1976 Summer Olympics
The 1976 Summer Olympics called the Games of the XXI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, the first Olympic Games held in Canada. Montreal was awarded the rights to the 1976 Games on May 12, 1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, over the bids of Moscow and Los Angeles, it was the first and, so far, only Summer Olympic Games. Calgary and Vancouver hosted the Winter Olympic Games in 1988 and 2010, respectively. Twenty-nine countries African, boycotted the Montreal Games when the International Olympic Committee refused to ban New Zealand, after the New Zealand national rugby union team had toured South Africa earlier in 1976 in defiance of the United Nations' calls for a sporting embargo; the vote occurred on May 1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, Netherlands. While Los Angeles and Moscow were viewed as the favourites given that they represented the world's two main powers, many of the smaller countries supported Montreal as an underdog and as a neutral site for the games.
Los Angeles was eliminated after the first round and Montreal won in the second round. Moscow would go on to host Los Angeles the 1984 Summer Olympics. One blank vote was cast in the final round. Toronto had made its third attempt for the Olympics but failed to get the support of the Canadian Olympic Committee, which selected Montreal instead. Robert Bourassa the Premier of Quebec, first asked Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to advise Canada's monarch, Elizabeth II, to attend the opening of the games. However, Bourassa became unsettled about how unpopular the move might be with sovereigntists in the province, annoying Trudeau, who had made arrangements; the leader of the Parti Québécois at the time, René Lévesque, sent his own letter to Buckingham Palace, asking the Queen to refuse her prime minister's request, though she did not oblige Lévesque as he was out of his jurisdiction in offering advice to the Sovereign. In 1976, succumbing to pressure from the Communist Chinese, issued an order barring Taiwan from participating as China in the 1976 Montreal Olympics, although technically it was a matter for the IOC.
His action strained relations with the United States – from President Ford, future President Carter and the press. The Oxford Olympics Study estimates the outturn cost of the Montreal 1976 Summer Olympics at USD 6.1 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 720% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games; the cost overrun for Montreal 1976 is the highest cost overrun on record for any Olympics.
The cost and cost overrun for Montreal 1976 compares with costs of USD 4.6 billion and a cost overrun of 51% for Rio 2016 and USD 15 billion and 76% for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games from 1960 to 2016 is 5.2 billion 2015 US dollars, average cost overrun is 176%. Much of the cost overruns were caused by the Conseil des métiers de la construction union whose leader was André "Dede" Desjardins, who kept the construction site in "anarchic disorder" as part of a shakedown; the French architect Roger Taillibert who designed the Olympic stadium recounted in his 2000 book Notre Cher Stade Olympique that he and Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau tried hard to buy off Desjardins taking him to a lunch at the exclusive Ritz-Carlton hotel in a vain attempt to end the "delays". Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa made some sort of secret deal to buy off Desjardins, which allowed work to proceed. Taillibert wrote in Notre Cher Stade Olympique "If the Olympic Games took place, it was thanks to Dede Desjardins.
What irony!" The opening ceremony of the 1976 Summer Olympic Games was held on Saturday, July 17, 1976, at the Olympic Stadium in Montreal, Quebec in front of an audience of some 73,000 in the stadium, an estimated half billion watching on television. Following an air show by the Canadian Forces Air Command's Snowbirds aerobatic flight demonstration squadron in the sunny skies above the stadium, the ceremony began at 3:00 pm with a trumpet fanfare and the arrival of Elizabeth II, as Queen of Canada; the Queen was accompanied by Michael Morris, Lord Killanin, President of the International Olympic Committee, was greeted to an orchestral rendition of'O Canada', an arrangement that for many years would be used in schools across the country as well as in the daily sign off of TV broadcasts in the country. The queen entered the Royal Box with her consort, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, her son, Prince Andrew, she joined a number of Canadian and Olympic dignitaries, including: Jules Léger, Governor General of Canada, his wife, Gabrielle.
