The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy
The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy is an American animated television series created by Maxwell Atoms for Cartoon Network, is the 14th of the network's Cartoon Cartoons. It follows two children named Billy—a slow-witted happy-go-lucky boy—and Mandy—his dark and cynical best friend—who, after winning a limbo game to save Billy's pet hamster, gain the mighty Grim Reaper as their best friend in eternal servitude and slavery. Billy & Mandy began as a series of segments on Grim & Evil, from which it was spun-off, along with Evil Con Carne, on August 24, 2001; the show ran as a separate series from June 13, 2003, to November 9, 2007. Underfist: Halloween Bash, a made-for-TV movie intended to serve as a pilot for a new spin-off series, aired on October 12, 2008. In addition to the episodes, three movies, two special episodes, nineteen shorts were made. During its run, the series won two Emmy Awards and one Annie Award, with nominations for one Daytime Emmy Award, three Golden Reel Awards, two other Annie Awards.
Billy & Mandy has been made into a video game as well as various licensed merchandise. The series is centered around the exploits of Grim, a Jamaican accented Reaper and Billy, a idiotic and happy-go-lucky boy, they are assisted by Mandy, a cynical and merciless girl. After Billy and Mandy cheated at a limbo match against Grim, he is enslaved in a permanently unwanted friendship with the children. Grim is miserable in the first days of his servitude, fantasizes about killing them multiple times. However, as the time passes, he adapts to the new life, grows to care for Billy and Mandy, if only somewhat. Despite this, he retains a love-hate relationship with the two and desires to break free from his servitude. Billy and Mandy use Grim's supernatural abilities and powers to venture into supernatural locations or environments, such as the Underworld, or the Netherworld, inhabited by an assortment of grotesque monstrous beasts; the pair use Grim's enormously strong supernatural abilities or ties with a number of beastly characters to achieve goals or desires for themselves with twisted results.
Famed fictional monsters including Dracula, the Wolfman, the bogeyman are comically depicted in the series. Supporting characters include a nerdy awkward boy who has a crush on Mandy; the show lacks continuity for the most part, as many episodes end with characters killed, exiled, or stuck in a situation. Characters sometimes display an awareness of some events from previous episodes, but there are no clear character arcs or coherent plot lines tying the show together; the series had its genesis in 1995, when Maxwell Atoms, while he was a junior at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia, made a two-minute short film for his thesis project. Titled Billy and Mandy in: The Trepanation of the Skull and You, it centers around Billy and Mandy discussing trepanning with each other. In the end, Mandy drills Billy's head, causing him to pass out after too much blood loss though he says he feels great; the short had never been shown publicly until April 30, 2016, during the first annual TromAnimation Film Festival.
After the screening, Atoms uploaded the film, albeit in a deteriorating state after years of storage, on his YouTube channel. Atoms pitched the Billy and Mandy concept to Nickelodeon, but it was only rejected once; the show's existence is the result of a viewer poll event by way of telephone and the Internet called Cartoon Network's Big Pick, held from June 16 to August 25, 2000. The three final choices were Grim and Evil, Whatever Happened to... Robot Jones? and Longhair and Doubledome. Out of the three and Evil attained the most votes with 57%. Part of Grim & Evil, Billy & Mandy served as the main show. In each episode, an Evil Con Carne short was put between two Grim shorts. On occasion, it was the other way around, with two Evil shorts and one Grim short; the series premiered on August 2001, during the Cartoon Cartoon Fridays Big Pick Weekend. On June 13, 2003, the network separated the two segments and gave each their own full-length program; the short-lived Evil Con Carne show was cancelled.
Some characters from Evil Con Carne appeared on The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy. General Skarr become an official character on the show in the episode "Skarred for Life", where he becomes Billy's new next-door neighbor, in "Company Halt", the ninth episode of the final season which functions as the true series finale for Evil Con Carne, Hector and Stomach restart their evil organization and convince Skarr to join them, but their plans are foiled by Billy and Mandy, Skarr goes back to living his life as a normal person; the Grim Adventures of Billy & Ma
Jilly Cooper, CBE is an English author. She began her career as a journalist and wrote numerous works of non-fiction before writing several romance novels, the first of which appeared in 1975, she is most famous for writing the Rutshire Chronicles. Jilly Sallitt was born in Hornchurch, England, to Mary Elaine and Brigadier W. B. Sallitt, OBE, she grew up in Ilkley and Surrey, was educated at the Moorfield School in Ilkley and the Godolphin School in Salisbury. After unsuccessfully trying to begin a career in the British national press, Cooper became a junior reporter for The Middlesex Independent, based in Brentford, she worked for the paper from 1957 to 1959. Subsequently, she worked as an account executive, publisher's reader and receptionist, her break came with a chance meeting at a dinner party. The editor of The Sunday Times Magazine asked her to write a feature about her experiences; this led to a column in which Cooper wrote about marriage and housework. That column ran from 1969 to 1982, when she moved to The Mail on Sunday, where she worked for another five years.
