The Việt Cộng known as the National Liberation Front, was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War emerging on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the People's Army of Vietnam, the regular North Vietnamese army. During the war and anti-war activists insisted the Việt Cộng was an insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U. S. and South Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of Hanoi. Although the terminology distinguishes northerners from the southerners, communist forces were under a single command structure set up in 1958; the headquarters of the Viet Cong based at Memot came to be known as Central Office for South Vietnam or COSVN by its Military Assistance Command and South Vietnamese counterparts, a near-mythical "bamboo Pentagon" from which the Việt Cộng's entire war effort was being directed.
For nearly a decade the fabled COSVN headquarters, which directed the entire war effort of the Viet Cong was the target of the RVN/US war effort, which would have collapsed the insurgency war effort. US and South Vietnamese Special Forces sent to capture them were killed quickly or returned with heavy casualties to the point that teams refused to go. Daily B-52 bombings had failed to kill any of the leadership during Operation Menu despite flattening the entire area, as Soviet trawlers were able to forewarn COSVN, whom used the data on speed and direction to move perpendicular and to move underground. North Vietnam established the National Liberation Front on December 20, 1960, to foment insurgency in the South. Many of the Việt Cộng's core members were volunteer "regroupees", southern Việt Minh who had resettled in the North after the Geneva Accord. Hanoi gave the regroupees military training and sent them back to the South along the Hồ Chí Minh trail in the early 1960s; the NLF called for southern Vietnamese to "overthrow the camouflaged colonial regime of the American imperialists" and to make "efforts toward the peaceful unification".
The PLAF's best-known action was the Tết Offensive, a gigantic assault on more than 100 South Vietnamese urban centers in 1968, including an attack on the U. S. embassy in Saigon. The offensive riveted the attention of the world's media for weeks, but overextended the Việt Cộng. Two further offensives were conducted in the mini-Tet and August Offensive. In 1969 the Việt Cộng would establish the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, a shadow-country in South Vietnam intended to represent the organisation on the world stage and was recognised by the communist bloc and maintained diplomatic links with many nations in the Non-Aligned Movement. Communist offensives were conducted predominantly by newly mechanised PAVN forces, as the ability of the Việt Cộng to recruit among the South Vietnamese became much more limited; the Việt Cộng remained an active political front. The organisation was dissolved in 1976 when North and South Vietnam were unified under a communist government.
Political and military organization of the Việt Cộng was complex, with a series of well-constructed, overlapping networks and organisations, see strategy and structure. Material aid was provided through the well-established, ingenious Hồ Chí Minh trail which withstood the most sustained bombing campaign in history while expanding the war effort, see logistics and equipment, they had further developed a complex insurgency warfare method capable of countering overwhelmingly superior numbers and technology, retaining the strategic initiative during much of the war. According to the Pentagon Papers, 90% of large firefights were initiated by the PAVN/VC and 80% were well-planned VC operations throughout most of the war and as early as 1966 US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara expressed doubt about the US ability to win the war; the term Việt Cộng appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956. It is a contraction of Việt Nam Cộng-sản, or alternatively Việt gian cộng sản; the earliest citation for Việt Cộng in English is from 1957.
Media worldwide referred to them as "Vietcong". American soldiers referred to them as Victor Charlie or V-C. "Victor" and "Charlie" are both letters in the NATO phonetic alphabet. "Charlie" referred to communist forces in both Việt Cộng and North Vietnamese. The official Vietnamese history gives the group's name as the Liberation Army of South Vietnam or the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. Many writers shorten this to National Liberation Front. In 1969, the Việt Cộng created the "Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam", abbreviated PRG. Although the NLF was not abolished until 1977, the Việt Cộng no longer used the name after PRG was created. Members referred to the Việt Cộng as "the Front". Today's Vietnamese media most refers to the group as the "People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam". By the terms of the Geneva Accord, which ended the Indochina War and the Việt Minh agreed to a truce and to a separation of forces; the Việt Minh had become the government o
The Deer Hunter
The Deer Hunter is a 1978 American epic war drama film co-written and directed by Michael Cimino about a trio of steelworkers whose lives were changed forever after they fought in the Vietnam War. The three soldiers are played by Robert De Niro, Christopher Walken, John Savage, with John Cazale, Meryl Streep, George Dzundza playing supporting roles; the story takes place in Clairton, Pennsylvania, a small working class town on the Monongahela River south of Pittsburgh, in Vietnam. The film was based in part on an unproduced screenplay called The Man Who Came to Play by Louis Garfinkle and Quinn K. Redeker, about Las Vegas and Russian roulette. Producer Michael Deeley, who bought the script, hired writer/director Michael Cimino who, with Deric Washburn, rewrote the script, taking the Russian roulette element and placing it in the Vietnam War; the film went over-budget and over-schedule, ended up costing $15 million. The scenes depicting Russian roulette were controversial after the film's release.