The parade o
Stanisław Grędziński is a retired Polish sprinter who specialized in the 400 metres. He represented the club Górnik Wałbrzych. At the 1964 European Junior Championships he won silver medals in both 400 metres and 400 metres hurdles, as well as a silver medal in the medley relay where he ran the last leg, he became Polish 400 metres champion in 1966 and 1969. He was successful at the European Championships with a gold medal in 1966 and a silver in 1969, both individually. In the relay he won a gold medal in 1966 and finished fourth in 1969, he finished fourth in the 4 x 400 metre relay at the 1968 Summer Olympics. At the 1970 European Indoor Championships the Polish relay team won silver medals, his personal best time was 45.83 seconds, achieved in 1969
Sprinting is running over a short distance in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running as a way of reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Human physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than 30–35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscles, secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis. In athletics and track and field, sprints are races over short distances, they are among the oldest running competitions, being recorded at the Ancient Olympic Games. Three sprints are held at the modern Summer Olympics and outdoor World Championships: the 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres. At the professional level, sprinters begin the race by assuming a crouching position in the starting blocks before leaning forward and moving into an upright position as the race progresses and momentum is gained; the set position differs depending on the start. Body alignment is of key importance in producing the optimal amount of force.
Ideally the athlete should begin in a 4-point stance and push off using both legs for maximum force production. Athletes remain in the same lane on the running track throughout all sprinting events, with the sole exception of the 400 m indoors. Races up to 100 m are focused upon acceleration to an athlete's maximum speed. All sprints beyond this distance incorporate an element of endurance; the first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event—the stadion race, a spriting race from one end of the stadium to the other. The Diaulos was a double-stadion race, c. 400 metres, introduced in the 14th Olympiad of the ancient Olympic Games. The modern sprinting events have their roots in races of imperial measurements which were altered to metric: the 100 m evolved from the 100-yard dash, the 200 m distance came from the furlong, the 400 m was the successor to the 440-yard dash or quarter-mile race. Biological factors that determine a sprinter's potential include: The 60 metres is run indoors, on a straight section of an indoor athletic track.
Since races at this distance can last around six or seven seconds, having good reflexes and thus getting off to a quick start is more vital in this race than any other. This is the distance required for a human to reach maximum speed and can be run with one breath, it is popular for testing in other sports. The world record in this event is held by American sprinter Christian Coleman with a time of 6.34 seconds. 60-metres is used as an outdoor distance by younger athletes. Note: Indoor distances are less standardized as many facilities run shorter or longer distances depending on available space. 60m is the championship distance. The 100 metres sprint takes place on one length of the home straight of a standard outdoor 400 m track; the world-record holder in this race is considered "the world's fastest man/woman." The current world record of 9.58 seconds is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica and was set on 16 August 2009, at the 2009 World Athletics Championships. The women's world record was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner.
World class male sprinters need 41 to 50 strides to cover the whole 100 metres distances. The 200 metres begins on the curve of a standard track, ends on the home straight; the ability to "run a good bend" is key at the distance, as a well conditioned runner will be able to run 200 m in an average speed higher than their 100 m speed. Usain Bolt, ran 200 m in the world-record time of 19.19 sec, an average speed of 10.422 m/s, whereas he ran 100 m in the world-record time of 9.58 sec, an average speed of 10.438 m/s. Indoors, the race is run as one lap of the track, with only slower times than outdoors. A shorter race, the stadion, was the first recorded event at the ancient Olympic Games and the oldest known formal sports event in history; the world record in this event is 19.19 seconds, held by Usain Bolt and was set on 20 August 2009, at the 2009 World Athletics Championships. The 400 metres is one lap around the track on the inside lane. Runners are staggered in their starting positions to ensure.
While this event is classified as a sprint, there is more scope to use tactics in the race. The world record is held by Wayde van Niekerk with a time of 43.03 seconds in Rio Olympic 2016 in 400m final The 4×100 metres relay is another prestigious event, with an average speed, quicker than the 100 m, as the runners can start moving before they receive the baton. The world record in this event is 36.84 seconds, held by the Jamaican team as set 11 August 2012 at the Games of the XXX Olympiad held in London. The 4x400 metres relay is held at track and field meetings, is by tradition the final event at major championships; the event was a common event for most American students, because it was one of the standardized test events as part of the President's Award on Physical Fitness. The 50 metres is an uncommon alternative to the 60 metres. Donovan Bailey holds the men's world record with a time of 5.56 seconds and Irina Privalova holds the women's world record with a time of 5.96 seconds. A run sprinting event, once more commonplace.
The world record
Andrzej Badenski was a Polish sprinter who specialized in the 400 metres. He won a bronze medal in that event at the 1964 Summer Olympics, won the gold medal in that event at the European Indoor Championships in 1968 and in 1971. Badenski represented the club Legia Warszawa. At the 1962 European Championships he finished sixth in the 400 metres, he did however win few international accolades before winning the bronze medal in the 400 metres at the 1964 Olympic Games. At the same Olympics he finished sixth in the 4×400 metres relay together with the Polish team. At the 1966 European Championships he won a silver medal in the 400 metres, only behind Stanislaw Gredzinski, won the 4×400 metres relay together with Jan Werner, Edmund Borowski and Stanislaw Gredzinski. After this, his greatest success would come in the regional indoor championships. At the 1967 European Indoor Games he competed in the relay final, but the team did not finish, at the 1968 European Indoor Games he won a gold medal in the relay.