Cooper’s first column led to the publication of her first book, How to Stay Married in 1969 and, followed by a guide to working life, How to Survive from Nine to Five in 1970. Some of her journalism was collected into a single volume, Jolly Super, in 1971; the theme of class dominates much of her writing and her non-fiction, written from an explicitly upper middle-class British perspective, with emphasis on the relationships between men and women, matters of social class in contemporary Britain. She was in favour of the Iraq War; as with her non-fiction works, Cooper draws on her own point of view and experiences. For example, her own house is the model for Rupert Campbell-Black's: both are old, his overlooks. She draws on her love of animals: dogs and horses feature in her books. Woods, fields and rivers feature frequently. In 1975, Cooper published her first work of Emily, it was based on a short story she wrote for a teenage magazine, as were the subsequent romances, all titled with female names: Bella, Prudence and Octavia.
Octavia is one of Cooper's "name" books, which each bear a female character's name and has been made into a television adaptation. It is set in Britain during the 1970s; the broadcast ITV adaptation was produced with a screenplay, written by Jonathan Harvey. One character was modelled on George Humphreys, a Welshman with whom Cooper had an affair in the late 1950s; the Times noted that Cooper avoids the traditional romantic convention in which the heroine remains a virgin until the last page. Elizabeth Grey found the jokes annoying but still funny, confessed to falling in love with the character of Octavia. An excerpt was included in The Dirty Bits For Girls, a collection of favourite "dirty bits" from novels Knight read as a teenager. Octavia Brennan is a flawed young woman, living the high life in 1970s London. Though she is flirtatious and has - by her own admission - slept with many men, she has never found happiness with any of them. After bumping into an old school friend and falling for her fiancé, Octavia is invited to spend the weekend with them on their canal boat.
Characteristically, she convinces herself that Jeremy cannot have real affection for the overweight and clumsy Gussie, she is determined to win Jeremy by the end of the weekend. But when Jeremy invites Welsh firebrand Gareth Llewellyn along for the ride, Octavia finds her plans disrupted in more ways than one. Production began on 17 September 2007, in London. Jilly Cooper was invited to make a cameo appearance as a guest at a party, its broadcast was delayed according to a Broadcast Now article in early 2009 as a consequence of the recession - ITV put many of their dramas'on ice'. The Guardian reported early in 2009 Octavia had no transmission slots for the forthcoming year and said, for accountancy purposes, its cost would not counted until the show was broadcast. Octavia had its first UK screening in 2009 with Tamsin Egerton taking the title role; the cast was: Tamsin Egerton as Octavia Brennan Patrick Baladi as Jeremy West Richard Coyle as Gareth Llewellyn Tom McKay as Xander Brennan Alice Glover as Lorna Hamilton Joel Fry as Charlie Mancini However, Cooper's best-known works are her long novels.
The first of these was Riders, an international bestseller, the first volume of Rutshire Chronicles. The first version of Riders was written by 1970, but shortly after Cooper had finished it, she took it with her into the West End of London and left the manuscript on a bus; the London Evening Standard put out an appeal. She was, she says, "devastated", it took her more than a decade to start it again. Riders and the following books are characterised by intricate plots, featuring multiple story lines and a large number of characters. Although the books do not always follow each other sequentially - Rivals and Polo chronologically overlap, for example - they are linked by recurring characters and books make reference to events of previous books; the stories feature adultery/ infidelity and general betrayal, melodramatic misunderstandings and emotions, money worries and domestic upheavals. Each book of the Rutshire Chronicles is set in a glamorous and wealthy
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Juliet Maryon Mills is a British-American actress. She is the eldest of three siblings. Mills began her career as a child actress and was nominated for a Tony Award for her stage performance in Five Finger Exercise in 1960, she progressed to film work and to television, playing the lead role on the sitcom Nanny and the Professor in the early 1970s. She received Golden Globe Award nominations for her work in this series and for her role in the film Avanti! in 1972. She won an Emmy Award for her performance in the television miniseries QB VII. In 1983, Mills joined The Mirror Theater Ltd's Mirror Repertory Company, performing in repertory productions such as Rain, Paradise Lost and The Hasty Heart throughout their seasons. From 1999 until 2008, she had a role on the daytime drama series Passions, for which she was nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award. Mills was born in London during World War II, though her parents, actor Sir John Mills and playwright Mary Hayley Bell, soon moved the family to the country to be away from the German Luftwaffe raids.
