Professional Bowlers Association
The Professional Bowlers Association is the major sanctioning body for the sport of professional ten-pin bowling in the United States. Headquartered in Seattle, the PBA membership consists of 4,300 members worldwide. Members include "pro shop" owners and workers, teaching professionals and bowlers who compete in the various events put on by the Association; the PBA oversees competition between professional bowlers via the following tours: PBA Tour – An annual calendar of events running from January to December each year. PBA50 Tour – Formerly "PBA Senior Tour." Set up like the PBA Tour, but allowing PBA members 50 years and older to compete in their own events. PBA Regional Tour – Allowing exempt and non-exempt members, amateurs to compete in weekend events; the Tour consists of seven regions: Central, Midwest, South and West. PBA Women's Series – Selected PBA Tour events from 2007 to 2010 included a separate event for female professionals; the PBA Hall of Fame was founded in 1975 with eight initial inductees: six for Performance and two for Meritorious Service.
Since its inception, it was located at the International Bowling Museum and Hall of Fame in St. Louis, Missouri, it is now part of the new USBC headquarters in Texas. Through 2012, there are 89 PBA Hall of Fame Members in three categories: Performance Meritorious Service Veterans/Senior Membership in the Hall of Fame was determined by annual elections. From 2000-2008, those in the Performance category had to have ten PBA titles on their resume, as well as be retired from the tour for five years. Another revision took effect in 2008. Bowlers can now qualify for the Hall of Fame based on five PBA titles on their resume, as long as two of those titles were major championships. Other active bowlers can now qualify for the Hall as well if they have 20 years of membership and are elected. Late in 2008, The PBA announced the launch of a new PBA Seniors Hall of Fame. John Handegard, the all-time leader in PBA Senior titles became the first inductee on January 24, 2009. In January 2016 Ryan Gasparovich was nominated in the PBA Hall of Fame.
His notable act of scoring a perfect series 2 times in a year during Michigan's Regional Competition held at Skore Lanes in Taylor, Michigan. Prior to the PBA's inception, bowling was broadcast on television sporadically beginning in the early 1950s. NBC began with an early 1950s special telecast entitled Championship Bowling. Regular weekly bowling shows, including Jackpot Bowling began airing nationally. At the same time, there was a desire to start a professional bowling division in the United States. During the 1958 ABC tournament in Syracuse, New York, sixty men, including Don Carter, Frank Esposito, Buzz Fazio, Matt Lebhar, Carmen Salvino, Billy Welu, Glenn Allison, Steve Nagy, Harry Smith, Ray Bluth, Dick Hoover, Bill Bunetta, Robert "Bobby" Bellew, Junie McMahon, attended a presentation by Elias. After listening to his proposal, thirty-three of the men donated $50 each, totaling $1,650 to start the organization, incorporated in 1958, headquartered in Akron; the investors became charter members of the PBA giving them lifetime membership.
Bill Bunetta was slated to be the first commissioner of the PBA by Eddie Elias but Bill was still a active bowler and turned down the position to continue his bowling and teaching career. Competition began in 1959 with three tournaments. Italian-born Lou Campi of Dumont, New Jersey won the first event, Dick Weber won the other two The PBA Tour built an audience, expanding to seven tournaments in 1960 13 tournaments in 1961, before exploding with 30 tour stops in 1962. Weber would become the first "face" of the PBA in the early years, as he won 10 of the first 23 events held, including seven in 1961 alone. While PBA bowlers appeared on Jackpot Bowling, Elias led an effort to give the PBA a permanent home on television, it first did so with the interstitial Make That Spare on ABC Sports, which ran from 1960 to 1964, with full games on Professional Bowlers Tour beginning in 1965. Coupled with the continued support of its charter members, as well as sponsorships by the Ford Motor Company, Coca-Cola, True Value Hardware and Firestone Tire, the PBA experienced growth in its tournament schedules and prize funds.
