French television, Mutter appeared to indicate that she would be retiring when she turned 45, in 2008; however the following month she said that her words were "misinterpreted" and that she would continue to play as long as she felt she could "bring anything new, anything important, anything different to music". She owns two Stradivarius violins, a Finnigan-Klaembt dated 1999, a Regazzi dated 2005. Mutter does not use a shoulder rest, her first concert dresses were from Chanel. From there, she added Givenchy to her closet and John Galliano of Dior, until his anti-Semitic outburst in 2011 caused her to cut ties, she wears dresses by British couturier Nicholas Oakwell. In 1989, Mutter married her first husband, Detlef Wunderlich, with whom she had two children and Richard. Wunderlich died of cancer in 1995, she dedicated Vivaldi: The Four Seasons, to his memory.
She married the pianist and conductor André Previn in 2002. The couple divorced in 2006, but maintained their friendship. Grammy Award for Best Chamber Music Performance: Anne-Sophie Mutter and Lambert Orkis for Beethoven: The Violin Sonatas Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist Performance: Anne-Sophie Mutter and André Previn for Previn: Violin Concerto "Anne-Sophie"/Bernstein: Serenade Anne-Sophie Mutter, Krzysztof Penderecki and the London Symphony Orchestra for Penderecki: Violin Concerto No. 2, Metamorphosen Anne-Sophie Mutter, James Levine and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra for Berg: Violin Concerto/Rihm: Time Chant Order of Merit of Baden-Württemberg Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art Sonning Award Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art Herbert von Karajan Music Prize Knight of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Victoires de la Musique Classique Grand Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria Ernst von Siemens Music Prize Mendelssohn Prize Merit Cross 1st Class of the Federal Republic of Germany Chevalier de la Legion d'honneur for her commitment to the works of contemporary music by French Echo Klassik as Instrumentalist European St. Ulrichs Prize Doctor Honoris Causa from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology Prize of the Cultural Foundation of Dortmund Brahms Prize Atlantic Council Distinguished Artistic Leadership Award Bavarian Order of Merit Cultural Honour of the City of Munich Honorary Member of the Royal Academy of Music Erich Fromm Prize for her comprehensive social work Gustav Adolf Prize of Gustav-Adolf-Werk of the Evangelical Church in Hesse-Nassau for her diaconal commitment Naming of Anne-Sophie-Mutter-Weg The Medal of the Lutosławski Centennial Named a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Echo Klassik 2014 for the album'Dvořák' Named
John Anthony Baldessari is an American conceptual artist known for his work featuring found photography and appropriated images. He works in Santa Monica and Venice, California. A painter, Baldessari began to incorporate texts and photography into his canvases in the mid-1960s. In 1970 he began working in printmaking, video, installation and photography, he has created thousands of works that demonstrate—and, in many cases, combine—the narrative potential of images and the associative power of language within the boundaries of the work of art. His art has been featured in more than 200 solo exhibitions in the U. S. and Europe. His work influenced Cindy Sherman, David Salle, Annette Lemieux, Barbara Kruger among others. 1949-53 B. A. San Diego State College, California. 1954-55 University of California, Berkeley. 1955 University of California, Los Angeles. 1955-57 M. A. San Diego State College, California. 1957-59 Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles. Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles. Baldessari was born in National City, California to Hedvig Jensen, a Danish nurse, Antonio Baldessari, an Italian salvage dealer.
Baldessari and his elder sister were raised in Southern California. He attended San Diego State College. Between 1960 and 1984, he was married to Montessorian teacher Carol Ann Wixom. In 1959, Baldessari began teaching art in the San Diego school system, he kept teaching for nearly three decades, in schools and junior colleges and community colleges, at the university level. When the University of California decided to open up a campus in San Diego, the new head of the Visual Art Department, Paul Brach, asked Baldessari to be part of the originating faculty in 1968. At UCSD he shared an office with David Antin. In 1970, Baldessari moved to Santa Monica, where he met many artists and writers, began teaching at CalArts, his first classes included David Salle, Jack Goldstein, Mike Kelley, Ken Feingold, Tony Oursler, James Welling, Barbara Bloom, Matt Mullican, Troy Brauntuch. While at CalArts, Baldessari taught "the infamous Post Studio class", which he intended to "indicate people not daubing away at canvases or chipping away at stone, that there might be some other kind of class situation."
The class, which operated outside of medium-specificity, was influential in informing the context for addressing a student's art practice at CalArts, established a tradition of conceptual critique at CalArts, carried on by artists such as Michael Asher. He quit teaching at CalArts in 1986, moving on to teach at UCLA, which he continued until 2008. At UCLA, his students included Analia Saban. By 1966, Baldessari was using photographs and text, or text, on canvas, his early major works were canvas paintings that were empty but for painted statements derived from contemporary art theory. An early attempt of Baldessari's included the hand-painted phrase "Suppose it is true after all? WHAT THEN?" on a worked painted surface. However, this proved disappointing because the form and method conflicted with the objective use of language that he preferred to employ. Baldessari decided the solution was to remove his own hand from the construction of the image and to employ a commercial, lifeless style so that the text would impact the viewer without distractions.
The words were physically lettered by sign painters, in an unornamented black font. The first of this series presented the ironic statement "A TWO-DIMENSIONAL SURFACE WITHOUT ANY ARTICULATION IS A DEAD EXPERIENCE". Another work, Painting for Kubler presented the viewer theoretical instructions on how to view it and on the importance of context and continuity with previous works; this work referenced art historian George Kubler's seminal book, The Shape of Time: Remarks on the History of Things. The legitimate art concerns were intended by Baldessari to become hollow and ridiculous when presented in such a purely self-referential manner. In 1970, Baldessari and five friends burnt all of the paintings he had created between 1953 and 1966 as part of a new piece, titled The Cremation Project; the ashes from these paintings were baked into cookies and placed into an urn, the resulting art installation consists of a bronze commemorative plaque with the destroyed paintings' birth and death dates, as well as the recipe for making the cookies.
