Benjamin Harrison was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd president of the United States from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison, creating the only grandfather–grandson duo to have held the office, he was a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a founding father. Before ascending to the presidency, Harrison had established himself as a prominent local attorney, Presbyterian church leader, politician in Indianapolis, Indiana. During the American Civil War, he served in the Union Army as a colonel, was confirmed by the U. S. Senate as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers in 1865. Harrison unsuccessfully ran for governor of Indiana in 1876; the Indiana General Assembly elected Harrison to a six-year term in the U. S. Senate, where he served from 1881 to 1887. A Republican, Harrison was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Grover Cleveland. Hallmarks of Harrison's administration included unprecedented economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff, which imposed historic protective trade rates, the Sherman Antitrust Act.
Harrison facilitated the creation of the national forest reserves through an amendment to the Land Revision Act of 1891. During his administration six western states were admitted to the Union. In addition, Harrison strengthened and modernized the U. S. Navy and conducted an active foreign policy, but his proposals to secure federal education funding as well as voting rights enforcement for African Americans were unsuccessful. Due in large part to surplus revenues from the tariffs, federal spending reached one billion dollars for the first time during his term; the spending issue in part led to the defeat of the Republicans in the 1890 mid-term elections. Cleveland defeated Harrison for re-election in 1892, due to the growing unpopularity of the high tariff and high federal spending. Harrison returned to his law practice in Indianapolis. In 1899 Harrison represented the Republic of Venezuela in their British Guiana boundary dispute against the United Kingdom. Harrison traveled to the court of Paris as part of the case and after a brief stay returned to Indianapolis.
He died at his home in Indianapolis in 1901 of complications from influenza. Although many have praised Harrison's commitment to African Americans' voting rights and historians regard his administration as below-average, rank him in the bottom half among U. S. presidents. Historians, have not questioned Harrison's commitment to personal and official integrity. Benjamin Harrison was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, the second of Elizabeth Ramsey and John Scott Harrison's ten children, his paternal ancestors were the Harrison family of Virginia, whose immigrant ancestor, Benjamin Harrison I, arrived in Jamestown, circa 1630 from England. Harrison was of English ancestry, all of his ancestors having emigrated to America during the early colonial period; the future President was a grandson of U. S. President William Henry Harrison and a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a Virginia planter who signed the Declaration of Independence and succeeded Thomas Jefferson as governor of Virginia.
Harrison was seven years old when his grandfather was elected U. S. president, but he did not attend the inauguration. Although Harrison's family was distinguished, his parents were not wealthy. John Scott Harrison, a two-term U. S. congressman from Ohio, spent much of his farm income on his children's education. Despite the family's modest resources, Harrison's boyhood was enjoyable, much of it spent outdoors fishing or hunting. Benjamin Harrison's early schooling took place in a log cabin near his home, but his parents arranged for a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies. Fourteen-year-old Harrison and his older brother, enrolled in Farmer's College near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1847, he attended the college for two years and while there met his future wife, Caroline "Carrie" Lavinia Scott, a daughter of John Witherspoon Scott, the school's science professor, a Presbyterian minister. In 1850, Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford and graduated in 1852, he joined the Phi Delta Theta fraternity.
He was a member of Delta Chi, a law fraternity which permitted dual membership. Classmates included John Alexander Anderson, who became a six-term U. S. congressman, Whitelaw Reid, Harrison's vice presidential running mate in 1892. At Miami, Harrison was influenced by history and political economy professor Robert Hamilton Bishop. Harrison joined a Presbyterian church at college and, like his mother, became a lifelong Presbyterian. After his college graduation in 1852, Harrison studied law with Judge Bellamy Storer of Cincinnati, but before he completed his studies, he returned to Oxford, Ohio, to marry Caroline Scott on October 20, 1853. Caroline's father, a Presbyterian minister, performed the ceremony; the Harrisons had Russell Benjamin Harrison and Mary "Mamie" Scott Harrison. Harrison and his wife returned to live at The Point, his father's farm in southwestern Ohio, while he finished his law studies. Harrison was admitted to the Ohio bar in early 1854, the same year he sold property that he had inherited after the death of an aunt for $800, used the funds to move with Caroline to Indianapolis, Indiana.