Annual incomes for professional bowlers became, at the time competitive with other professional sports. A Sports Illustrated article from 1963 noted that top bowler Harry Smith stood to make as much money in 1963 as Major League Baseball's NL MVP Sandy Koufax and NFL Football MVP Y. A. Tittle combined. Schedules reached a plateau of 35 tournaments per year in the 1980s; the 1965 Tournament of Champions was the first to offer $100,000 in prize money. S. Open, sponsored by Seagram distillery, offered a $500,000 prize fund as well as the first $100,000 first-place prize in PBA history. By the 1980s, True Value pledged $100,000 to any roller of a perfect game on national television. Prior to this, the PBA would award a televised 300 game with a new Ford automobile. In addition, in the early 1990s the Miller Brewing Company offered $1 million to any bowler who could win all three of its sponsored tournaments in a given season; as television exposure increased for the P
Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north. Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Balathal. Rajasthan is home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar and Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota; the state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana – the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region – was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Bikaner and Udaipur.
Rajasthan means "Land of Kings" or "King's Abode". The oldest reference to Rajasthan is found in a stone inscription dated back to 625 A. D; the print mention of the name "Rajasthan" appears in the 1829 publication Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, while the earliest known record of "Rajputana" as a name for the region is in George Thomas's 1800 memoir Military Memories. John Keay, in his book India: A History, stated that "Rajputana" was coined by the British in 1829, John Briggs, translating Ferishta's history of early Islamic India, used the phrase "Rajpoot princes" rather than "Indian princes". Parts of what is now Rajasthan were part of the Vedic Civilisation and Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization.. Another archeological excavation at Balathal site in Udaipur district shows a settlement contemporary with the Harrapan civilization dating back to 3000 - 1500 BC. Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 200,000 years were found in Bundi and Bhilwara districts of the state.
Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India, is said to corresponded to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagar, said to have been named after its founder king Virata. Bhargava identifies the two districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar and parts of Jaipur district along with Haryana districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari as part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Bhargava locates the present day Sahibi River as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with Saraswati River formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and Bhrigu narrated the Manusmriti to a congregation of seers in this area only. Ashrams of Vedic seers Bhrigu and his son Chayvan Rishi, for whom Chyawanprash was formulated, were near Dhosi Hill part of which lies in Dhosi village of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and part lies in Mahendragarh district of Haryana; the Western Kshatrapas, the Saka rulers of the western part of India, were successors to the Indo-Scythians, were contemporaneous with the Kushans, who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era, marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps state. Gurjars ruled for many dynasties in this part of the country, the region was known as Gurjaratra. Up to the 10th century AD all of North India acknowledged the supremacy of the Gurjars, with their seat of power at Kannauj; the Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Historian R. C. Majumdar says that this was acknowledged by the Arab writers, he further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Now there seems little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.
Traditionally the Rajputs, Jats, Bhils, Charans, Bishnois, Sermals, PhulMali and other tribes made a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan. All these tribes suffered great difficulties in protecting the land. Millions of them were killed trying to protect their land. Bhils once ruled Kota. Meenas were rulers of Bundi and the Dhundhar region. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Machheri in Alwar District in 1501, he won 22 battles against Afghans, from Punjab to Bengal including states of Ajmer and Alwar in Rajasthan, defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and Delhi in 1556 at Battle of Delhi before acceding to the throne of Delhi and establishing the "Hindu Raj" in North India, albeit for
Mewar or Mewāḍ is a region in the south-central part of Rajasthan state of India. It includes the present-day districts of Bhilwara, Rajsamand, Pirawa Tehsil of Jhalawar District of Rajasthan and Mandsaur of Madhya Pradesh and some parts of Gujarat. For centuries, the region was ruled by Rajputs; the princely state of Udaipur emerged as an administrative unit during the period of British East India Company governance in India-ruled and remained until the end of the British Raj era. The Mewar region lies between the Aravali Range to the northwest, Ajmer to the north and the Vagad region of Rajasthan to the south, the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh state to the southeast and the Hadoti region of Rajasthan to the east; the word "Mewar" is the ancient name of the region. The earliest epigraph that mentions the word "Medapata" is a 996-997 CE inscription discovered at Hathundi; the word "pata" or "pataka" refers to an administrative unit. According to the historian G. C. Raychaudhuri, Medapata was named after the Meda tribe, mentioned in Varāhamihira's Brihat-Samhita.
