Brest formerly Brześć nad Bugiem Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet. It is the city of the Brest voblast. The city of Brest is a site of many cultures. It was the location of important historical events such as the Union of Brest, the Brest Fortress was recognized by the Soviet Union as the Hero Fortress in honor of the defense of Brest Fortress in June 1941. During medieval times, the city was part of the Kingdom of Poland from 1020 until 1319 when it was taken by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and it became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. As a result of the Partitions of Poland, it was incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1795, after World War I, the city returned to Second Polish Republic. In 1941 it was again by the Nazis during Operation Barbarossa. After the war, once the new boundaries between the USSR and Poland were ratified, the city part of the Soviet BSSR until the breakup of the country in 1991.
It is part of sovereign Belarus of today, several theories attempt to account for the origin of the citys name. It might have come from the Slavic root beresta meaning birch, the name of the city could originate from the Slavic root berest meaning elm. And finally, the name of the city could have come from the Lithuanian word brasta meaning ford, once a center of Jewish scholarship, the city has the Yiddish name בריסק, hence the term Brisker used to describe followers of the influential Soloveitchik family of rabbis. The traditional Belarusian name for the city is Берасце, Brest became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1319. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth formed in 1569 the town was known in Polish as Brześć, after World War I, and the rebirth of Poland, the government of the Second Polish Republic renamed the city as Brześć nad Bugiem on March 20,1923. After World War II the city part of Soviet Belarus with the name simplified as Brest. Brests coat of arms features an arrow pointed upwards and a bow on a sky-blue shield and it was adopted on January 26,1991.
An alternative coat of arms has a red shield, Sigismund II Augustus, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, first granted Brest a coat of arms in 1554. The city was founded by the Slavs, as a town, Brest – Berestye in Kievan Rus – was first mentioned in the Primary Chronicle in 1019 when the Kievan Rus took the stronghold from the Poles. It is one of the oldest cities in Belarus and it was hotly contested between the Polish rulers and Kievan Rus princes, laid waste by the Mongols in 1241, and was not rebuilt until 1275
Lida is a city in western Belarus in Hrodna Voblast, situated 160 kilometres west of Minsk. The name Lida is derived from the name of the river Lidzeya and its origin is associated with the Lithuanian appellative Lyda - Lydimas, meaning to fuse, to cast. Names in other languages are spelled as Polish and Yiddish, there are passing mentions of Lida in chronicles from 1180. Until the early 14th century the settlement at Lida was a fortress in Lithuania proper. In 1323, the Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas built a fortress there. 1380 is generally considered the year of the city of Lida. The fortress withstood Crusader attacks from Prussia in 1392 and 1394, following the death of Gediminas, when Lithuania was divided into principalities, Lida became the capital of one of them, the seat of Algirdas. Lida was in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in the second half of the 14th century, after the Christianization of Lithuania the Catholic parish was established in former pagan lands and a Church was built by Jogaila.
Subsequently, in the 15th century the town became a centre of production by craftsmen, Lida was connected with Vilnius and Minsk. At that time the town had a square and four streets, Zamkowa, Kamieńska. In 1588, Lida became the seat of Lida District in Vilnius Voivodeship, magdeburg Rights were granted to the town in 1590 and confirmed in 1776 by the Polish Sejm. By these rights Lida held two annual fairs of little import to the local economy, the population was between 2,000 and 5,000 people. It was part of the Russian Empire after the partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795. The 17th century was a time in Lida. Caught by invading to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth forces of Russia and Sweden, a depression resulted, and people moved out of Lida. By 1786,514 inhabitants were left in Lida. in 1795, Lida was a part of the Lithuania Governorate in 1797 and of Grodno Governorate since 1801. The town was destroyed during the French occupation in 1812. In 1817 the population was 1366 people, since 1842 Lida was the district centre in Vilna Governorate
Michael Glinsky was a noble from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of distant Tatar extraction who was a tutor of his nephew, Ivan the Terrible. As a young man, Glinsky served in the court of Emperor Maximilian I, around 1498 he returned to Lithuania and quickly rose in power and wealth, angering local nobles. Glinsky began a rebellion against Sigismund I, the new Grand Duke. The rebellion was unsuccessful and Glinski retreated to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, when the Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars renewed in 1512, Glinsky was instrumental in helping Moscow to capture Smolensk, a major trading center. However, he was not rewarded with the regency of the city, angered, he planned to betray Vasili III, but the plot was discovered and he was imprisoned for 12 years. He was freed after his niece Elena Glinskaya married Vasili III in 1526, before his death in 1533, Vasili appointed Elena and Glinski as protectors of his underage sons Ivan and Yuri. Elena disapproved of Glinskys influence in the state and had him sent to prison, the Glinsky family claimed descent from Orthodox Hungarian nobles and Emir Mamai.