Harrison began practicing law in the office of John H. Ray in 1854 and became a crier for the federal court in Indianapolis, for which he was paid $2.50 per day. He served as a Commissioner for the U. S. Court of Claims. Harrison bec
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
A debutante or deb is a young woman of aristocratic or upper-class family background who has reached maturity and, as a new adult, comes out into society at a formal "debut" or debutante ball. The term meant the woman was old enough to be married, part of the purpose of her coming out was to display her to eligible bachelors and their families with a view to marriage within a select circle. In Australia, débutante balls are organised by high schools, church groups or service clubs, such as Lions or Rotary; the girls who take part are in either Year 11 or 12 at high school. The event is used as a fund-raiser for local charities; the Australian debutante wears a pale-coloured gown similar to a wedding dress. However, the dress does not come with a train on the skirt, the debutante does not wear a veil; the boy wears another formal dress suit. It is customary for the female to ask a male to the débutante ball, with males not being able to "do the deb" unless they are asked; the débutantes and their partners must learn how to ballroom dance.
Débutante balls are always held in a reception centre, school hall, the function room of a sporting or other community organisation venue e.g. RSL club, or ballroom, they are held late in the year and consist of dinner and speeches. In the United Kingdom, the last débutantes were presented at Court in 1958, after which Queen Elizabeth II abolished the ceremony. Attempts were made to keep the tradition going by organising a series of parties for young girls who might otherwise have been presented at Court in their first season by Peter Townend. However, the withdrawal of royal patronage made these occasions insignificant, scarcely distinguishable from any other part of the social season; the expression "débutante", or "deb" for short, has continued to be used in the press, to refer to young girls of marriageable age who participate in a semi-public upper class social scene. The expression "deb's delight" is applied to good looking unmarried young men from similar backgrounds; the presentation of débutantes to the Sovereign at Court marked the start of the British social season.
Applications for young women to be presented at court were required to be made by ladies who themselves had been presented to the Sovereign. A mother-in-law who herself had been presented might, for example, present her new daughter-in-law; the presentation of debutantes at court was a way for young girls of marriageable age to be presented to suitable bachelors and their families in the hopes of finding a suitable husband. Bachelors, in turn, used the court presentation as a chance to find a suitable wife; those who wanted to be presented at court were required to apply for permission to do so. According to Debrett's, the proceedings on that day always started at 10 am; as well as débutantes, older women, married women who had not been presented could be presented at Court. On the day of the court presentation, the débutante and her sponsor would be announced, the debutante would curtsy to the Sovereign, she would leave without turning her back; the court dress has traditionally been a white evening dress, but shades of ivory and pink were acceptable.
The white dress featured short sleeves and white gloves, a veil attached to the hair with three white ostrich feathers, a train, which the débutante would hold on her arm until she was ready to be presented. Débutantes would wear pearls but many would wear jewellery that belonged to the family. After the débutantes were presented to the monarch, they would attend the social season; the season consisted of events such as afternoon tea parties, polo matches, races at Royal Ascot, balls. Many débutantes would have their own "coming-out party" or, alternatively, a party shared with a sister or other member of family; the Queen Charlotte's Ball, a contemporary revival of the traditions of presentation at court, continues under the patronage of the Duke of Somerset. A cotillion or débutante ball in the United States is a formal presentation of young ladies, débutantes, to "polite society" hosted by a charity or society; the ladies introduced can vary from the ages of 16 to 18. In some areas 15- and 16-year-olds are called "junior débutantes".