She is the elder sister of director Jonathan Mills. Because of her parents' fame, Mills grew up surrounded by famous actors, including Rex Harrison, David Niven and Marlon Brando, she recalled her childhood in the 2000 documentary film Sir John Mills' Moving Memories, written by her brother. Her godmother was actress Vivien Leigh, her godfather was playwright Noël Coward, she attended the Elmhurst Ballet School, in Surrey. As a child, Mills appeared as an extra in various films, including a role as Freda's 11-week-old baby in the 1942 film In Which We Serve, starring her father, her first major role came in 1958, when she was 16, in the Peter Shaffer play Five Finger Exercise, as "Pamela Harrington". The show ran one year in London, moved to the Music Box Theatre on Broadway. In 1960, Mills was nominated for a Tony Award as "Best Featured Actress" for her performance as Pamela. In the 1960s, she would act both in films and on television, including the film, The Rare Breed with James Stewart and Maureen O'Hara, on television series such as The Man from U.
N. C. L. E. Ben Casey and 12 O'Clock High; the 1970s saw her working in television, although she has stated that the highlight of her film career was the film Avanti!, directed by Billy Wilder, in which she starred with Jack Lemmon, for which she received a Golden Globe Award nomination in 1973.. Mills appeared in a two-part 1987 episode of the TV series The Love Boat playing Barbara Danver, wife of Alan Danver, played by Dan Rowan, one half of the Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In partnership, she is best known for starring on the American television series Nanny and the Professor, called an American version of Mary Poppins. She played a nanny with magical powers. Mills has stated that she herself believes in magic and fairies: "There's a lot more, you know, in the aether and around us... We have guides, we have angels taking care of us... I believe in metaphysics, in a big way." She was again nominated for another Golden Globe Award in 1971 for the same role. Despite strong ratings, the series ran only two seasons, in 1970 and 1971.
When it moved from a timeslot near The Partridge Family and The Brady Bunch, two hugely successful sitcoms, to a different night of the week, ratings fell leading to its cancellation. In 1974, she won an Emmy Award for "Outstanding Single Performance by a Supporting Actress in a Comedy or Drama Special" for her performance in the miniseries adaptation of QB VII. During the 1974–75 television season, she had a recurring role as Dr. Claire Hanley on NBC's Born Free. In 1980, Mills returned to the stage, with Maxwell Caulfield; the two actors hit it off, the younger Caulfield became her third husband, leading Mills to withdraw from acting for a time. In 1999, she was cast on the daytime drama Passions as Tabitha Lenox, a witch, burned at the stake in the 17th century; the character wished harm on other people, but in a June 2007 episode, the character was declared a "good witch." Mills was nominated for her first Daytime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Lead Actress" for the role. The series ended in August 2008.
In 2009, Mills joined the cast the ITV drama Wild at Heart, playing "Georgina", the sister of a character played in the previous series by her real-life sister Hayley. She guest-starred in two episodes of Hot in Cleveland as Philipa Scroggs, the mother of Joy. Mills has been married three times; the first time was from 1961 to Russell Alquist, Jr. with whom she had a son, Sean. Her second marriage was from 1975 to 1980 to Michael Miklenda, with whom she had a second child, a daughter, Melissa. In 1980, Mills married 18 years her junior. Mills said of the age difference, "Everybody is always interested in the fact that I am married to someone, a lot younger than I am... There are no rules, that's what I believe, because age doesn't matter. If you meet someone that you're close to, someone that you love, stick with that."Caulfield is stepfather to Melissa Miklenda, Mills' daughter from her second marriage, to Sean Alquist, Mills' son from her first marriage. Mills became a naturalised United States citizen on 10 October 1975.
Juliet Mills on IMDb Juliet Mills at the Internet Broadway Database Juliet Mills at the TCM Movie Database Juliet Mills at AllMovie
Peter and Wendy
Peter Pan. Both versions tell the story of Peter Pan, a mischievous yet innocent little boy who can fly, has many adventures on the island of Neverland, inhabited by mermaids, Native Americans and pirates; the Peter Pan stories involve the characters Wendy Darling and her two brothers, Peter's fairy Tinker Bell, the Lost Boys, the pirate Captain Hook. The play and novel were inspired by Barrie's friendship with the Llewelyn Davies family. Barrie continued to revise the play for years after its debut until publication of the play script in 1928; the play debuted in London on 27 December 1904 with Nina Boucicault, daughter of playwright Dion Boucicault, in the title role. A Broadway production was mounted in 1905 starring Maude Adams, it was revived with such actresses as Marilyn Miller and Eva Le Gallienne. The play has since been adapted as a pantomime, stage musical, a television special, several films, including a 1924 silent film, Walt Disney's 1953 animated full-length feature film, a 2003 live action production.
The play is now performed in its original form on stage in the United Kingdom, whereas pantomime adaptations are staged around Christmas. In the U. S. the original version has been supplanted in popularity by the 1954 musical version, which became popular on television. The novel was first published in 1911 by Hodder & Stoughton in the United Kingdom and Charles Scribner's Sons in the United States; the original book contains 11 half-tone plates by artist F. D. Bedford; the novel was first abridged by May Byron in 1915, with Barrie's permission, published under the title Peter Pan and Wendy, the first time this form was used. This version was illustrated by Mabel Lucie Attwell in 1921. In 1929, Barrie gave the copyright of the Peter Pan works to Great Ormond Street Hospital, a children's hospital in London. Barrie created Peter Pan in stories he told to the sons of his friend Sylvia Llewelyn Davies, with whom he had forged a special relationship. Mrs. Llewelyn Davies's death from cancer came within a few years after the death of her husband.
Barrie unofficially adopted them. The character's name comes from two sources: Peter Llewelyn Davies, one of the boys, Pan, the mischievous Greek god of the woodlands. Andrew Birkin has suggested that the inspiration for the character was Barrie's elder brother David, whose death in a skating accident at the age of fourteen affected their mother. According to Birkin, the death was "a catastrophe beyond belief, one from which she never recovered. If Margaret Ogilvy drew a measure of comfort from the notion that David, in dying a boy, would remain a boy for Barrie drew inspiration."The Peter Pan character first appeared in print in the 1902 novel The Little White Bird, written for adults. The character was next used in the stage play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up that premiered in London on 27 December 1904 and became an instant success. In 1906, the chapters of The Little White Bird which featured Peter Pan was published as the book Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, with illustrations by Arthur Rackham.
Barrie adapted the play into the 1911 novel Peter and Wendy. The original draft of the play was entitled Anon: A Play. Barrie's working titles for it included The Great White Father and Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Hated Mothers. Producer Charles Frohman disliked the title on the manuscript, in answer to which Barrie suggested The Boy Who Couldn't Grow Up. Although the character appeared in Barrie's book The Little White Bird, the play and its novelisation contain the story of Peter Pan mythos, best known; the two versions have much in common. In both versions Peter makes night-time calls on the Darlings' house in Bloomsbury, listening in on Mrs. Mary Darling's bedtime stories by the open window. One night Peter is spotted and, while trying to escape, he loses his shadow. On returning to claim it, Peter wakes Wendy Darling. Wendy succeeds in re-attaching his shadow to him, Peter learns that she knows lots of bedtime stories, he invites her to Neverland to be a mother to his gang, the Lost Boys, children who were lost in Kensington Gardens.