As a young man Glinsky was sent to the court of Emperor Maximilian I and he won distinction during Maximilians campaigns against Friesland in 1498 and was awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece. In the service of Albrecht of Saxony during the Italian Wars, Glinski traveled extensively in Austria and Spain. He studied medicine at the University of Bologna, this fact was used against him in life as such education introduced him to poisons. During his twelve-year tour of western courts, Glinski could boast of personal connections and relationships with members of the nobility. In late 1498, Glinsky returned to Lithuania, where he became a favorite and personal friend of Alexander Jagiellon. Almost immediately upon return, Glinsky became Grand Dukes vice-regent in Utena and he was appointed Court Marshal of Lithuania and became a member of the Lithuanian Council of Lords in 1500. The following year he was granted privileges to conduct trade in wax. Due to his connections with western Europe and knowledge of foreign languages, such a quick rise of a young man stirred up resentment among the local nobility.
The greatest rivalry developed between Glinsky and Jan Zabrzeziński, Voivode of Trakai, in 1504, Grand Duke Alexander, urged by Glinsky, confiscated land possessions of Zabrzezińskis son-in-law. The following year, Zabrzeziński was fined, stripped of his titles, shortly Zabrzeziński reconciled with Alexander and was reinstated as the Grand Marshal of Lithuania. In August 1506, Glinsky replaced Stanisław Kiszka, the Great Hetman of Lithuania and he led the Lithuanians to a decisive victory against the Crimean Khanate
Grand Duchy of Moscow
The Grand Duchy of Moscow, or Grand Principality of Moscow, was a late medieval Rus principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia. The state originated with Daniel I, who inherited Moscow in 1283, eclipsing and it annexed the Novgorod Republic in 1478 and the Grand Duchy of Tver in 1485. After the Mongol invasion of Rus, Muscovy was a vassal to the Mongol ruled Golden Horde until 1480. By his marriage to the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, he established Muscovy as the state of the Roman Empire. Ivans successor Vasili III enjoyed success, gaining Smolensk from Lithuania in 1512. Vasilis son Ivan IV was an infant at his fathers death in 1533 and he was crowned in 1547, assuming the title of tsar together with the proclamation of Tsardom of Russia. As with many states the country had no particular official name. The Duke of Moscow or the Sovereign of Moscow were common short titles, in rivalry with other duchies Moscow dukes designated themselves as the Grand Dukes, claiming a higher position in the hierarchy of Russian dukes.
During the territorial growth and acquisitions, the title became rather lengthy. Since the 14th century various Moscow dukes added of all Rus to their titles, after the title of Russian metropolitans, Dmitry Shemyaka was the first Moscow duke who minted coins with the title the Sovereign of all Rus. Under the Polish-Lithuanian influence the country began to be called Muscovy in Western Europe, the first appearances of the term were in an Italian document of 1500. Initially Moscovia was the Latinized name of the city of Moscow itself, not of the state, it acquired its meaning and has been used alongside of the older name. The term Muscovy persisted in the West until the beginning of the 18th century and is used in historical contexts. When the Mongols invaded the lands of Kievan Rus in the 13th century, the first ruler of the principality of Moscow, Daniel I, was the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky of Vladimir-Suzdal. He started to expand his principality by seizing Kolomna and securing the bequest of Pereslavl-Zalessky to his family, daniels son Yuriy controlled the entire basin of the Moskva River and expanded westward by conquering Mozhaisk.
He forged an alliance with the overlord of the Rus principalities, Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde, the Khan allowed Yuriy to claim the title of Grand Duke of Vladimir-Suzdal, a position which allowed him to interfere in the affairs of the Novgorod Republic to the north-west. Yuriys successor, Ivan I, managed to retain the title of Grand Duke by cooperating closely with the Mongols and by collecting tribute and taxes from other Rus principalities on their behalf. This relationship enabled Ivan to gain regional ascendancy, particularly over Moscows chief rival, the city of Tver
Alexander I Jagiellon of the House of Jagiellon was the Grand Duke of Lithuania and also King of Poland. He was the son of Casimir IV Jagiellon. He was elected Grand Duke of Lithuania on the death of his father, Alexander was born as son of the King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland and Elisabeth Habsburg of Hungary, daughter of the King Albert of Hungary. For want of funds, Alexander was unable to resist the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights or prevent Grand Duke of Muscovy Ivan III from ravaging Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Tatars. In the terms of the truce, Lithuania had to surrender about a third of its territory to the nascent expansionist Russian state, during his reign, Poland suffered much humiliation at the hands of her subject principality, Moldavia. It is important to note that Alexander was the last known ruler of the Gediminids dynasty to have maintained the familys ancestral Lithuanian language, from his death, Polish became the sole language of the family, thus fully Polonising the Jagiello family.