One of the most prestigious, the most exclusive and the most expensive debutante balls in the world is the invitation-only International Debutante Ball held at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City, where girls from prominent world families are presented to high society. The International Debutante Ball has presented princesses, countesses and many European royalty and aristocrats as debutantes to high society, including Princess Katarina of Yugoslavia, Vanessa von Bismarck, Princess Natalya Elisabeth Davidovna Obolensky, Princess Ines de Bourbon Parme, Countess Magdalena Habsburg-Lothringen and Lady Henrietta Seymour Daughters and granddaughters of billionaire businessmen, American politicians, senators
Common Burying Ground and Island Cemetery
The Common Burying Ground and Island Cemetery are a pair of separate cemeteries on Farewell and Warner Street in Newport, Rhode Island. Together they contain over 5,000 graves, including Jewish graves; the pair of cemeteries was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a single listing in 1974. The Common Burial Ground was established in 1640 on land given to city of Newport by John Clarke, it features what is the largest number of colonial era headstones in a single cemetery, including the largest number of colonial African American headstones in the United States. The predominantly African-American northern section of the cemetery is referred to by local African-Americans as "God's Little Acre"; the Island Cemetery was established by the city in 1836, transferred to the private Island Cemetery Corporation in 1848. Many members of Newport's most prominent families have been buried there over the years. Notable people buried there include Medal of Honor recipient Hazard Stevens, Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, Commodore Matthew C. Perry and financier August Belmont.
In 2016, three gravestones were discovered, lost for years. One stone, found in Pennsylvania, was a 12 x 24 marker for a 1-year-old child; the others were 1835 stones for a Newport woman, which were found in a Newport yard during a renovation. The recovered stones were reset in the Common Burying Ground in 2016 by the Newport Historic Cemetery Advisory Commission. John Linscom Boss Jr. - United States Representative. Christopher G. Champlin - United States Representative 1797-1801, United States Senator 1809 - 1811. Michele Felice Cornè - Painter. John Cranston - Colonial Governor of Rhode Island. Samuel Cranston - Colonial Governor of Rhode Island. William Ellery - Signer of the Declaration of Independence and colonial Deputy Governor. James Franklin - Printer and brother of Benjamin Franklin. Ann Smith Franklin - Printer & publisher, wife/widow of James Franklin Ida Lewis - Heroine of the 19th Century. Henry Marchant - Delegate to the Continental Congress. Dutee J. Pearce - United States Representative.
Asher Robbins - United States Senator 1825-1839. William Greene Turner - Sculptor best known for his memorial to Oliver Hazard Perry. Frances Vaughan - "The Mother of Governors," widow to colonial President Jeremy Clarke, mother of colonial governor Walter Clarke. William Vernon - Colonial era merchant. Richard Ward - Colonial governor of Rhode Island. Samuel Ward - Delegate to Continental Congress and colonial Governor of Rhode Island. Hugh D. Auchincloss - Naval officer, government official and stockbroker Janet Lee Bouvier Auchincloss Morris - Mother of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis August Belmont - Chairman of the Democratic National Committee 1860 to 1872 and founder of the Belmont Stakes August Belmont Jr. - Developer of the IRT Subway in New York City and the Cape Cod Canal Perry Belmont - United States Representative and Army officer Sara Swan Whiting Belmont Rives - 1st wife of Oliver H. P. Belmont and 2nd wife George L. Rives Gunner George F. Brady, USN - Medal of Honor recipient Brevet Brigadier General Henry Brewerton - Superintendent of West Point Military Academy.
Melville Bull - United States Representative, 1895 - 1903 George Henry Calvert - Writer and Mayor of Newport Rear Admiral Augustus Case - Career Navy officer William Cole Cozzens - Mayor of Newport and Governor of Rhode Island, 1863 Henry Y. Cranston - United States Representative from Rhode Island and commander of the Artillery Company of Newport Robert B. Cranston - United States Representative from Rhode Island Lieutenant Thomas Eadie, USN - Medal of Honor recipient. William Channing Gibbs - Governor of Rhode Island, 1821 - 1824 George Washington Greene - Historian Richard Morris Hunt - Noted architect of Gilded Age Charles Bird King - Painter Clarence King - Geologist George Gordon King - Congressman Lewis Cass Ledyard - Lawyer and Commodore of the New York Yacht Club Captain Christopher Raymond Perry - Privateer in the American Revolution and naval officer in the Quasi War Commodore Matthew C. Perry - Commander of Black Ships Expedition to Japan in 1853 Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry - Hero of the Battle of Lake Erie in War of 1812 Lieutenant Colonel John Hare Powel - Union Army officer, Mayor of Newport and commander of the Artillery Company of Newport George L. Rives - Assistant Secretary of State William Paine Sheffield Sr.