The 1460 Kumbhalgarh inscription associates the Medas with Vardhana-giri. Historian Sashi Bhusan Chaudhuri associates the ancient Medas with the modern Mer people; the 1285 CE Mount Abu inscription of the Guhila king Samarasimha provides the following etymology while describing the military conquests of his ancestor Bappa Rawal: "This country which was, in battle submerged in the dripping fat of wicked people by Bappaka bears the name of Śrī Medapāṭa." Historian Anil Chandra Banerjee dismisses this as a "poetic fancy". The northern and eastern portions of Mewar are made up of an elevated plateau while the western and southern portions were rocky and hilly with dense forests; the watershed divide between drainage of the Bay of Bengal and drainage of the Gulf of Khambhat runs through the centre of Mewar. The northern and eastern part of Mewar is a sloping plain, drained by the Bedach and Banas River and its tributaries, which empty northwest into the Chambal River, a tributary of the Yamuna River.
The southern and western part of the region is hilly, marks the divide between the Banas and its tributaries and the headwaters of the Sabarmati and Mahi rivers and their tributaries, which drain south into the Gulf of Khambhat through Gujarat state. The Aravalli Range, which forms the northwestern boundary of the region, is composed of sedimentary rocks, like marble and Kota Stone, which has traditionally been an important construction material; the region is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests' ecoregion. Protected areas include the Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary, the Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, the Bassi Wildlife Sanctuary and the Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary. Mewar has a tropical climate. Rainfall averages 660 mm/year, is higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast of the region. Over 90% of the rain falls in the period of June to September every year, during the southwest monsoon; the state of Mewar was founded around 530. In 1568, Emperor Akbar conquered the capital of Mewar.
In 1576, Maharana Pratap, the ruler of Mewar, was defeated at the Battle of Haldighati and Gogunda and Kumbalgarh were conquered. However through guerilla warfare, Mahrana Pratap recaptured Western Mewar. In 1615, Amar Singh accepted Mughal suzerainty over Mewar; when Udaipur State joined the Indian Union in 1949 it had been ruled by the Rajputs of Mori and Sisodia dynasties for over 1,400 years. Chittaurgarh was the capital of Sisodia clans of Rajputs of Mewar. Bapa Rawal is considered the founder of the Mewar state. While his predecessors had enjoyed control over limited areas in the hilly regions in the west and southwest of Mewar, Bappa was the first ruler to expand the state close to its boundaries. Bappa, who had his capital at Nagda, extended his possessions to the east by ousting Man Singh of the Mori clan from Chittor in 734 AD, he took on the title of'Rawal.' For half a century prior to 1818, the armies of Holkar and Amir Khan had plundered Mewar, pauperising its ruler and people. As early as 1805, Maharana Bhim Singh of Mewar approached the British for assistance but the Treaty of 1803 with Scindia prevented the British from entertaining the request.
But by 1817, the British too were anxious to have alliances with Rajput rulers and the Treaty of Friendship and Unity was concluded between Mewar and East India Company on January 13, 1818. Under the treaty, the British Government agreed to protect the territory of Mewar, in return for which Mewar acknowledged British supremacy and agreed to abstain from political associations with other states and to pay one-fourth of its revenues as tribute for 5 years, three-eight in perpetuity; the British authorities granted the ruler of Udaipur a 19 gun salute. The last ruler of Udaipur Kingdom signed the accession to Independent India on 7 April 1949. Rana Laksha of the Sisodia Rajput clan with all his 10 sons had rallied in defense of Chittor but in vain; the Sardars decided. There is mention of only two sons of Rana Laksha by Ari Singh and Ajay Singh. Ari Singh I had a son named Hammir Singh I, taken by his uncle Ajay to Kelwara for safety. After the defeat of Mewar at Chittor by Alauddin Khalji, in which Rana Laksha and his son Ari Singh perished, the people began to rally behind Ajay who pursued a guerrilla campaign until he too died in the 132
Bedford is a city in Cuyahoga County, United States located to the east of Cleveland. The population was 13,074 at the 2010 census, it is an eastern first ring suburb of Cleveland. Bedford is located at 41°23′33″N 81°32′04″W, it is a first ring suburb to the southeast of Cleveland. The city is bounded by Maple Heights to the north and west, Valley View to the west, Walton Hills and Northfield to the south, Oakwood to the south and east, Bedford Heights to the east. According to the 2010 census, the city has a total area of 5.40 square miles, of which 5.35 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water. The boundaries of the city of Bedford include part of the Bedford Reservation; the reservation includes Tinker’s Creek, which flows through a gorge, listed as a National Natural Landmark. The Great Falls of Tinker’s Creek are within the city limits of Bedford.3 The area, now Bedford and northeastern Ohio was inhabited by Native Americans as early as 10,000 years ago. By 1662 the area had become a part of the Connecticut Colony through royal charter.