He won the individual distance at the 1968 European Indoor Games, two relay gold medals at the 1969 European Indoor Games. His second Olympic Games were in 1968, he finished seventh in the 400 metres. In the 4×400 metres relay he finished fourth together with Stanislaw Gredzinski, Jan Balachowski and Jan Werner. With the same team members he finished fourth in the relay at the 1969 European Championships. In the individual distance he finished sixth. At the 1970 European Indoor Championships he won two silver medals. At the 1971 European Indoor Championships he won gold medals in both these events, the latter together with Waldemar Korycki, Jan Werner and Jan Balachowski. With the same team members he won a silver medal in the relay at the 1971 European Championships and a gold medal at the 1972 European Indoor Championships. At the 1972 Olympic Games he reached the semi-final in the 400 metres and finished fifth in the relay, he became Polish 400 metres champion in 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965 and 1967, in 1971 he became American indoor champion in the 600 yards event.
His personal best time in the 400 metres was 45.42 seconds, achieved in 1968. At the end of his career in 1974 he lived in Germany until his death, he died near Wiesbaden in September 2008
Sergio Ottolina is an Italian former sprinter. He won a bronze medal in the 200 m at the 1962 European Athletics Championships and a silver medal in the sprint medley relay at the 1966 European Indoor Games. On 24 June 1964 he set a European record in the 200 m at 20.4 seconds. He competed at the 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics in five individual and team sprint events in total, with the best achievements of seven place in the 4 × 100 m relay and in the 4 × 400 m relay. Ottolina retired from competitions shortly before the 1972 Games due to a motorcycle accident. Two titles in the 100 metres at the Italian Athletics Championships Italy national relays team at the international athletics championships Sergio Ottolina at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
Niels Holst-Sørensen is a former Danish athlete and air force officer. He served as the commander-in-chief of the Royal Danish Air Force in 1970–1982 and Denmark's military representative to NATO in 1982–1986, he won gold and silver medals at the 1946 European Athletics Championships and served as a member of the International Olympic Committee from 1977 to 2002. Holst-Sørensen's first major international meeting was the 1946 European Championships, which took place in Oslo. Holst-Sørensen won the gold medal in the 400 metres with a time of 47.9 seconds. He won a silver medal over 800 metres, finishing a tenth of a second behind the Swedish athlete Rune Gustafsson in a time of 1:51.1. He was a member of the Danish team which finished fourth in the 4 x 400 metres relay in a time of 3:15.4. Holst-Sørensen competed in the 800 metres at the 1948 Olympics in London, he qualified for the final in a time of 1:52.4, but finished the final in eighth place in a time of 1:53.4. Holst-Sørensen won a total of ten Danish championships over 400 and 800 metres, winning both events every year from 1943 to 1947.
In 1943 he won the 800 metres in a time of 1:48.9, the fastest time recorded in the world that year. Holst-Sørensen began his career running for Herning GF, but switched to Københavns Idræts Forening in 1944. Holst-Sørensen joined to International Olympic committee in 1977 and served as a member until 2002, he served on the IOC's coordination committees for the Winter Olympic Games in Albertville in 1992, Lillehammer in 1994, Nagano in 1998 and Salt Lake City in 2002. He was named as an honorary member of the IOC following his retirement in 2002. Holst-Sørensen served as the president of the National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark from 1981 to 1984. Holst-Sørensen is a graduate of the Royal Danish Army Officers Academy and was a serving Lieutenant in the Royal Danish Army during his athletic career, he was transferred to the Royal Danish Air Force at its foundation in 1950. He rose to the rank of Major General and served as the commander-in-chief of the Air Force from 1970 to 1982 and Denmark's military representative to NATO from 1982 to 1986.
He retired from the Air Force in 1987
1969 European Indoor Games
The 4th European Indoor Games were held between 8-9 March 1969 in Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia. In 1970 the European Indoor Games were replaced by the European Athletics Indoor Championships; the track used for the championships was 195 metres long. Results Medallists – men at GBRathletics.com Medallists – women at GBRathletics.com