- Congressman and United States Senator 1884 - 1885 William Paine Sheffield Jr. - Congressman Major General Thomas W. Sherman - Civil War general William Watts Sherman - Socialite and treasurer of the Newport Casino Brevet Brigadier General Hazard Stevens - Medal of Honor recipient and son of Isaac Stevens Major General Isaac Ingalls Stevens - Civil War general, killed in action at the Battle of Chantilly Frank K. Sturgis - President of the New York Stock Exchange Brevet Brigadier General George W. Tew - Civil War officer. Lieutenant Colonel of 5th Rhode Island Heavy Artillery. Commander of the Artillery Company of Newport Commodore Benjamin J. Totten - Career U. S. Navy officer Charles C. Van Zandt - Governor of Rhode Island 1877 - 1880 Major General Gouverneur K. Warren - Chief engineer of the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Gettysburg - Commander of V Corps George Peabody Wetmore - Governor of Rhode Island and United States Senator Katherine Prescott Wormeley - Literary translator, founder of the United States Sanitary Commission during the Civil War Touro Cemetery, the old Jewish cemetery at Newport Coddington Cemetery, where six colonial Rhode Island governors are buried Clifton Burying Ground, where four colonial Rhode Island governors are buried National Register of Historic Places li
Sarah Lawrence College
Sarah Lawrence College is a private liberal arts college in Yonkers, New York. It is known for its low student-to-faculty ratio and individualized course of study; the school models its approach to education after the Oxford/Cambridge system of one-on-one student-faculty tutorials, which are a key component in all areas of study. Sarah Lawrence emphasizes scholarship in the humanities, performing arts, writing, places high value on independent study. Sarah Lawrence College is ranked 53rd in the National Liberal Arts Colleges category in 2018 by U. S. News & World Report. Sarah Lawrence was named the higher education institution with the "best classroom experience" in all of America by Princeton Review in 2016. Sarah Lawrence College was established by real-estate mogul William Van Duzer Lawrence on the grounds of his estate in Westchester County and was named in honor of his wife, Sarah Bates Lawrence; the College was intended to provide instruction in the arts and humanities for women. A major component of the College's early curriculum was "productive leisure," wherein students were required to work for eight hours weekly in such fields as modeling, typewriting, applying makeup, gardening.
Its pedagogy, modeled on the tutorial system of Oxford University, combined independent research projects, individually supervised by the teaching faculty, seminars with low student-to-faculty ratio—a pattern it retains to the present, despite its cost. Sarah Lawrence was the first liberal arts college in the United States to incorporate a rigorous approach to the arts with the principles of progressive education, focusing on the primacy of teaching and the concentration of curricular efforts on individual needs. In addition to founding Sarah Lawrence College, William Lawrence played a critical role in the development of the neighboring community of Bronxville, New York, his name can be found on the affluent Lawrence Park and Lawrence Park West neighborhoods, the Houlihan Lawrence Real Estate Corporation, on Lawrence Hospital in downtown Bronxville, an institution, created when Lawrence's son, nearly died en route to a hospital in neighboring New York City. Lawrence embodied ideas from the Progressivist movement of the 1890s his view that the arts were a crucial element in the social evolution of individuals and families, in developing both private and public sensibilities, in creating equal relations between men and women.
Harold Taylor, President of Sarah Lawrence College from 1945 to 1959 influenced the college. Taylor, elected president at age 30, maintained a friendship with educational philosopher John Dewey, worked to employ the Dewey method at Sarah Lawrence. Taylor spent much of his career calling for educational reform in the United States, using the success of his own College as an example of the possibilities of a personalized and rigorous approach to higher education. Sarah Lawrence became a coeducational institution in 1968. Prior to this transition, there were discussions about relocating the school and merging it with Princeton University, but the administration opted to remain independent. At the undergraduate level, Sarah Lawrence offers an alternative to traditional majors. Students pursue a wide variety of courses in four different curricular distributions: the Creative Arts. Classes are structured around a seminar-conference system through which students learn in small interactive seminars and private tutorials with professors.