Through the ritual of cremation Baldessari draws a connection between artistic practice and the human life cycle. Thus the act of disavowal becomes generative as with the work of auto-destructive artist Jean Tinguely. Baldessari is best known for works that blend photographic materials, take them out of their original context and rearrange their form including the addition of words or sentences. Related to his early text paintings were his Wrong series, which paired photographic images with lines of text from an amateur photography book, aiming at the violation of a set of basic "rules" on snapshot composition. In one of the works, Baldessari had himself photographed in front of a palm so that it would appear that the tree were growing out of his head, his photographic California Map Project created physical forms that resembled the letters in "California" geographically near to the spots on the map that they were printed. In the Binary Code Series, Baldessari used images as information holders by alternating photographs to stand in for the on-off state of binary code.
Another of Baldessari's series juxtaposed an image of an object such as a glass, or a block of wood, the phrase "A glass is a glass" or "Wood
Olafur Eliasson is an Icelandic-Danish artist known for sculptures and large-scale installation art employing elemental materials such as light and air temperature to enhance the viewer’s experience. In 1995 he established Studio Olafur Eliasson in a laboratory for spatial research. Olafur represented Denmark at the 50th Venice Biennale in 2003 and that year installed The Weather Project in the Turbine Hall of Tate Modern, London. Olafur has engaged in a number of projects in public space, including the intervention Green river, carried out in various cities between 1998 and 2001, he created the Breakthrough Prize trophy. Like much of his work, the sculpture explores the common ground between science, it is molded into the shape of a toroid, recalling natural forms found from black holes and galaxies to seashells and coils of DNA. Olafur was a professor at the Berlin University of the Arts from 2009 to 2014 and is an adjunct professor at the Alle School of Fine Arts and Design in Addis Ababa since 2014.
Olafur Eliasson was born in Copenhagen in 1967 to Ingibjörg Olafsdottir. His parents had emigrated to Copenhagen from Iceland in 1966, he to find work as a cook, she as a seamstress, he was 8. His father an artist, moved back to Iceland, where their family spent summers and holidays. At 15 he had his first solo show, exhibiting landscape drawings and gouaches at a small alternative gallery in Denmark. However, Olafur considered his "break-dancing" during the mid-1980s to be his first artworks. With two school friends, he formed a group — they called themselves the Harlem Gun Crew — and they performed at clubs and dance halls for four years winning the Scandinavian championship. Olafur studied at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts from 1989 to 1995. In 1990, when he was awarded a travel budget by the Royal Danish Academy, Olafur went to New York where he started working as a studio assistant for artist Christian Eckhart in Williamsburg and reading texts on phenomenology and Gestalt psychology.
Olafur received his degree from the academy in 1995, after having moved in 1993 to Cologne for a year, to Berlin, where he has since maintained a studio. First located in a three-story former train depot right next door to the Hamburger Bahnhof, the studio moved to a former brewery in Prenzlauer Berg in 2008. In 1996, Olafur started working with Einar Thorsteinn, an architect and geometry expert 25 years his senior as well as a former friend of Buckminster Fuller; the first piece they created called 8900054, was a stainless-steel dome 30 feet wide and 7 feet high, designed to be seen as if it were growing from the ground. Though the effect is an illusion, the mind has a hard time believing that the structure is not part of a much grander one developing from deep below the surface. Thorsteinn's knowledge of geometry and space has been integrated into Olafur's artistic production seen in his geometric lamp works as well as his pavilions and camera obscura projects. For many projects, the artist works collaboratively with specialists in various fields, among them the architects Thorsteinn and Sebastian Behmann, author Svend Åge Madsen, landscape architect Gunther Vogt, architecture theorist Cedric Price, architect Kjetil Thorsen.
Studio Olafur Eliasson, which the artist founded as a "laboratory for spatial research", employs a team of architects, engineers and assistants who work together to conceive and construct artworks such as installations and sculptures, as well as large-scale projects and commissions. As professor at the Berlin University of the Arts, Olafur Eliasson founded the Institute for Spatial Experiments, which opened within his studio building in April 2009. Early works by Olafur consist of oscillating electric fans hanging from the ceiling. Ventilator swings forth and around, rotating on its axis. Quadrible light ventilator mobile is a rotating electrically powered mobile comprising a searchlight and four fans blowing air around the exhibition room and scanning it with the light cone; the weather project was installed at the London's Tate Modern in 2003 as part of the popular Unilever series. The installation filled the open space of the gallery's Turbine Hall. Olafur used humidifiers to create a fine mist in the air via a mixture of sugar and water, as well as a semicircular disc made up of hundreds of monochromatic lamps which radiated yellow light.
The ceiling of the hall was covered with a huge mirror, in which visitors could see themselves as tiny black shadows against a mass of orange light symbolizing the sun. Many visitors responded to this exhibition by waving their hands and legs. Art critic Brian O'Doherty described this as viewers "intoxicated with their own narcissism as they ponder themselves elevated into the sky." Open for six months, the work attracted two million visitors, many of whom were repeat visitors. O'Doherty was positive about the piece when talking to Frieze magazine in 2003, saying that it was "the first time I've seen the eno