Top Gear (2002 TV series)
Top Gear is a British motoring magazine, factual television series, conceived by Jeremy Clarkson and Andy Wilman, launched on 20 October 2002, broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC Two. The programme is a relaunched version of the original 1977 show of the same name, which looks at various motor vehicles cars. While the original format focused on review of cars, the 2002 version expanded on this with motoring-based challenges, special races, timed laps of notable cars, celebrity timed laps on a course specially-designed for the relaunched programme, with its format developing over time to focus on a more quirky and sometimes controversial style of presentation; the programme has received acclaim for its visual style and presentation, as well as criticism for its content. Since 2002, the programme has been presented by several hosts. In its first series, the show's line-up was Clarkson, Richard Hammond and Jason Dawe, with Wilman as the show's executive producer, introducing anonymous test driver "The Stig", an individual played by numerous racing drivers over the course of the show's history.
Following the first series, Dawe was replaced by James May, with the line-up unchanged until the end of the twenty-second series, when the BBC chose to not renew Clarkson's contract on 25 March 2015, following an incident during filming. His dismissal from Top Gear prompted the departure of Hammond and Wilman from the programme, led to them joining Clarkson in forming a new motoring series. For the twenty-third series, the programme was presented by Chris Evans and American Matt LeBlanc, with them joined by four co-presenters who would make occasional appearances during its run: Rory Reid, Sabine Schmitz, Chris Harris and Eddie Jordan. After negative feedback on this series led to Evans resigning from the programme and Reid became the main hosts alongside LeBlanc, with Schmitz and Jordan making occasional appearances as co-presenters, from the twenty-fourth series onwards. Since its relaunch, Top Gear is one of the BBC's most commercially successful programmes, it has become a significant show in British popular culture, with episodes broadcast internationally in many countries in Europe, North America, South-East Asia and more, making it the most broadcast factual television programme in the world.
Its success has led to various forms of merchandising, including live tours, special DVD editions, books, as well as spawning a variety of international versions in various countries, including the United States, South Korea and France. After the BBC cancelled the original format of Top Gear in December 2001, Jeremy Clarkson and producer Andy Wilman met together to work out ideas for reviving the programme for television; this led to them meeting the broadcaster to pitch the idea of changing it from a motoring magazine format to one, studio-based. Amongst the ideas that were pitched included: the involvement of a fixed location for car reviews and other films, alongside location across Britain and abroad. Following the pitch, the BBC decided to green-light the new format, in order to create a programme to compete with Channel 5's new motoring show Fifth Gear, from which several original Top Gear presenters including Tiff Needell, Vicki Butler-Henderson and producer Jon Bentley went to. Production began in mid-2002, with the broadcaster securing the right to use Dunsfold Aerodrome, an airport and business park in Waverley, Surrey, as the programme's fixed location – while its runways and taxiways were allocated for reviews and other films, one of the site's large aircraft hangars was transformed into Top Gear's new studio.
To match the proposed ideas for the new format, the BBC gained assistance from Lotus to design a race circuit for use on the programme that would be situated at the fixed location, while editing of films that were recorded for each episode, focused on extending the runtime of the programme to one hour. Wilman took on the role of the show's executive producer, while Clarkson became part of the hosting line-up; because those who had worked with Clarkson on the original programme had left the BBC to work on Fifth Gear, the production team arranged for him to be joined by Richard Hammond and Jason Dawe. A difficulty found during production revolved around the show's test driver – neither Clarkson or Wilman could find a racing driver with experience at speaking on-camera. In discussions over this, the pair opted to make the driver silent, having their identity concealed; when they recruited Perry McCarthy amongst their possible candidates for the role, his input led to Wilman choosing to nickname the test driver as The Stig.
To date, there have been eleven presenters of the show: Main presenters Chris Harris – Paddy McGuinness – Andrew Flintoff –"The Stig" Perry McCarthy – Ben Collins – Unknown – Past presenters Jason Dawe – Jeremy Clarkson – Richard Hammond – James May – Chris Evans – Eddie Jordan – Sabine Schmitz – Matt LeBlanc – Rory Reid – The first series of the new format of Top Gear premiered on 20 October 2002. In its early state, the programme's segments were based on elements of the previous format, such as interviews and viewers' letters, but featured some new humorous elements, such as the p
Roland Francis Kester Keating is Chief Executive of the British Library. He took up his post in September 2012. Keating was born on 5 August 1961 to Betty Katharine Keating, he was educated at Westminster School, an independent school for boys in London, read Classics at Balliol College, Oxford. Keating joined the BBC in 1983, he was a producer and director for the Arts and Music department, making programmes for Omnibus and Arena. He was a producer and became editor of The Late Show. In 1997, he became head of programming for UKTV owned by the BBC. In 1999, he became the BBC Controller of Digital Channels. In 2000, he took on the responsibility of Controller of Arts Commissioning, he became the Controller of digital television station BBC Four in December 2001, masterminding its launch on 2 March 2002. In 2003, he was joint leader of the BBC's Charter Review project for six months, he became the channel controller for BBC Two in June 2004, a position he held until 2008. He was appointed temporary controller of BBC One following Peter Fincham's resignation on 5 October 2007.