Wendy agrees, her brothers John and Michael go along. Their magical flight to Neverland is followed by many adventures; the children are blown out of the air by a cannon and Wendy is nearly killed by the Lost Boy Tootles. Peter and the Lost Boys build a little house for Wendy to live in. Soon John and Michael adopt the ways of the Lost Boys. Peter welcomes Wendy to his underground home, she assumes the role of mother figure. Peter takes the Darlings on several adventures, the first dangerous one occurring at Mermaids' Lagoon. At Mermaids' Lagoon and the Lost Boys save the princess Tiger Lily and become involved in a battle with the pirates, including the evil Captain Hook. Peter is wounded, he believes he will die, stranded on a rock when the tide is rising, but he views death as "an a
Loughton is a town and civil parish in the Epping Forest District of Essex and, for statistical purposes, part of the metropolitan area of London and the Greater London Urban Area. It is located between 11 and 13 miles north east of Charing Cross in London, south of the M25 and west of the M11 motorway and has boundaries with Chingford, Waltham Abbey, Theydon Bois and Buckhurst Hill. Loughton includes three conservation areas and there are 56 listed buildings in the town, together with a further 50 that are locally listed; the parish of Loughton covers an area of about 3,724 acres, of which over 1,300 acres are part of Epping Forest. The ancient parish contained over 3,900 acres, but in 1996 some parts of the south of the old parish were transferred to Buckhurst Hill parish, other small portions to Chigwell and Theydon Bois. At the time of the 2001 census Loughton had a population of 30,340, at the 2011 Census, 31,106, it is the most populous civil parish in the Epping Forest district, within Essex it is the second most populous civil parish and the second largest in the area.
The earliest structure in Loughton is Loughton Camp, an Iron Age earth fort in Epping Forest dating from around 500 BC. Hidden by dense undergrowth for centuries it was rediscovered in 1872; the first references to the site of modern-day Loughton date from the Anglo-Saxon period when it was known as Lukintune. The earliest written evidence of this settlement is in the charter of Edward the Confessor in 1062 which granted various estates, including Tippedene and Alwartune, to Harold Godwinson following his re-founding of Waltham Abbey. Following the Norman conquest, the town is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, with the name Lochintuna; the settlement remained a small village until the early 17th century when the high road was extended north through the forest. The road became the main route from London to Cambridge and East Anglia, Loughton grew into an important stop with coaching inns; the most significant of the great houses of this period, built as country retreats for wealthy City merchants and courtiers, was Loughton Hall, owned by Mary Tudor two months before she became Queen Mary of England in 1553, by the Wroth family from 1578 to 1738.
Sir Robert Wroth and his wife Lady Mary Wroth entertained many of the great literary figures of the time, including Ben Jonson, at the house. It was rebuilt in 1878 by Revd. J. W. Maitland, whose family held the manor for much of the 19th century, it is a grade II listed building. Loughton's growth since Domesday has been at the expense of the forest. Expansion towards the River Roding was arrested owing to the flooding marshy meadows, encroachments into the forest to the north and west of the village were possible. Loughton landlords and villagers both exploited the forest waste, but the trickle of forest destruction threatened to turn into a flood in the 19th century after royalty had lost interest in protecting the woodland as a hunting reserve; as the forest disappeared and landowners began enclosing more of it for private use, many began to express concern at the loss of such a significant natural resource and common land. Some Loughton villagers defied landowners to practice their ancient right to lop wood—a series of court cases, including one brought by the Loughton labourer Thomas Willingale, was needed before the City of London Corporation took legal action against the landowners' enclosures, resulting in the Epping Forest Act of 1878 which preserved the forest for use by the public.
The arrival of the railway spurred on the town's development. The railway first came to Loughton in 1856 when the Eastern Counties Railway, opened a branch line via Woodford. In 1948 the line was electrified and transferred to London Transport to become part of the Central line on the London Underground; the arrival of the railway provided visitors from London with a convenient means of reaching Epping Forest and thus transforming it into the "East Enders' Playground". The Ragged School Union began organising visits to the forest for parties of poor East End children in 1891 paid for by the Pearsons Fresh Air Fund. Loughton artist Octavius Dixie Deacon depicted many scenes of the town including some of its residents during the late Victorian period; as the Great Eastern Railway Company did not offer workmen's fares, the town's development was of a middle-class character. Much of the housing in Loughton was built in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, with significant expansion in the 1930s. Loughton was a fashionable place for artistic and scientific residents in Victorian and Edwardian times, a number of prominent residents were renowned socialists and social reformers.
In the north-east is a post-war development being one of the London County Council's country estates. Built with the express purpose of co-locating industrial and residential properties to facilitate supported re-location of London families affected by war damage within the Capital. Located within Debden's industrial estate is the former printing works of the Bank of England; the headquarters of greeting card company Clinton Cards and construction firm Higgins Group are located within the Debden Industrial Estate. In 2008, electronics firm Amshold announced their intention to move the group's headquarters to Loughton from Brentwood, they moved to a site in Langston Road.
