The Polish–Soviet War was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union over a region comparable to today's westernmost Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus. Poland's Chief of State, Józef Piłsudski, felt the time was right to expand Polish borders as far east as feasible, to be followed by a Polish-led Intermarium federation of Central and Eastern European states, as a bulwark against the re-emergence of German and Russian imperialism. Vladimir Lenin saw Poland as the bridge the Red Army had to cross to assist other Communist movements and bring about more European revolutions. By 1919, Polish forces had taken control of much of Western Ukraine, emerging victorious from the Polish–Ukrainian War; the West Ukrainian People's Republic, led by Yevhen Petrushevych, had tried to create a Ukrainian state on territories to which both Poles and Ukrainians laid claim. In the Russian part of Ukraine Symon Petliura tried to defend and strengthen the Ukrainian People's Republic but as the Bolsheviks began to win the Russian Civil War, they started to advance westward towards the disputed Ukrainian territories, causing Petliura's forces to retreat to Podolia.
By the end of 1919, a clear front had formed. Border skirmishes escalated following Piłsudski's Kiev Offensive in April 1920; the Polish offensive was met by a successful Red Army counter-attack. The Soviet operation pushed the Polish forces back westward all the way to the Polish capital, while the Directorate of Ukraine fled to Western Europe. Western fears of Soviet troops arriving at the German frontiers increased the interest of Western powers in the war. In mid-summer, the fall of Warsaw seemed certain but in mid-August, the tide had turned again, as the Polish forces achieved an unexpected and decisive victory at the Battle of Warsaw. In the wake of the Polish advance eastward, the Soviets sued for peace and the war ended with a cease-fire in October 1920; the Peace of Riga was signed on 18 March 1921, dividing the disputed territories between Poland and Soviet Russia. The war determined the Soviet–Polish border for the Interbellum. Poland gained a territory of around 200 kilometers east of its former border, the Curzon Line, defined by an international commission after World War I.
Much of the territory allocated to Poland in the Treaty of Riga became part of the Soviet Union after World War II, when the common border was re-defined by the Allied Powers in close accordance with the Curzon Line. The war is known by several names. "Polish–Soviet War" is the most common but other names include "Russo–Polish War of 1919–1921" and "Polish–Bolshevik War". This second term is most common in Polish sources. In some Polish sources it is referred as the "War of 1920". There is disagreement over the dates of the war; the Encyclopædia Britannica begins its article with the date range 1919–1920 but states, "Although there had been hostilities between the two countries during 1919, the conflict began when the Polish head of state Józef Pilsudski formed an alliance with the Ukrainian nationalist leader Symon Petlyura and their combined forces began to overrun Ukraine, occupying Kiev on 7 May." The Polish encyclopaedia Internetowa encyklopedia PWN, as well as Western historians such as Norman Davies, consider 1919 the starting year of the war.
The ending date is given as either 1920 or 1921. While the events of 1919 can be described as a border conflict, only in early 1920 did both sides engage in all-out war, the conflicts that took place in 1920 were an inevitable escalation of fighting that began in earnest a year earlier. In the end, the events of 1920 were a logical, though unforeseen, consequence of the 1919 prelude; the war's main territories of contention lie in present-day Belarus. After a period of internecine wars and the Mongolian invasion of 1240, these lands became objects of expansion for the Kingdom of Poland and for the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the first half of the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Kiev and land between the Dnieper and Daugava rivers became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in 1352 Poland and Lithuania divided the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia between themselves. In 1569, in accordance with the terms of the Union of Lublin between Poland and Lithuania, some of the Ukrainian lands passed to the Polish Crown.
Between 1772 and 1795, much of the Eastern Slavic territories became part of the Russian Empire in the course of the Partitions of Poland. After the Congress of Vienna of 1814–1815, much of the territory of the Duchy of Warsaw transferred into Russian control. After young Poles refused to be conscripted into the Imperial Russian Army during the uprising in Poland in 1863, Tsar Alexander II stripped Poland of its separate constitution, forced Russian to be the only language spoken, took away vast tracts of land from Poles, incorporated Poland directly into Russia by dividing it into ten provinces, each with an appointed Russian military governor and all under complete control of the Russian Governor-General at Warsaw; as World War I ended, the map of Central and Eastern Europe changed drastically. Germany's defeat rendered Berlin's plans for the creation of Eastern European puppet states, including one in P
Garwolin is a town on the Wilga river in eastern Poland, capital of Garwolin County, situated in the southeast part of the Garwolin plateau in Masovian Voivodeship, 62 km southeast of Warsaw, 100 km northwest of Lublin. There are about 16,000 inhabitants in the town. Traces of settlement on terrains of present days boundaries of Garwolin are more than 2000 years old, it is believed that Garwolin received its city charter in 1423. In time of the Deluge casualties exceeded 90%. During World War II and the Nazi occupation of Poland, about 70% of the city was destroyed; the town and the powiat were administered by Kreishauptmann Karl Freudenthal, responsible for the murder of more than 1000 inhabitants, the deportation of several thousand local Poles to Nazi concentration camps and slave labor in Nazi Germany, the transfer of the local Jews to various ghettos in the region. For his war crimes, Freudenthal was sentenced to death by the Polish underground, the sentence was carried out by the Home Army on 5 July 1944, as part of Operacja Główki.
At the end of July 1944 the Red Army's 2nd Guards Tank Army, under the command of Alexei Radzievsky, routed the German 73rd Infantry Division at Garwolin, capturing its commander, Friedrich Franek. After the war Garwolin was enlarged; the Neo-baroque church, dating from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, is a notable building. The Józef Piłsudski grammar school, two vocational schools, Academy of Management in Łódź, branch in Garwolin. Centre of industry and services. Principal road #17: direction Warsaw-Garwolin-Lublin-Hrebenne, Principal road #76: direction Łuków-Garwolin-Wilga. In distance of 5 km from town railway route Warszawa-Lublin proceeds. "Wilga" Cinema 3D, Centre of Sports and Culture, "Garwolanka" Swimming pool, Wilga Garwolin Sports Club. County of Garwolin City's Hall Official Page Garwolin County's Community Association Community of Garwolin Jewish Community in Garwolin on Virtual Shtetl
Stefan Paweł Rowecki was a Polish general and the leader of the Armia Krajowa. He was murdered by the Gestapo in prison on the personal order of Heinrich Himmler. Rowecki was born in Piotrków Trybunalski. In his home town he was one of the organizers of a secret scouting organization. During World War I he was conscripted into the Austro-Hungarian army and into the First Brigade of the Polish Legion, he was interned in August 1917 after the majority of his unit had refused to pledge loyalty to the Emperor of Austria. In February 1918, he was released from the internment camp in Beniaminów and joined the Polska Siła Zbrojna. After the establishment of the newly independent Poland, he joined the Polish Army. Rowecki fought in the Polish–Soviet war. After the war, he organized the first military weekly periodical. From 1930 to 1935, he commanded the 55th Infantry Regiment in Leszno. From June 1939, Rowecki organised the Warsaw Armoured Motorized Brigade. On 1 September 1939 the Nazi-German Army invaded Poland.
Although Rowecki's unit did not reach full mobilization, it did, take part in the defense of Poland. After the Polish defeat, Rowecki returned to Warsaw. In October 1939, he became one of the leaders in 1940 commander, of the Union of Armed Struggle. In 1941, Rowecki organized sabotage in the territories east of the Polish pre-war borders Wachlarz. From 1942, he was commander of the Armia Krajowa. On 30 June 1943 he was sent to Berlin. Rowecki was arrested due to his betrayal by Ludwik Kalkstein "Hanka", Eugeniusz Swierczewski "Genes" and Blanka Kaczorowska "Sroka" who were Gestapo agents. All of them in fact collaborated with the Gestapo. Swierczewski and Kaczorowska were sentenced to death for high treason by the Secret War Tribunal of the Polish Secret State; the sentence on Eugeniusz Swierczewski was carried out by troops commanded by Stefan Rys. They hanged Swierczewski in the basement of the house at 74 Krochmalna Street in Warsaw. Kalkstein was not harmed, he fought in a Waffen SS unit during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944 under the name of Konrad Stark.
After the war, he worked for the Polish Radio station in Szczecin and was recruited as an agent by the Urząd Bezpieczeństwa. In 1982, he emigrated to France. Blanka Kaczorowska survived the war, her death sentence was not carried out. After the war, she worked as a secret agent for the Urząd Bezpieczeństwa and for the renamed Służba Bezpieczeństwa, she emigrated to France in 1971. She died in 2002In Berlin he was imprisoned at Oranienburg and was questioned by many prominent Nazi officials, he refused. He was executed in August 1944 in Sachsenhausen, his execution was under orders from Heinrich Himmler. There have been claims that the arrest of Rowecki on 30 June 1943 was a result of a wider intelligence operation against the Polish Underground State with the goal of eliminating top commanders and political leaders of the Polish resistance. During the same period, the Gestapo arrested the commander of National Armed Forces, Colonel Ignacy Oziewicz on 9 June 1943. On 4 July 1943, General Władysław Sikorski died in a plane crash under mysterious circumstances.
Within a period of two months, the Polish Army had lost three top commanders. Order of the White Eagle, posthumously Virtuti Militari Golden Cross Polonia Restituta, Officer's Cross Cross of Valour 8 times, 4 times for Polish-Soviet War and 4 times for Polish Defensive War of 1939 Gold Cross of Merit twice Cross of Independence with Swords Medal Pamiątkowy za Wojnę 1918-1921 Medal 10-lecia Odzyskania Niepodległości Armia Krajowa Cross, posthumously Star of Perseverance Legion of Merit Commander, posthumously by Ronald Reagan Légion d'honneur, Officer's Cross General Stefan "Grot" Rowecki Bridge - a bridge named after him in Warsaw
The Polish cavalry can trace its origins back to the days of medieval mounted knights. Poland is a country of flatlands and fields and mounted forces operate well in this environment; the knights and heavy horse cavalry evolved into many different types of specialised mounted military formations, some of which influenced western warfare and military science. This article details the evolution of Polish cavalry tactics and arms from the times of mounted knights and heavy winged hussars, through the times of light uhlans to mounted infantry equipped with ranged and mêlée weapons; the first Polish cavalry was created by the Duke of Polans - Mieszko I, who united the West Slav tribes in the area of modern Poland. It's noted in the manuscript of Abraham ben Jacob, he wrote. The Prince's druzhina received a share of military loot; until the 14th century, the Polish armed forces were composed of mounted soldiers. By the start of the 15th century, the core of the Polish armies was formed by mounted knights called to arms by the kings.
The basic tactical unit of the army was a banner, that is, a group of 50 men financed by a noble clan, a notable person or a land owner. The banner fought separately and included all the necessary detachments, including its own kitchen and servants. One of the finest examples of usage of the early Polish cavalry was the Battle of Grunwald of 1410. During the battle, the Polish armoured cavalry was used to break through the Teutonic lines. In addition, the Polish forces were helped by Lithuanian light cavalry of Eastern origins and by Tartar skirmishers, who used hit-and-run tactics. During the battle, after initial clashes of the light cavalry, the Teutonic Order split its forces, which were defeated by an armoured cavalry charge. In the 16th century the introduction of gunpowder and firearms made the medieval armoured cavalry obsolete; the standing army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was converted to other, more modern forms of cavalry. Under eastern influence, the armament of the cavalrymen was lightened and their speed and mobility increased, which added to the successes of the Polish cavalry in numerous wars against Muscovy and the Tartars.
1503 saw the formation of a first hussar unit in Poland. Being far more manoeuvrable than the armoured lancers employed, the hussars proved vital to the Polish victories at Orsza and Obertyn. By the reign of King Stefan Batory, the hussars had replaced medieval-style lancers in the Polish army, they now formed the bulk of the Polish cavalry. Over the course of the 16th century hussars had become heavier in character: they had abandoned wooden shields and adopted plate metal body armour. With the Battle of Lubieszów in 1577 the'Golden Age' of the husaria began; until the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Polish hussars fought countless actions against a variety of enemies, lost a battle. In the battles of Byczyna, Kluszyn, Chocim and Lwów, the Polish hussars proved to be the decisive factor against overwhelming odds. One of the most notable examples of such victories of the Lithuanian Grand Duchy hussars was the Battle of Kircholm of 1605, in which 3,000 hussars under Jan Karol Chodkiewicz managed to defeat 11,000 soldiers of Charles IX of Sweden - with negligible losses.
As one of the few units in the Polish national standing army, the hussars were well-trained and well-equipped. Until the 18th century they were considered the elite of the Polish national armed forces; because of the extreme cost, lackluster pay and prestige that surrounded the hussars all of them were members of the upper level nobility. Although by the 18th century their importance was diminished by the collapse of the Polish military system and not by the introduction of modern infantry firearms and quick-firing artillery, the Polish hussars' tactics and armament remained unchanged until they were absorbed into the National Cavalry regiments in the 1770s. At first hussars performed most services but as they grew heavier the need arose for a medium or lighter cavalry; the 16th century saw creation of lighter cavalry known as'Kozacy' until 1648 and known as'Pancerni' from the 1650s on until the 1770s,'Kozacy Pancerni' can be translated as'Armoured cossacs') in the Kingdom of Poland or'Petyhorcy' in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - whose offensive armament included a shorter'demi-lance' or'rohatyna', bow and arrows, war-ax, sabre in the 16th century and a pistol or two, a carbine in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The lighter yet cavalry was created during the Muscovite Wars of the early 17th century, the most famous unit or type was known as Lisowczyk, after their commander Aleksander Lisowski, that fought in the 30 Years War as well. Along with these mentioned Polish or Lithuanian horsemen there were banners/companies of lighter cavalry drawn from Lithuanian Tatars, Cheremis and Hungarians; the early 18th century saw the creation of yet another cavalry formation that influenced most European armies of the time: the uhlans. Light cavalry companies formed by Polish Tatars for one of the magantes, the uhlans
Lviv is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016. Lviv is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. Named in honour of Leo, the eldest son of Daniel, King of Ruthenia, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir III the Great who became known as the King of Poland and Ruthenia. From 1434, it was the regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland. In 1772, after the First Partition of Poland, the city became the capital of the Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. In 1918, for a short time, it was the capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Between the wars, the city was the centre of the Lwów Voivodeship in the Second Polish Republic. After the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, Lviv became part of the Soviet Union, in 1944–46 there was a population exchange between Poland and Soviet Ukraine.
In 1991, it became part of the independent nation of Ukraine. Administratively, Lviv serves as the administrative centre of Lviv Oblast and has the status of city of oblast significance. Lviv was the centre of the historical regions of Red Galicia; the historical heart of the city, with its old buildings and cobblestone streets, survived Soviet and German occupations during World War II unscathed. The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as Lviv University and Lviv Polytechnic. Lviv is the home of many cultural institutions, including a philharmonic orchestra and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet; the historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Besides its Ukrainian name, the city is known by several other names in different languages: Polish: Lwów. Lviv is located on the edge of the Roztochia Upland 70 kilometres from the Polish border and 160 kilometres from the eastern Carpathian Mountains; the average altitude of Lviv is 296 metres above sea level.
Its highest point is 409 meters above sea level. This castle has a commanding view of the historic city centre with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture; the old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the River Poltva. In the 13th century, the river was used to transport goods. In the early 20th century, the Poltva was covered over in areas. Lviv's climate is humid continental with mild summers; the average temperatures are − 18.3 °C in July. The average annual rainfall is 745 mm with the maximum being in summer. Mean sunshine duration per year at Lviv is about 1,804 hours. Archaeologists have demonstrated; the area between the Castle Hill and the river Poltva was continuously settled since the 9th century. In 1977 it was discovered that the Orthodox church of St. Nicholas had been built on a functioning cemetery; the city of Lviv was founded by King Daniel of Galicia in the Principality of Halych of Kingdom of Rus` and named in honour of his son Lev as Lwihorod, consistent with name of other Ukrainian cities such as Myrhorod, Novhorod, Horodyshche and many others.
Lviv was invaded by the Tatars in 1261. Various sources relate the events which range from destruction of the castle through to a complete razing of the town. All the sources agree; the Shevchenko Scientific Society informs. The Galician-Volhynian chronicle states that in 1261 "Said Buronda to Vasylko:'Since you are at peace with me raze all your castles'". Basil Dmytryshyn states that the order was implied to be the fortifications as a whole "If you wish to have peace with me destroy your towns". According to the Universal-Lexicon der Gegenwart und Vergangenheit the town's founder was ordered to destroy the town himself. After King Daniel's death, King Lev rebuilt the town around the year 1270 at its present location, choosing Lviv as his residence, made Lviv the capital of Galicia-Volhynia; the city is first mentioned in the Halych-Volhynian Chronicle regarding the events that were dated 1256. The town grew due to an influx of Polish people from Kraków, after they had suffered a widespread famine there.
Around 1280 Armenians lived in Galicia and were based in Lviv where they had their own Archbishop. In the 13th and early 14th centuries, Lviv was a wooden city, except for its several stone churches; some of them, like the Church of Saint Nicholas, have survived to this day, although in a rebuilt form. The town was inherited by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1340 and ruled by voivode Dmytro Dedko, the favourite of the Lithuanian prince Lubart, until 1349. During the wars over the succession of Galicia-Volhynia Principality in 1339 King Casimir III of Poland undertook an expedition and conquered Lviv in 1340, burning down the old princely castle. Poland ultimate
Rittmeister is or was a military rank of a commissioned cavalry officer in the armies of Germany, Austria-Hungary and some other countries. A Rittmeister is in charge of a squadron, is the equivalent of a Hauptmann-rank with a NATO rank of OF-2; the various names of this rank in different languages were: Swedish: ryttmästare Danish: ritmester Norwegian: rittmester or rittmeister German: Rittmeister Estonian: rittmeisterThe Dutch equivalent, Ritmeester, is still the official designation for officers in the cavalry branches of the Royal Dutch Army. The Norwegian rank, rittmester/rittmeister, still serves as the official designation for officers in the armoured and mechanized infantry branches of the Norwegian Army. In Sweden the rank was known as ryttmästare, in Denmark as ritmester; the spelling ritmester was used in Norwegian until 1907. The armies of Poland, Finland and Russia adopted, but localised, the Germanic term for someone of similar rank; these were: Polish: rotmistrz, Finnish: ratsumestari, Lithuanian: rotmistras, Russian: ротмистр.
In the Polish army a rotmistrz commanded. However, a rotmistrz of hussars was a commander of between 100 and 180 hussars, with a lieutenant of hussars as his second-in-command; the Lithuanian term was rotmistras. In earlier times the rotmistrz served as the commander of an infantry or cavalry company, though sometimes he would temporarily be assigned field rank tasks e.g. commanding an entire regiment or a larger formation. In the cavalry the rank continued until 1945 as a company level title. Applied to the commander of a troop, it was equivalent of a modern-day captain; the rank was adopted by Russian New Regiments as rotmistr and formalized in Table of Ranks as the cavalry post. In British and Commonwealth military forces, a Riding Master is an appointment, not a rank. In the Household Cavalry Regiment a suitable Warrant Officer within the ranks of Riding Instructors is commissioned from the ranks; the duration of this appointment is determined by the Regimental Lieutenant-Colonel and, once appointed, the Riding Master is responsible to the Commanding Officer of the Household Cavalry Regiment for the training of recruits and remounts.
Comparative military ranks Comparative military ranks of World War I Ranks and insignia of NATO armies officers List of Imperial German cavalry regiments Rittmeister Karl Bolle Rittmeister Bruno Richter Rotmistrz Witold Pilecki Rotmistrz Atanazy Miączyński
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is estimated at 1.770 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, a significant cultural and economic hub, its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once described as the'Paris of the North', Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. Bombed at the start of the German invasion in 1939, the city withstood a siege for which it was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari. Deportations of the Jewish population to concentration camps led to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and the destruction of the Ghetto after a month of combat.
A general Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944 led to greater devastation and systematic razing by the Germans in advance of the Vistula–Oder Offensive. Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after World War II, which had left over 85% of its buildings in ruins. Warsaw is one of Europe's most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world. In 2017 the city came 4th in the "Business-friendly" category and 8th in "Human capital and life style", it was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe. The city is a significant centre of research and development, Business process outsourcing, Information technology outsourcing, as well as of the Polish media industry; the Warsaw Stock Exchange is most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have their headquarters in Warsaw.
Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union. The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw Polytechnic, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world, the Zachęta National Gallery of Art; the picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw is positioning itself as Central and Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants, with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.
Warsaw's name in the Polish language is Warszawa. Other previous spellings of the name may have included Werszewa. According to some sources, the origin of the name is unknown. In Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda, it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia tends to have unclear etymology. Warszawa was the name of a fishing village. According to one theory Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; however the ending -awa is unusual for a big city. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River. In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of the Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland; the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka and warszawianie.
Other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Varšuva, Varsó and Varšava The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were located in Bródno and Jazdów. After Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa; the Prince of Płock, Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern-day Warsaw, in about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the official capital of the Masovian Duchy in 1413. 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in 1526. In 1529, Warsaw for the first time became the seat of th