Much of the colony’s land, which extended to the Pacific Ocean, was ceded to the early U. S. government, but a few million acres west of the border of Pennsylvania became what was known as the Western Reserve. Bedford began as part of the Connecticut Western Reserve in 1797. A large portion of the Western Reserve was sold to the Connecticut Land Company in 1795. Surveying of the land was spearheaded by Moses Cleaveland. Seth Pease and Amzi Atwater surveyed Lot 46, which would become Bedford Township, it was surveyed as township 6, range 11. The first settlers to the area started to arrive in 1813. Early settlers to the region were drawn to the hardwood forests. Waterfalls on Tinkers Creek were ideal for mills; the first mill in Bedford Township was built by Adams and Starr in 1815. It was situated at the mouth of Tinkers Creek; the first official settler to the area was Elijah Nobles. He settled here in 1810 in the western part of the township on one of the 100 lots surveyed. More settlers followed, including Benjamin Franklin Fitch, who founded the Taylor Chair Company in 1816.
He began making chairs at his home, located at Warrensville Center and Libby Roads in present-day Maple Heights, Ohio. The company did not close until 2012, making it the longest-running manufacturing company in the Western Reserve area. Fitch made chairs that were considered to be better than others because of his use of pre-shrunk wood that prevented creaking, he is known for inventing the strap lathe, a tool that would become standard in furniture making. Bedford Township was founded in 1823 and Township 6 was renamed Bedford Township by Daniel Benedict a native of Bedford, New York; the original township covered what today includes Bedford, Bedford Heights, Maple Heights, Oakwood Village and Walton Hills, Ohio. In 1834, the First Baptist Church was established to help meet the religious needs of the growing population in the area; the first church in Bedford was the First Baptist Church, founded with just 14 original members at the home of Hezekiah Dunham. In 1893, the church moved into its first dedicated building located on the Bedford Commons.
The old First Baptist Church is a stone building done in the Late Gothic Revival style and was designed by architect Jacob Snyder. In 1968, the First Baptist Church moved to its present location at the corner of Turney Road and West Glendale Avenue; the old stone church is owned by the Bedford Historical Society. It serves as a community building and a rental hall. Bedford became an incorporated village on March 15, 1837. In 1837, the population of Bedford Township had grown to be 475 people and at that time, the residents petitioned to become the Village of Bedford, which sits at the geographic center of Bedford Township. At this time, Hezekiah Dunham, a prominent and wealthy local business man, his wife, Clarissa Dunham, donated three acres of land for the village to be able to build a public square as well as other public and religious buildings; the deed for the land stated the property was to be "used as a public square forever." In addition to the falls on Tinkers Creek and the abundant forests, transportation helped Bedford to grow.
Before the roads were built, Bedford was situated along the main route between Pittsburgh and Cleveland and was an important stagecoach stop. Today this is U. S. Route 14. Transportation became more important in the area when the Ohio and Erie Canal opened in 1827 and the Cleveland & Pittsburgh Railroad began in 1852. Both of these helped drive more industry to the area, by 1840 the population of Bedford was 2,021. Another railroad, the Connotton Valley Railroad, opened in 1881. In 1927, the Bedford Municipal Hospital was built; the original hospital still stands, though it has been added onto since it was first constructed. It is now operated as a branch of University Hospitals of Cleveland; the village of Maple Heights left Bedford Township in 1915 and in 1932 Maple Heights achieved city status. In 1932, the Village of Bedford adopted a city manager government and charger and became the City of Bedford; as the village grew, many industries developed in Bedford and new businesses opened. Some of the important businesses in Bedford were manufacturing companies: The Marble & Shattuck Chair Company operated in Bedford from 1885 to 1894, when it moved to Cleveland.