In 1931, during the refurbishment of Vilnius Cathedral, the sarcophagus of Alexander was discovered. History of Poland Sejm walny St. Annes Church, Vilnius This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Pages and Forums on the Lithuanian History Alexander Jagiellon at Find a Grave
Sigismund I the Old
Sigismund I of Poland, of the Jagiellon dynasty, reigned as King of Poland and as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548. Earlier, Sigismund had been invested as Duke of Silesia, Sigismund I, the fifth son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Habsburg, had ruled Głogów, since 1499 and became margrave of Lusatia and governor of all Silesia in 1504. In a short time his judicial and administrative reforms transformed those territories into model states and he succeeded his brother Alexander I as grand prince of Lithuania and king of Poland in 1506. Although he established fiscal and monetary reforms, he clashed with the Polish Diet over extensions of royal power. At the Diet’s demand he married Barbara, daughter of Prince Stephen Zápolya of Hungary, in 1512, to secure a defense treaty and she died three years later, leaving only daughters. In 1518 Sigismund married the niece of the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian, Bona Sforza of Milan, by whom he had one son, Sigismund II Augustus and his daughter Catherine married John III of Sweden, from whom the Vasa kings of Poland were descended.
In 1521 Sigismund made peace with his nephew Albert, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Sigismund added the duchy of Mazovia to the Polish state after the death, in 1529, of the last of its Piast dynasty rulers. Again under the command of Tarnowski, Sigismund’s army defeated the forces of Moldavia at Obertyn in 1531 and Muscovy in 1535. Sigismund, influenced by his wife, brought Italian artists to Kraków, although a devout Catholic, he accorded religious toleration to Greek Orthodox Christians and royal protection to Jews. At first he vigorously opposed Lutheranism but resigned himself to its power in Poland. Sigismund I was a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece, the son of King Casimir IV Jagiellon and Elisabeth of Austria, Sigismund followed his brothers John I of Poland and Alexander I of Poland to the Polish throne. Their elder brother Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary became king of Hungary, Sigismund was christened as the namesake of his mothers maternal grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, who had died in 1437.
After his fathers death, Sigismund was the son who did not hold any land titles. In the years 1495-1496, he addressed his older brother, the Lithuanian Grand Duke Alexander, and demanded the separation of a domain from the Lithuanian Duchy, Queen Dowager Elisabeth Habsburg tried without success to ensure the succession of her son to the throne of Austria. Also, the disastrous and unsuccessful invasion of Bukovina led by his oldest brother King John I Albert dispelled the plans for placing Sigismund on the Moldavian throne. Eventually Sigismund came under the care of Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia and Hungary, from whom he received the duchy of Głogów and Opava and in 1504 became governor of Silesia and Lower Lusatia. On 8 December 1506, during the session of the Polish Senate in Piotrków and he arrived in Kraków on 20 January 1507 and was crowned four days in Wawel Cathedral by Primate Andrzej Boryszewski. The internal situation in Poland was characterised by broad authorisation of the Chamber of Deputies, during Alexanders reign, the law of Nihil novi had been instituted, which forbade kings of Poland from enacting laws without the consent of the Sejm
Radvila Astikas or Astikaitis was a magnate, a member of the Astikai and founder of the Radvila family. He was a member of the Lithuanian Council of Lords and one of the most influential people in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Astikas was one of the sons of Kristinas Astikas. He was first mentioned in sources in the 1411 Treaty of Melno. He was Grand Dukes marshal in 1420–29 and 1440–52, Radvila Astikas was Voivode of Trakai and Castellan of Vilnius, as well as Grand Marshal of Lithuania. He was sent to several missions, to Teutonic Knights in 1466,1447. He participated in negotiating the 1473 Treaty of Kurcums which defined the Lithuanian–Livonian border, there were rumors that in 1440 Astikas was considered as a candidate to the Grand Dukes throne instead of Casimir Jagiellon, but they should be taken with a grain of salt. Astikas patrimonial lands were around Kernavė, Anykščiai, Užpaliai and his most important patrimonial possession was Musninkai where he funded a Catholic church. In 1447, Grand Duke Casimir Jagiellon gifted Kėdainiai to Astikas, additionally, he had landholdings in Upninkai, Širvintos, Biržai, Vyžuona, and others.
Astikas donated for the construction of St. George Church and his wifes name or origin is unknown. His son Mikalojus Radvila nicknamed the Old was the first to carry his fathers name Radvila as a family name and his daughter Anna married Petka Jogailavičius