While Controller, he said that he wanted to see BBC Two be the first mainstream British TV channel to be available on broadband. His decision to screen Jerry Springer: The Opera on 8 January 2005 forced him to go into hiding and he was given security protection. Keating was Director of Archive Content for the BBC, he was announced as chief executive designate of the British Library in May 2012, to succeed Dame Lynne Brindley. As of 2015, Keating was paid a salary of between £155,000 and £159,999 by the British Library, making him one of the 328 most paid people in the British public sector at that time. In 1989, Keating married Caroline Russell. Together they have three children. BBC Biography for Roly Keating Changing BBC TWO's idents in February 2007
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
The Office (UK TV series)
The Office is a British television mockumentary sitcom first broadcast in the UK on BBC Two on 9 July 2001. Created and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant, the programme follows the day-to-day lives of office employees in the Slough branch of the fictional Wernham Hogg paper company. Gervais stars in the series, playing the central character David Brent. Two six-episode series were made, along with a pair of 58-minute Christmas specials; when it was first shown on BBC Two, ratings were low, but it has since become one of the most successful of all British comedy exports. As well as being shown internationally on BBC Worldwide, channels such as BBC Prime, BBC America, BBC Canada, the series has been sold to broadcasters in over 80 countries, including ABC1 in Australia, The Comedy Network in Canada, TVNZ in New Zealand, the pan-Asian satellite channel STAR World, based in Hong Kong; the show was first shown in the United States on Cartoon Network's late night programing block Adult Swim on September 18, 2009.
The show centres on themes of social clumsiness, the trivialities of human behaviour, self-importance and conceit, frustration and fame. The success of the show led to a number of localised adaptations being produced for the television markets of other nations, resulting in an international Office franchise; the show is a mockumentary based in a branch of a large paper company called Wernham Hogg, in the Slough Trading Estate in Berkshire. Slough is a large town immortalised for its lack of appeal by John Betjeman in his poem "Slough"; the office is headed by general manager David Brent, aided by his team leader and Assistant to the Regional Manager Gareth Keenan, played by Mackenzie Crook. Much of the series' comedic success stems from Brent, who makes attempts to win favour with his employees and peers with embarrassing or disastrous results. Brent's character flaws are used to comic effect, including numerous verbal gaffes, inadvertent racism and sexism, other social faux pas; the other main plot line of the series, many of the more human elements found therein, come from the unassuming Tim Canterbury, whose relationship with bored receptionist Dawn Tinsley is a major arc in the series.
Their flirtation soon builds to a mutual romantic attraction, despite her engagement to dour and laddish warehouse worker Lee. A comparison between characters in different series is available here; the Office is a character-based comedy, portraying the people who work in an office environment. While being more of an ensemble piece than star-driven, four characters are the primary focus of the show: David Brent is the general manager of the Slough branch of Wernham Hogg paper merchants. Insecure, somewhat narcissistic, he believes he is a successful maverick in the business world and a Renaissance man, talented in philosophy and comedy. Although he thinks he is patient and popular, others perceive him as annoying and selfish, his immature behaviour comes across as he bumbles around the office – always hovering around the camera – telling unfunny jokes, performing hackneyed impressions, getting into trouble by talking before thinking. Brent thinks he is a kind, politically correct man, but his preoccupation with this position, the discrepancy between it and his patronising jokes, gets him into trouble.
Tim Canterbury is a sales representative at Wernham Hogg. Unlike David, Tim is considerate, his humour and kindness make him one of the most likeable employees in the office, but at 30 he still lives with his parents and works at a job he believes to be pointless. He maintains his sanity by pursuing an improbable romance with receptionist Dawn Tinsley and by playing practical jokes on Gareth. Although he wishes to leave Wernham Hogg to study psychology, his insecurity prevents him from taking any significant action. During Series One and Two, he fails to further pursue a relationship with Dawn. Chosen as David's successor at the end of series 2, he declines and lets Gareth take the position, however, does not keep him from playing pranks on Gareth. Gareth Keenan is enemy. Gareth is a humourless jobsworth with few good personality traits, he is obsessed with his military service in the Territorial Army and annoys Tim with his pretentious comments. He takes pride in being "Team Leader", not realising his title is meaningless, he imposes the little authority he has on his co-workers.
He is insensitive. Tim and Dawn insinuate homosexuality through questioning him about his military experience using double entendres. Proud of his close connections with David and glossing over David's poor treatment of him, he – during the Christmas special – gets back at David by patronising and humiliating him in front of the cameras. Dawn Tinsley is Brent's dogsbody, she has to put up with his attempts at humour and social interaction. Like her friend and co-worker Tim, she is aware of the sad state of her life – she has been in a long, rocky engagement with her fiancé Lee, a surly warehouse worker, gave up illustrating children's books to pursue her current fruitless career. During the Christmas special and Lee return from their illegally prolonged US vacation. Several other recurring characters, although not central to the episodes, play an important role in the series; these include: Keith Bishop: Keith works in the accounts department. Heavy set
British Film Institute
The British Film Institute is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom. It was established by Royal Charter to: Encourage the development of the arts of film and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film and the moving image and their impact on society, to promote access to and appreciation of the widest possible range of British and world cinema and to establish, care for and develop collections reflecting the moving image history and heritage of the United Kingdom; the BFI maintains the world's largest film archive, the BFI National Archive called National Film Library, National Film Archive, National Film and Television Archive. The archive contains more than 50,000 fiction films, over 100,000 non-fiction titles, around 625,000 television programmes; the majority of the collection is British material but it features internationally significant holdings from around the world.
The Archive collects films which feature key British actors and the work of British directors. The BFI runs the BFI Southbank and London IMAX cinema, both located on the south bank of the River Thames in London; the IMAX has the largest cinema screen in the UK and shows popular recent releases and short films showcasing its technology, which includes 3D screenings and 11,600 watts of digital surround sound. BFI Southbank shows films from all over the world critically acclaimed historical & specialised films that may not otherwise get a cinema showing; the BFI distributes archival and cultural cinema to other venues – each year to more than 800 venues all across the UK, as well as to a substantial number of overseas venues. The BFI offers a range of education initiatives, in particular to support the teaching of film and media studies in schools. In late 2012, the BFI received money from the Department For Education to create the BFI Film Academy Network; the BFI runs the annual London Film Festival along with BFI Flare: London LGBT Film Festival and the youth-orientated Future Film Festival.
The BFI publishes the monthly Sound magazine as well as films on Blu-ray, DVD and books. It runs the BFI National Library, maintains the BFI Film & TV Database and Summary of Information on Film and Television, which are databases of credits and other information about film and television productions. SIFT has a collection of about 7 million still frames from television; the BFI has co-produced a number of television series featuring footage from the BFI National Archive, in partnership with the BBC, including The Lost World of Mitchell & Kenyon, The Lost World of Friese-Greene, The Lost World of Tibet. The institute was founded in 1933. Despite its foundation resulting from a recommendation in a report on Film in National Life, at that time the institute was a private company, though it has received public money throughout its history—from the Privy Council and Treasury until 1965 and the various culture departments since then; the institute was restructured following the Radcliffe Report of 1948 which recommended that it should concentrate on developing the appreciation of filmic art, rather than creating film itself.
Thus control of educational film production passed to the National Committee for Visual Aids in Education and the British Film Academy assumed control for promoting production. From 1952–2000, the BFI provided funding for new and experimental filmmakers via the BFI Production Board; the institute received a Royal Charter in 1983. This was updated in 2000, in the same year the newly established UK Film Council took responsibility for providing the BFI's annual grant-in-aid; as an independent registered charity, the BFI is regulated by the Charity Commission and the Privy Council. In 1988, the BFI opened the London Museum of the Moving Image on the South Bank. MOMI was acclaimed internationally and set new standards for education through entertainment, but subsequently it did not receive the high levels of continuing investment that might have enabled it to keep pace with technological developments and ever-rising audience expectations; the Museum was "temporarily" closed in 1999. This did not happen, MOMI's closure became permanent in 2002 when it was decided to redevelop the South Bank site.