Passions is an American television soap opera that aired on Free Broadcast over-the-air network NBC from July 5, 1999 to September 7, 2007, on the Satellite Pay Television DirecTV-Exclusive The 101 Network from September 17, 2007 to August 7, 2008. Created by screenwriter James E. Reilly and produced by NBC Studios, Passions follows the lives and various romantic and paranormal adventures of the residents of Harmony. Storylines center on the interactions among members of its multi-racial core families: the African American Russells, the Caucasian Cranes and Bennetts, half-Mexican half-Irish Lopez-Fitzgeralds; the series features supernatural elements, which focus on town witch Tabitha Lenox and her doll-come-to life, Timmy. NBC cancelled Passions in January 2007, the series was subsequently picked up by direct-broadcast satellite paid subscription television service DirecTV; the series aired its final episode on NBC on September 7, 2007, with new episodes continuing on DirectTV's 101 Network starting on September 17.
In December 2007, just months after picking up the series, DirecTV decided not to renew its contract for Passions, the studio was subsequently unable to sell the series elsewhere. The final episode was broadcast in August 2008; as of 2018, Passions is the last daytime television soap opera created for American network television. Passions debuted on NBC broadcast television in 1999 with major fanfare. Creator Reilly had been credited for a large surge in the ratings for Days of Our Lives years before, thanks to innovative storylines like that of heroine Dr. Marlena Evans being possessed by Satan that drew new viewers, but tended to alienate stalwart fans. With Passions, Reilly was able to start with no pre-existing fan base to please; the series replaced the Procter & Gamble-produced serial Another World, which ended a 35-year run in June 1999, on NBC's daytime schedule. In the early days of the show, Passions heroine Sheridan Crane is identified as a close friend of Diana, Princess of Wales.
Sheridan has a similar accident in the same Paris tunnel, speaks to a "guardian Angel Diana" who urges her to fight to survive, which drew considerable controversy. Sheridan adopts the name Diana after a boating accident that results in amnesia; the opening days of the show introduced the Theresa/Ethan/Gwen love triangle that persisted as an ongoing main story line to the last episode of the series. For much of the first three to four years of the series, supernatural elements such as witches and closet doors leading to Hell were major plot points, many surrounding the machinations of the centuries-old witch Tabitha Lenox and her doll-brought-to-life sidekick, Timmy — named by Entertainment Weekly as one of their "17 Great Soap Supercouples" in 2008. In 2001, HarperEntertainment released Hidden Passions, a tie-in novelization presented as Tabitha's diary, exposing the secrets and pasts of the town's residents. Passions featured a story-line involving Tabitha and Timmy promoting the book, which reached #4 on the real-life New York Times Best Seller list and garnered the series two alternative covers of TV Guide in July 2001.
In 2003, Passions submitted an orangutan named BamBam, portraying the recurring role of Precious, for a Daytime Emmy Award. Precious was the non-speaking live-in nurse and caregiver for elderly Edna Wallace, held an unrequited love for Luis Lopez-Fitzgerald, depicted in elaborate fantasy sequences. In early 2004, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences, which administers the awards, disallowed the entry with the following statement: Our ruling is based on the belief that the Academy must draw a line of distinction between animal characters that aren't capable of speaking parts and human actors whose personal interpretation in character portrayal creates nuance and audience engagement that uniquely qualifies those performers for consideration of television's highest honor. In summer 2005, the prominent character Simone Russell came out as gay. In 2007, it was revealed that longtime hero Chad Harris-Crane was cheating on his wife with another man; this was a daytime first, with the men portrayed in bed together, committing -albeit unknowingly- incest.
Passions portrayed Vincent as an intersex person who became pregnant with his own father's son. Nearly seven years after the debut of Passions on July 5, 1999, the NBC-owned Sci Fi Channel began airing the series from its first episode starting February 13, 2006. Due to low ratings, the reruns were taken off the air as of May 25, 2006. On August 15, 2006, Passions became the first daytime drama to make full episodes available for download and purchase from the online music store iTunes. On November 6, 2006, the show became the first daytime drama to make full episodes available for free viewing via streaming on NBC.com. Though plagued since its inception by low overall Nielsen ratings, Passions was top-rated in key demographics, namely the female 12–17 demographic; the series was not renewed by NBC for a full ninth season in 2007, with NBC instead deciding to extend its morning news and talk show Today to a fourth hour. NBC began shopping the series to other networks. In April 2007, paid subscription service Satellite provider DirecTV bought exclusive broadcasting rights from NBC to continue airing Passions, with most principal cast members staying on.
As the series