The film won five Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director for Michael Cimino, Best Supporting Actor for Christopher Walken, marked Meryl Streep's first Academy Award nomination. In 1996 it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant", was named the 53rd greatest American film of all time by the American Film Institute in 2007 in their 10th Anniversary Edition of the AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies list. In the small working class town of Clairton, Pennsylvania, in late 1967, steel workers Mike Vronsky, Steven Pushkov, Nick Chevotarevich, with the support of their friends and co-workers Stan and Peter "Axel" Axelrod and local bar owner and friend John Welsh, prepare for two rites of passage: marriage and military service. Mike is a unassuming leader. Before the trio ships out and his girlfriend Angela marry in a Russian Orthodox wedding. Mike works to control his feelings for Nick's girlfriend Linda.
At the wedding reception held at the local VFW hall, the guys drink, dance and enjoy the festivities, but notice a soldier in a U. S. Army Special Forces uniform. Mike attempts to ask what Vietnam is like. After Mike explains that he, Nick are going to Vietnam, the Green Beret raises his glass and says: "Fuck it". After being restrained from starting a fight, Mike goes back to the bar and raises his glass and toasts him with: "Fuck it!" The soldier glances over at grins. Steven and Angela drink from conjoined goblets - a traditional part of the Orthodox wedding ceremony. Superstition asserts that, if they drink without spilling any wine, they will have good luck for life. No one notices two drops of blood-red wine spill on her wedding gown. After Linda catches the bride's bouquet, Nick asks her to marry him and she agrees; that night, a drunken Mike runs through the town, stripping himself naked along the way. After Nick chases him down, he begs Mike not to leave him "over there" if anything happens in combat.
The next day, Nick, Stan and Axel go deer hunting one last time. Mike is exasperated by his friends Stan, who drinks and clowns, showing little respect for the ritual of hunting, which to Mike is a nearly sacred experience. Only Nick understands Mike's attitude. Mike kills a deer with one clean shot; the friends return with Michael's deer strapped to the hood of the car. They enter rambunctiously. Welsh makes his way to the piano and begins playing Chopin's Nocturne No. 6 Op. 15-3. In Vietnam, U. S. helicopters attack a village. An unconscious Mike wakes up to see an NVA soldier shoot a woman carrying a baby. Mike kills him with a flamethrower. Meanwhile, a unit of UH-1 "Huey" helicopters drops off several U. S. infantrymen and Steven among them. Mike and Nick unexpectedly find each other just before they are captured and held in a prisoner of war camp. For entertainment, the guards force the prisoners to play gambling on the outcome. All three friends are forced to play. Steven plays against Mike, who offers moral support, but Steven breaks down and points the gun upwards while pulling the trigger, grazing himself with the bullet when it discharges.
As punishment, the guards put him into an underwater cage full of dead bodies. Mike and Nick hatch a plan to escape by playing against each other, with Mike convincing the guards to let them play Russian roulette with three bullets in the gun. After a tense match, they kill their captors and escape. After killing the guards, Mike rescues Steven; the three float downriver on a tree limb. An American helicopter finds them; the weakened Steven falls back into the water, Mike plunges in the water to rescue him. Mike helps Steven to reach the river bank, but Steven's legs are broken, so Mike carries him through the jungle to friendly lines. Approaching a caravan of locals escaping the war zone, Mike stops a South Vietnamese military truck and places the wounded Steven on it, asking the soldiers to take care of him. Nick recuperates in a military hospital in Saigon with no knowledge of his friends, having suffered some form of stress-induced amnesia. After being released, he goes aimlessly stumbles through the red-light district at night.
He encounters Julien Grinda, a Frenchman, o
12th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 12th Infantry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army. The 12th Infantry has fought in seven wars from the Civil War to the Global War on Terrorism and has been awarded four Presidential Unit Citations, five Valorous Unit Awards, a Joint Meritorious Unit Award, two citations in the Order of the Day of the Belgian Army, three Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry, the Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal First Class, a Meritorious Unit Commendation, the Belgian Fourragere. Thomas Parker was colonel of a 12th Infantry Regiment, raised in 1812 in Virginia and fought in the Canadian and Chesapeake theaters of the War of 1812; this regiment, has no historical connection to the modern unit bearing the same designation. Less than a month after the first shots of the Civil War were fired at Fort Sumter in South Carolina, the 12th Infantry Regiment was constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as the 1st Battalion, 12th Infantry, it was organized 20 October 1861 at Fort Hamilton in New York.
The battalion saw extensive combat during the Civil War, participating in twelve campaigns with the Army of the Potomac. During the Peninsula Campaign, the 12th Infantry distinguished itself in its first combat action at the Battle of Gaines' Mill in June 1862, while sustaining fifty percent casualties; the regiment participated in such historic battles as Antietam, Chancellorsville and six additional campaigns culminating with the Siege of Petersburg, from late summer 1864 through April 1865 and the war's end. The battalion was reorganized and redesignated as the 12th Infantry Regiment on 7 December 1866. In April 1869, having been ordered to the Presidio of San Francisco, the regiment entrained at Omaha, Nebraska, on the Union Pacific Railroad portion the not yet finished transcontinental railroad. In the 1870s, the regiment took part in three campaigns of the Indian Wars. During these campaigns, six soldiers performed. During the Spanish–American War, the 12th Infantry was sent to Cuba, in June 1898, participated in the storming of the Spanish fortress in the Battle of El Caney, where the 12th had the distinction of capturing the Spanish colors.
At the conclusion of the War with Spain, the regiment was deployed in February 1899 to the Philippine Islands to reinforce other Army units fighting elements of the Filipino Army that resisted the United States after they defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Manila. There, the regiment participated in three campaigns of what was to be known as the Philippine–American War and served as garrison troops, not returning to the United States until 1912. Deployed along the Mexican border, the regiment repulsed Villista harassing attacks during the Battle of Nogales in 1915. On 17 December 1917 the 12th Infantry was assigned to the 8th Division at Camp Fremont, but was not sent overseas in World War I. In August 1918 most of the regiment volunteered for duty in Siberia and the regiment was skeletonized until replacements were received and trained; as part of the 15th Infantry Brigade, the regiment moved to its pre-embarkation staging location at Camp Mills, New York, between 23 October and 31 October 1918, but entrained while quarantined at Camp Fremont for Spanish influenza.
After its arrival, the regiment remained in strict quarantine until after its convoy had sailed, was not released until 11 November, the day the armistice ended the war. The regiment remained assigned to the 8th Division until 15 August 1927 when it was reassigned to the 4th Division. During May–July 1932, 12th IR and 3rd Cavalry Regiment participated in the ejection of the Bonus Army marchers from Washington, D. C; the 12th was once again reassigned to the 8th Division on 1 October 1933 and stationed at Fort Howard, Maryland under the command of Colonels Walter L. Reed and James Garesche Ord. On 10 October 1941 the regiment was transferred to Fort Benning and assigned to the 4th Motorized Division; the 12th Infantry Regiment was reorganized as a motorized infantry regiment on 29 September 1942. Less than a year on 1 August 1943, the 12th was reorganized as a standard infantry regiment when the 4th Division was converted from motorized to dismounted infantry; the regiment along with the rest of the 4th Infantry Division arrived in England on 29 January 1944.
On D-Day, 6 June 1944, the 12th Infantry saw its first action of the war when, as part of the 4th Infantry Division, it spearheaded the assault landing on Utah Beach under the command of Colonel Russell "Red" Reeder. Between 9 and 12 August 1944, the regiment helped defeat the German Operation Lüttich; the regiment fought in five European campaigns through France, Belgium and Germany. The 12th Infantry was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for valor in action at Luxembourg during the Battle of the Bulge; the regiment was awarded the Belgian Fourragere. After Germany's surrender, the 12th Infantry, along with the 4th Infantry Division, returned to the United States on 12 July 1945 and was inactivated 27 February 1946 at Camp Butner, North Carolina. During this time famed author J. D. Salinger served with the unit. On 15 July 1947, the 12th Infantry Regiment was reactivated as a training regiment when 4th Infantry Division was given the mission of basic training at Fort Ord, California. In July 1951, the 4th Division was returned to line status and r
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Prince George's Community College
Prince George's Community College is a community college located in the unincorporated community of Largo in Prince George's County, United States. The college serves Prince George's County and surrounding areas, including Washington, D. C. Founded in 1958, Prince George's Community College came into existence because there was perceived to be a need for educational opportunities for the residents of the county those who were still in the K–12 grades of the public schools in the late 1950s. Classes commenced at Suitland High School with the first student body of 185, thus the college celebrated 50 years of service in 2008; the college was the first educational institution to integrate in the county, today serves more African-American students than any other post-secondary institution in the state of Maryland. In 1967, the college moved to its permanent location in Largo, where it now has an enrollment of more than 44,000. During the past decades, a handful of buildings on the campus has grown to 22 facilities.
In Spring 2007, the College selected Dr. Charlene Dukes. Prince George's Community College provides higher education to the local population; the college offers over 100 fields of study through its academic, workforce development, continuing education, personal enrichment programs. More PGCC has 68 academic degree programs and 34 professional certificate program, many of which feature distance learning options; the college awards Associate of Arts, Associate of Science, Associate of Arts in Teaching degrees. In addition, PGCC allows students to transfer to university. Prince George's Community College is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Furthermore, its education, nursing, radiology and respiratory therapy programs have specialized accreditation, they participate in dual-enrollment for high school Junior and senior students from PGCPS. Students can take courses while still in high school, earning both high college credit; the school hosts a number of special programs that address the needs and interests of county residents.
These include the Book Bridge Project, the Center for Business and Industry Training and the Children’s Developmental Clinic. College meeting rooms and recreational facilities are available for use by the public; these facilities include the Robert I. Bickford Natatorium, open to individuals and groups. More than 1,000 events sponsored by community organizations are held at the college each year; the main campus is located in Largo, which opened in 1967. PGCC operates extension centers at University Town Center in Hyattsville, Andrews Air Force Base as well as Skilled Trades Center in Camp Springs; the college shares an extension center with Howard Community College in Laurel called the Laurel College Center. Within the last six years, the college has seen the completion of two new modern facilities: the Center for Advanced Technology and the Center for Health Studies. There are several more developments underway including a brand new Culinary Arts Center and expansion of Lanham Hall, the Queen Anne Arts Education Center, a renovation of the Rennie Forum auditorium, a health and wellness center.
PGCC serves 40,000 students. The student body is 76% African American, 64% female, has international students from 100 nations around the world; the average age of Prince George's students is 47. The college offers many student services and resources like the study rooms, print services, computer labs with tutoring, it includes many places where students can hang out: the student lounge and indoor and outdoor gathering spaces. The college has 43 student clubs and organizations representing a wide variety of interest, including an Active Seniors Club, the African Student Union, a Caribbean Student Association, an Honors Society, Intercollegiate Athletics, Improvisational Theatre, a Muslim Student Association, a chapter of Phi Theta Kappa, a Student Governance Board to name a few; the school mascot and the name of the student newspaper is The Owl. The Student Governance Board is official voice of the student body; the Student Governance Board make recommendations to the college's Board of Trustees and the college, obtains students' concerns and feedback, collaborate with other student clubs and organizations in organizing academic seminars as well as student activities.
The business of the Student Governance Board is carried about by a Student Government Council, which consists of 15 members, including 8 members of the Executive Office, 6 members of the College-Wide Forum, the Student Trustees. The Student Government Council is elected annually during April of the Spring Semester; the 2009 Election has been considered the most successful election in the history of the Student Government Council. The Executive Office comprises the President, Vice President for Administrative Affairs, Vice President for Student Affairs, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Director of Public Relations, Director of Community Relations, Director of Club Relations, Director of College-Wide Forum Relations. Any vacant positions are filled by Presidential appointments with the consent of the Student Council. Prince George's Community College is a member of the National Junior College Athletic Association and Maryland Junior College Athletic Conference. Ten intercollegiate teams represent the college in the NJCAA and MD JUCO, including: men's soccer women's soccer women's basketball men's basketball men's cross country women's cross country men's baseball women's softball men's track & field women's track & field Cheerleading Cathy L. Lanier, Chief of the Metrop