This redevelopment was itself further delayed. The BFI is managed on a day-to-day basis by its chief executive, Amanda Nevill. Supreme decision-making authority rests with a board of up to 14 governors; the current chair is Josh Berger, who took up the post in February 2016. He succeeded Greg Dyke, who took office on 1 March 2008. Dyke succeeded the late Anthony Minghella, chair from 2003 until 31 December 2007; the chair of the board is appointed by the BFI's own Board of Governors but requires the consent of the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. Other Governors are co-opted by existing board members; the BFI operates with three sources of income. The largest is public money allocated by the Department for Culture and Sport. In 2011–12, this funding amounted to £20m; the second largest source is commercial activity such as receipts from ticket sales at BFI Southbank or the BFI London IMAX theatre, sales of DVDs, etc. Thirdly and sponsorship of around £5m
Jana Eve Bennett OBE is President and General Manager of History and H2 at A+E Networks in New York. She joined A+E Networks in June 2013 as President of The Biography Channel and Lifetime Movie Network. Bio was rebranded as fyi, in July 2014. Prior to joining A+E Networks she was President of BBC Worldwide Networks and Global BBC iPlayer. In that role she was responsible for BBC Worldwide's television channels, which operate in more than 100 countries, the development and roll out of the commercial global iPlayer, she was Worldwide's Managing Director for Latin America with oversight of the company's businesses in the region. She sat on Worldwide's Executive Board and on the Board of UKTV, Britain's second largest pay-TV group, she took up this role in February 2011 moving from the BBC's UK public service where she had been Director of Vision at the BBC from 2006. As Director of BBC Vision, she headed "the largest multi-media production and broadcast group of its kind in the world" with overall responsibility for BBC Television and its online services, BBC Films and BBC Productions.
She was Director of Television. In her two most recent roles at the BBC, Jana Bennett "steered the BBC TV portfolio through its transition into the mainstream digital age."She was Executive Vice President and General Manager at Discovery Communications in the US. Bennett is a member of the governing board of the Pew Research Center, she is a Governor of the Royal Shakespeare Company and was made a Fellow of the Royal Television Society in 1999. Born in Cooperstown, New York State, USA, Bennett moved to Britain in 1969, where she was educated at Bognor Regis Comprehensive School studied politics and economics at St Anne's College, Oxford, she undertook post-graduate studies at the London School of Economics where she was awarded an MSc for her work on strategic analysis and international and defence studies. In 1979 she won a place on the BBC News trainee scheme, began her first period of employment with the corporation working on radio and television news, she worked on The Money Programme and Newsnight.
She became an award-winning producer of Panorama in 1986, co-authored The Disappeared: Voices from a Secret War with the BBC's diplomatic editor John Simpson about the actions of Argentina's military government in the same year. In 1990 she became editor of the BBC's flagship science programme Horizon. Awards she won during this period included the 1991 News and Documentary Emmy for her role as Executive Producer of the film "Suicide Mission to Chernobyl" which aired on the WGBH program Nova in the United States. In 1994 she was appointed the BBC's Head of the first woman to take that role. Under her leadership the department expanded the range and ambition of its programming, winning awards for series such as Walking With Dinosaurs, The Human Body and Meet The Ancestors and business formats such as Blood on the Carpet, Back to the Floor and the medical format Trust Me, I'm a Doctor, she introduced a new animal genre to UK television with the successful and long-running Animal Hospital, alongside live events such as Hospitalwatch.
The science department pioneered content rich web sites and was one of the first areas to use email inside the BBC. She joined the BBC's Board of Management in 1997 as Director of Production became Director of Programmes for the former BBC Production division until she left the BBC to join Discovery Communications as General Manager of the TLC channel in August 1999. In 2000 she was appointed an OBE in 2000 for her work in science broadcasting. At TLC Bennett transformed the channel's ratings and revenue performance, she introduced a new editorial direction under the slogan "Life Unscripted" which included reality-drama and interior design shows, some of them based on popular British formats. The audience success of shows like Trading Spaces, Junkyard Wars exemplified a shift in programming towards more mass-appeal shows. By 2001 TLC had the youngest adult audience profile amongst US cable channels with a median age of 40 and a 15% year on year growth in audience among the 18- to 34-year-old age group.
It was the strongest performing network for women in daytime. In 2002 Bennett returned to the UK to take the job of Director of Television. In this capacity she took charge of the launch and expansion of the BBC's portfolio of 7 digital TV channels: BBC THREE, BBC FOUR, HD TV and the children's channels, CBBC and CBeebies This included winning the approval of the government for the launch of BBC THREE, the corporation's youth orientated digital television channel, which at the time was considered by some to be a controversial development for the BBC. In 2006 the BBC's Director-General, Mark Thompson reorganised the BBC's divisional structure, creating BBC Vision from the amalgamation of the corporation's Television, Drama Entertainment & Children's and Factual & Learning divisions. Bennett was promoted from Director of Television to Director of Vision taking "overall creative and leadership responsibility" for the commissioning and scheduling of television and online content across the BBC's analogue and digital television networks, the web, mobile phones and interactive technology.
During her tenure, BBC television was responsible for natural history landmarks, such as Life, worldwide entertainment hits, including Strictly Come Dancing, The Apprentice and Top Gear. Dramas ranged from period classics like Cranford to contemporary pieces such as Criminal Justice and Occupation, from science fiction in the shape of Torchw