The B. L. Marble Chair Co. made wooden chairs from 1894. Founded in 1903, the Franklin Oil and Gas Company made similar products; the Best Foundry Co. founded
Cleveland is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U. S. with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States; the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie 60 miles west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, it became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services and biomedicals. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland residents are called "Clevelanders".
The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city, they named it "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio; the first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade; the area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, via the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854; the city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center, its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.
S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker; because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city; the city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937; the exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s; as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra; the city's population reached its peak of 914,808, in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966; the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes. Industrial restructuring in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous
The Sioux known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects; the modern Sioux consist of two major divisions based on language divisions: the Dakota and Lakota. The Santee Dakota reside in the extreme east of the Dakotas and northern Iowa; the Yankton and Yanktonai Dakota, collectively referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, reside in the Minnesota River area. They are considered to be the middle Sioux, have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota; the actual Nakota are the Stoney of Western Canada and Montana. The Lakota called Teton, are the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture. Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Montana in the United States; the Sioux people refer to the Great Sioux Nation as the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, meaning "Seven Council Fires").
Each fire is a symbol of an oyate. Today the seven nations that comprise the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ are the Thítȟuŋwaŋ, Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpékhute, Sisíthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna, they are referred to as the Lakota or Dakota as based upon dialect differences. In any of the dialects, Lakota or Dakota translates to mean "friend" or "ally" referring to the alliances between the bands; the name "Sioux" was adopted in English by the 1760s from French. It is abbreviated from Nadouessioux, first attested by Jean Nicolet in 1640; the name is sometimes said to be derived from an Ojibwe exonym for the Sioux meaning "little snakes". The spelling in -x is due to the French plural marker; the Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake. An alternative explanation is derivation from an exonym na·towe·ssiw, from a verb *-a·towe· meaning "to speak a foreign language"; the current Ojibwe term for the Sioux and related groups is Bwaanag, meaning "roasters".
This refers to the style of cooking the Sioux used in the past. In recent times, some of the tribes have formally or informally reclaimed traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is known as the Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, the Oglala use the name Oglála Lakȟóta Oyáte, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST; the alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper. The Sioux comprise three related language groups: Eastern Dakota Santee Sisseton Western Dakota Yankton Yanktonai Lakota The earlier linguistic three-way division of the Sioux language identified Lakota and Nakota as dialects of a single language, where Lakota = Teton, Dakota = Santee-Sisseton and Nakota = Yankton-Yanktonai. However, the latest studies show that Yankton-Yanktonai never used the autonym Nakhóta, but pronounced their name the same as the Santee; these studies identify Assiniboine and Stoney as two separate languages, with Sioux being the third language. Sioux has three similar dialects: Western Dakota and Eastern Dakota.
Assiniboine and Stoney speakers refer to themselves as Nakhóda. The term Dakota has been applied by anthropologists and governmental departments to refer to all Sioux groups, resulting in names such as Teton Dakota, Santee Dakota, etc; this was because of the misrepresented translation of the Ottawa word from which Sioux is derived. The Sioux are divided into three ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, further branched into bands; the earliest known European record of the Sioux identified them in Minnesota and Wisconsin. After the introduction of the horse in the early 18th century, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Central Canada to the Platte River, from Minnesota to the Yellowstone River, including the Powder River country; the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in North America: in the Dakotas, Minnesota and Montana in the United States. Today, many Sioux live outside their reservations.
The Santee migrated north and westward from the Southeastern United States, first into Ohio to Minnesota. Some came up from area of South Carolina; the Santee River was named after them, some of their ancestors' ancient earthwork mounds have survived along the portion of the dammed-up river that forms Lake Marion. In the past, they were a Woodland people who thrived on hunting and farming. Migrations of Ojibwe from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward; the US gave the name "Dakota Territory"
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w