Each student is assigned to a faculty advisor, known as a "don," who helps the student plan a course of study and provides ongoing academic guidance. Most courses, apart from those in the performing arts, consist of two parts: the seminar, limited to 15 students, conferences, a meeting with a seminar professor. In these conferences, students develop individual projects that extend the course material and link it to their personal interests. Sarah Lawrence has no required courses, traditional examinations have been supplanted by research papers. Additionally, grades are recorded only for transcript purposes—narrative evaluations are given in lieu of grades; the College sponsors international programs in Florence, at Wadham College, Oxford, at Reid Hall in Paris, at the British American Drama Academy in London. Sarah Lawrence has the longest-running study abroad program in Havana, Cuba. Sarah Lawrence offers Master's-level programs in Writing, the Art of Teaching, Child Development, Theatre and Dance/Movement Therapy and is home to the nation's oldest graduate program in Women's History and the nation's first master's degree programs in Human Genetics and Health Advocacy.
Sarah Lawrence offers a program for people wishing to seek a B. A. or a Master have been out of school for any period. Eugene Lang College Exchange Program: In 1996 the college began its exchange program with Eugene Lang College, the undergraduate division of the New School in New York City. Eugene Lang has particular strengths in the social sciences. Qualified students may cross-register in courses in other divisions of the New School, including the graduate divisions. Students must have completed the first and sophomore years. Qualified students have the opportunity to participate in Lang's exchange program at the Universi
Hammersmith Farm is a Victorian mansion and estate located at 225 Harrison Avenue in Newport, Rhode Island, United States. It was the childhood home of First Lady Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy, the site of the reception for her 1953 wedding to U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy. During his presidency, it was referred to as the "Summer White House". Hammersmith Farm's 28-room main house was built in 1887 for John W. Auchincloss, the great-grandfather of Hugh D. Auchincloss, Jacqueline Kennedy's stepfather, it was erected on what had been known as "Hammersmith Island," named after the English hometown of William Brenton, the 17th-century governor of Rhode Island who established the first farm on the site in 1640. During a stay at Hammersmith in late September 1961, President Kennedy announced that John McCone would become the new Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Additionally, Kennedy signed Public Law 87-293, the Peace Corps Act of 1961; the main house remained in the Auchincloss family until the 1976 death of Hugh Auchincloss.
Janet Lee Auchincloss, Jacqueline Kennedy's mother, sold the main house and moved into one of the guesthouses on the farm, called "The Castle". There was another guest house on the farm built to resemble a windmill. A group of investors bought main house in 1977, opened it for public tours and special events. Fruit of the Loom executive William F. Farley bought it in 1997 for $6.675 million. In 1999, Farley sold the main house for over $8 million to Peter Kiernan, a partner at Goldman Sachs, who restored the failing building and converted the house back to private use, it had not been lived in since 1974, had fallen into serious disrepair. Much of the original plumbing was inoperable, wiring had frayed from time and rodent damage. Bricks were coming loose and wood rot was everywhere; each year the building was listing a little more northward, toward Fort Adams. A major restoration was required to save the damaged structure. Kiernan oversaw a multi-year rehabilitation of the building, working with noted restoration architectural firm Windigo, headed by James Gubelman.
Major structural flaws necessitated the removal of one end of the building and the installation of steel and wooden beams for support. The house had suffered from decades of wood rot from leaking windows. Outside, the brick was bowing due to many successive winters of expansion. Popping and falling bricks during the winter was routine; the interiors were painstakingly disassembled and numbered and new plumbing, HVAC, wiring were installed. The numbered moldings and fixtures were replaced in their original positions so the historic rooms looked as they had when the building was constructed in 1887, save for the electricity and modern plumbing; the exterior was restored with equal sensitivity to the original structure. Working with Gubelman and the Historic District Commission, the team removed metal and plexiglass porches, reset brick to match the original, removed the light green paint used to hide the mismatched brick from decades of repairs. Windows were rebuilt to protect the house from the fierce sea winds of winter.
New shingles and roof were installed following the original architectural plans, using the many sketches and photographs taken of the building over its 120-year history. The building had been recorded from numerous angles and vantage points over the many decades, a clear visual history existed as a guide; the goal of the owners and the HDC was to restore the farm as as possible to the appearance one might have enjoyed in 1888. About half of the original furnishings were returned to the Auchincloss family under a prior agreement, the family sold them off in a Christie's auction in 2000, which fetched $233,620. Brenton Point Fort Adams Article on the sale of the property
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap