William III of England
It is a coincidence that his regnal number was the same for both Orange and England. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II and he is informally known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as King Billy. William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II and his mother Mary, Princess Royal, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, he married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, Mary, a Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith, in 1685, his Catholic father-in-law, Duke of York, became king of England and Scotland. Jamess reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham, James was deposed and William and Mary became joint sovereigns in his place.
They reigned together until her death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch, Williams reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. Williams victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by the Orange Order and his reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650, baptised William Henry, he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, and Mary, Princess Royal. Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Ireland, eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox, thus William was the Sovereign Prince of Orange from the moment of his birth. Immediately, a conflict ensued between his mother the Princess Royal and William IIs mother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant.
Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, but her mother-in-law insisted on giving him the name William or Willem to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder. William II had appointed his wife as his sons guardian in his will, Williams mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, and had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. Williams education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard, from April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remonstrant theologian Gisbertus Voetius. The ideal education for William was described in Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince dOrange, in these lessons, the prince was taught that he was predestined to become an instrument of Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange.
From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leiden for a formal education, under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius. While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, and a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein
Schipluiden is a village in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. It is the seat of the council of the municipality of Midden-Delfland, the village was founded relatively late in the 15th century and evolved around the Keenenburg castle, which no longer exists. The current Dutch Reformed church in the village belonged to the Catholic Teutonic Knights before 1572. The village inhabitants worked in the trade from the agrarian area Westland to the cities of Vlaardingen. Most of the population became Roman Catholic in the 17th century, for sermons, they had to go to the Roman Catholic Church, some kilometres out of the village. A new Roman Catholic church was built in the 1960s, Schipluiden remained a small agrarian village until the 1950s. Schipluiden was a municipality until 2004, when it became part of Midden-Delfland. Official Website J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, map of the former municipality in 1868. Schipluiden en Midden-Delfland Mooi Dichtbij portal
Arnold Houbraken was a Dutch painter and writer from Dordrecht, now remembered mainly as a biographer of artists from the Dutch Golden Age. Houbraken was sent first to learn threadtwisting from Johannes de Haan, after two years he studied art with Willem van Drielenburch, who he was with during the rampjaar, the year 1672. He studied 9 months with Jacobus Leveck and finally, four years with Samuel van Hoogstraten, in 1685 he married Sara Sasbout, and around 1709 he moved from Dordrecht to Amsterdam. Arnold Houbraken painted mythological and religious paintings and landscapes and his first attempt at an instructive manual for artists was his Emblem book, Inhoud van t Sieraad der Afbeelding, which was meant as a guide of possible painting themes. His registered pupils were Matthijs Balen, Johan Graham, and his son Jacob and his son Jacobus Houbraken was an engraver of portraits and book illustrations, including books by his father. His daughter Antonina Houbraken became an engraver for an Amsterdam publisher and his daughter Christina Houbraken was an artist.
Arnold Houbrakens books sold well during the entire 18th century. Jacob Campo Weyerman published his version in serial form that was published as a complete set in 1769. Houbrakens engravings of the artists are in cases the only surviving portraits of these people. The first to make a sequel to Houbrakens work was Johan van Gool in 1750-51. Houbraken was very careful to check and double check his sources, excepting those cases where the artist died quite young, or whose oeuvre was lost during various wars, very few artists were included in the Schouburg who do not hang in international museums today. The first modern art historian to publish an update of his work was Adriaan van der Willigen, since he has remained a valuable resource for art historians. The Schouburgh is part of the Basic Library of the dbnl which contains the 1000 most important works in Dutch literature from the Middle Ages to today
Willem Drost was a Dutch Golden Age painter and printmaker of history paintings and portraits. He is a figure, closely associated with Rembrandt, with very few paintings clearly attributable to him. He was presumably born in Amsterdam, in what was known as the United Provinces of the Netherlands, but when. Houbraken described him as a painter of allegories and a pupil of Rembrandt. Houbraken saw a Johannes Predicatie by him that was composed and painted. He was in Amsterdam until 1655 and travelled to Italy and he influenced the painter Adolf Boy. He died in the city in 1659. Willem Drosts recognized lifetime output of artwork is very small, while Rembrandt is credited with more than 2,000 paintings and etchings, in recent years, some paintings attributed to Rembrandt have had their authenticity come under question. The importance of these Rembrandt works is such that the Foundation Rembrandt Research Project was established in Amsterdam to review the attribution of all of his works, scholars have now reattributed a number of Rembrandts paintings to his pupils and associates.
As well, when the portrait of a man on horseback titled The Polish Rider was discovered in 1897 it too was attributed to Rembrandt. Acquired by New York Citys Frick Collection, The Polish Rider is one of the Frick Museums most valued treasures, for years, the paintings subject matter and purpose was questioned by many scholars, led by the renowned expert Julius S. The Frick Collection has not changed the attribution, and today it is believed that Rembrandt initiated the painting but had others help him finish it. Willem Drost, A Rembrandt Pupil in Amsterdam and Venice, seymour Slive, Dutch Painting, 1600–1800, Yale UP,1995, ISBN 0-300-07451-4 Media related to Willem Drost at Wikimedia Commons
Lieve Pietersz Verschuier was a Dutch Golden Age painter of maritime subjects. He was born in Rotterdam, and is documented in Amsterdam in 1651 and he traveled to Rome in 1653 as a young man with Jan Vermeer van Utrecht and became friends with Willem Drost and Johann Carl Loth. On his return he settled in Rotterdam in 1667 where he remained, painting marine scenes and his maritime works are valued today for their historical value illustrating the art of shipbuilding in the 17th century
Vreeswijk is a former village and municipality in the Dutch province of Utrecht. The municipality merged with Jutphaas in 1971, and is now the southern half of the town of Nieuwegein, the former village was located on the Lek River, near where it is crossed by the Merwede Canal. The old village centre on the locks has been preserved reasonably well and this lock is said to be the oldest example of a pound lock in Europe. This was the key innovation which gave rise to the modern canal, the additional gate limited the amount of water that needed to be let in, so that only the basin needed to be raised. J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, map of the former municipality in 1868
The Biografisch Portaal is an initiative based at the Huygens Institute for Dutch History in The Hague, with the aim of making biographical texts of the Netherlands more accessible. As of 2011, only information about deceased people is included. The system used is based on the standards of the Text Encoding Initiative, access to the Biografisch Portaal is available free through a web-based interface. The project is an undertaking by ten scientific and cultural bodies in the Netherlands with the Huygens Institute as main contact. In February 2012, a new project was started called BiographyNed to build a tool for use with the Biografisch Portaal that will link biographies to events in time. The main goal of the project is to formulate ‘the boundaries of the Netherlands’. List of Dutch people Official website
Utrecht Guild of Saint Luke
The Utrecht Guild of Saint Luke refers to two artist collectives in Utrecht, the old Catholic Zadelaarsgilde dating from the Middle Ages, as well as the newer Sint Lucas Gilde established in 1611. The first collective was for a number of trades that were connected to the art industry, the second collective was founded for the oil painters after the Protestant Reformation. The Zadelaarsgilde fell under the patron saint Luke the Evangelist and the St. Eloyen guild fell under Saint Eligius, like other Dutch cities, Utrecht required membership in the guilds in order to sell wares falling under those guilds. In the 14th century, the Utrecht saddlemakers, sculptors, book illustrators, and bookbinders were all united in the Zadelaarsgilde. In those days oil painters were just as likely to paint on parchment or harness as on wooden panels or sculptures. Utrecht in the Middle Ages was the largest city in the Northern Netherlands, capital of the Bishopric of Utrecht, with each passing of an archbishop, a new archbishop would be appointed who brought his own artisans to town.
Utrecht was thus an important art center and saw many innovations in the arts in general over the centuries. The smiths were split into guilds, one for the gold- and silversmiths under St. Eligius, all three guilds existed well before the 14th century and were led by two dekens, and they were associated with different churches. During the course of the 17th century this slowly changed, in 1639 the oil painters were again reorganized into the Schilderscollege, which effectively forced out the sculptors. In 1717 the city changed the formula from a guild to a society. The task of the society was mostly the running of the school called the Stadstekenacademie that had been held in the St. Hieronymusschool since 1696. In 1814 the name changed again, and it became the Painting and Drawing Society Kunstliefde, the title means love of art and the members tended to apply themselves to the fashionable art of imitating the Dutch masters from the 17th century. Today the society is housed on Nobelstraat 12a in Utrecht.
Delft is a city and a municipality in the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, to the north of Rotterdam, the city of Delft came into being aside a canal, the Delf, which comes from the word delven, meaning delving or digging, and led to the name Delft. It presumably started around the 11th century as a landlord court, from a rural village in the early Middle Ages, Delft developed to a city, that in the 13th century received its charter. The towns association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange, nicknamed William the Silent, at the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation, known as the Eighty Years War. By Delft was one of the cities of Holland. An attack by Spanish forces in October of that year was repelled, after the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581, Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange. When William was shot dead in 1584, by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk, starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.
The Delft Explosion, known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 when a gunpowder store exploded, over a hundred people were killed and thousands were wounded. About 30 tonnes of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine in a former Clarissen convent in the Doelenkwartier district, cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a market in Schiedam or a fair in The Hague, Delft artist Egbert van der Poel painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation. Historical buildings and other sights of interest include, Oude Kerk, buried here, Piet Hein, Johannes Vermeer, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. Nieuwe Kerk, constructed between 1381 and 1496 and it contains the Dutch royal familys burial vault, which between funerals is sealed with a 5,000 kg cover stone. A statue of Hugo Grotius made by Franciscus Leonardus Stracké in 1886 and this is the only remaining gate of the old city walls.
The Gemeenlandshuis Delfland, or Huyterhuis, built in 1505, which has housed the Delfland regional water authority since 1645, the Vermeer Centre in the rebuilt Guild house of St. Luke. Windmill De Roos, a mill built c.1760. Restored to working order in 2013, another windmill that formerly stood in Delft, Het Fortuyn, was dismantled in 1917 and re-erected at the Netherlands Open Air Museum, Gelderland in 1920. Delft is well known for the Delft pottery ceramic products which were styled on the imported Chinese porcelain of the 17th century, the city had an early start in this area since it was a home port of the Dutch East India Company. It can still be seen at the pottery factories De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles, the painter Johannes Vermeer was born in Delft
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction, among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive, Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by motifs and ideas. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action, the term painting is used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity, every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization, and symbols.
In technical drawing, thickness of line is ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music, color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent, the word red, for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic, painters deal practically with pigments, so blue for a painter can be any of the blues, phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, cobalt, and so on.
Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to light in painting, shades to dynamics and these elements do not necessarily form a melody of themselves, they can add different contexts to it. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer, there is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required, rhythm is important in painting as it is in music
Frederick Nassau de Zuylestein
In 1659, Frederick was made governor of the household of his nephew, William III of Orange. Through lobbying by Johan de Wit, William III became the ward in 1666. His dismissal was because he was married to an Englishwoman and was under suspicion of pro-English leanings, in April 1672 he became general of the infantry and in August he became involved in the murders of Johan and Cornelis de Wit. On 16 October 1648, Frederick married Mary Killigrew in The Hague and she was a daughter of Sir William Killigrew and Mary Hill, of Honilay. She was a first cousin of Charles IIs illegitimate daughter, the Countess of Yarmouth and she had moved to the Netherlands in February 1644, aged barely seventeen, as a maid of honour to Mary, princess royal of England and princess of Orange. Frederick and Mary had two children, Willem Hendrik van Nassau-Zuylestein, 1st Earl of Rochford, Heer van Zuylestein and he was born at Castle Zuylestein. He became a soldier and diplomat and was a confidant of his cousin, William III of England.
Hendrik van Nassau-Zuylestein, Heer van Leersum, in October 1672 Frederick died near Woerden in a battle with the French known as the Battle of Kruipin. Frederick was a son of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. Frederick had nine legitimate half-siblings with whom he shared his father and their mother was his fathers wife Amalia of Solms-Braunfels. Herbert H. Rowen, The princes of Orange, the stadholders in the Dutch Republic and New York, Cambridge University Press,1988. Herbert H. Rowen, The princes of Orange, the stadholders in the Dutch Republic and New York, Cambridge University Press,2003. Petrus Johannes Blok, History of the people of the Netherlands, New York, G. P. Putnams sons,1898. Israel, The Dutch Republic, Its Rise and Fall, 1477–1806 Oxford University Press,1995
Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. Vermeer was a successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime. He evidently was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death, Vermeer worked slowly and with great care, and frequently used very expensive pigments. He is particularly renowned for his treatment and use of light in his work. Vermeer painted mostly domestic interior scenes and he was recognized during his lifetime in Delft and The Hague, but his modest celebrity gave way to obscurity after his death. He was barely mentioned in Arnold Houbrakens major source book on 17th-century Dutch painting, since that time, Vermeers reputation has grown, and he is now acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age. Relatively little was known about Vermeers life until recently and he seems to have been devoted exclusively to his art, living out his life in the city of Delft. Until the 19th century, the sources of information were some registers, a few official documents.
John Michael Montias added details on the family from the city archives of Delft in his Artists and Artisans in Delft, Johannes Vermeer was baptized in the Reformed Church on 31 October 1632. His father Reijnier Janszoon was a worker of silk or caffa. As an apprentice in Amsterdam, Reijnier lived on fashionable Sint Antoniesbreestraat, in 1615, he married Digna Baltus. The couple moved to Delft and had a daughter named Geertruy who was baptized in 1620, in 1625, Reijnier was involved in a fight with a soldier named Willem van Bylandt who died from his wounds five months later. Around this time, Reijnier began dealing in paintings, in 1631, he leased an inn, which he called The Flying Fox. In 1635, he lived on Voldersgracht 25 or 26, in 1641, he bought a larger inn on the market square, named after the Flemish town Mechelen. The acquisition of the inn constituted a financial burden. When Vermeers father died in October 1652, Vermeer took over the operation of the art business. In April 1653, Johannes Reijniersz Vermeer married a Catholic girl, the blessing took place in the quiet nearby village of Schipluiden.
Vermeers new mother-in-law Maria Thins was significantly wealthier than he, according to art historian Walter Liedtke, Vermeers conversion seems to have been made with conviction