Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Slough is a large town in Berkshire, within the Greater London Urban Area, 20 miles west of Charing Cross, central London and 17 miles north-east of the county town of Reading. It is at the intersection of the M4, M40 and M25 motorways; the A4 and the Great Western Main Line pass through the town, part of neighbouring Buckinghamshire. From 2019 the Elizabeth line is expected to allow faster journeys to central London; as of 2011 Slough's population was one of the most ethnically diverse in the United Kingdom, with the highest proportion of religious adherents in England. The town has attracted people from across the country and the world for labour since the 1920s, which has helped shape it into a major trading centre; as of 2017 unemployment stood at 1.4%, circa one-third the UK average of 4.5%. Slough has the highest concentration of global corporate HQs outside London; the Slough Trading Estate is the largest industrial estate in single private ownership in Europe. Blackberry, McAfee, Burger King and Lego have head offices in the town.
The Slough Trading Estate provides over 17,000 jobs in 400 businesses. Slough has the second highest gross value added per worker of cities in UK; the name, which means "soil", was first recorded in 1195 as Slo. It first seems to have applied to a hamlet between Upton to the east and Chalvey to the west around the "Crown Crossroads" where the road to Windsor met the Great West Road; the Domesday Survey of 1086 refers to Upton, a wood for 200 pigs, worth £15. During the 13th century, King Henry III had a palace at Cippenham. Parts of Upton Court were built in 1325, while St Mary the Virgin Church in Langley was built in the late 11th or early 12th century, though it has been rebuilt and enlarged several times. From the mid-17th century, stagecoaches began to pass through Slough and Salt Hill, which became locations for the second stage to change horses on the journey out from London. By 1838 and the opening of the Great Western Railway, Upton-cum-Chalvey's parish population had reached 1,502. In 1849, a branch line was completed from Slough to Windsor & Eton Central, opposite Windsor Castle, for the Queen Victoria's convenience.
Slough has 96 listed buildings. There are Four Grade I: St Laurence's Church, St Mary the Virgin Church, Baylis House and Godolphin Court Seven Grade II: St Mary's Church, Upton Court, the Kederminster and Seymour Almshouses in Langley, St Peter's Church, Ostrich Inn and King John's Palace Grade II listed structures include four milestones: Beech and Linden Houses at Upton Hospital and Slough railway station1918 saw a large area of agricultural land to the west of Slough developed as an army motor repair depot, used to store and repair huge numbers of motor vehicles coming back from the battlefields of the First World War in Flanders. In April 1920, the Government sold its contents to the Slough Trading Co. Ltd.. Repair of ex-army vehicles continued until 1925, when the Slough Trading Company Act was passed allowing the company to establish an industrial estate. Spectacular growth and employment ensued, with Slough attracting workers from many parts of the UK and abroad. During the Second World War, Slough experienced a series of air raids in October 1940, an emergency hospital treating casualties from London was set up in Slough.
Local air raid deaths and deaths at the hospital account for the 23 civilian lives recorded lost in the borough area. After the war, several further large housing developments arose to take large numbers of people migrating from war-damaged London. In the 21st century, Slough has seen major redevelopment of the town centre. Old buildings are being replaced with new offices and shopping complexes. Tesco has replaced an existing superstore with a larger Tesco Extra; the Heart of Slough Project is a plan for the large-scale redevelopment of the town centre as a focus and cultural quarter for the creative media and communications industries. It will create a mixed-use complex, multi-functional buildings, visual landmarks and a public space in the Thames Valley. Recommendations for the £400 million project have been approved, planning approval was given by Slough Borough Council's planning committee on 9 July 2009. Work began in 2010 for completion in 2018. In December 2009, two key components of the project were signed: the Homes and Communities Agency signed its agreement to provide £11m of funding for infrastructure and Thames Valley University courses which are due to remain in the town have found a new home at the Centre in Farnham Road, Slough.
In parallel to the town centre redevelopment plan, Segro plans to spend £600 million over the next 20 years on the trading estate. This is intended to create environmentally sustainable buildings, open green spaces, two hotels, a conference centre, cafés, restaurants and better transport facilities to improve links to Slough town centre and the surrounding residential areas, it is claimed that the plan will create more than 4,100 new jobs and contribute around £100m a year to Slough's economy. If both plans go ahead in their current forms, nearly £1 billion will be spent on redeveloping Slough over the next 20 years. Herschel Park, named for astronomer William Herschel, is being relandscaped in a multimillion-pound effort to bring it back to its former Victorian era glory; the park was featured in an episode of the documentary programme Who Do You Think You Are? Focusing on the TV presenter Davina McCall. In 2010, £2 milli
St Anne's College, Oxford
St Anne's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. A women's college, it has been coeducational since 1979. Founded in 1879 as The Society of Oxford Home-Students, St Anne's received full college status in 1952. Formed to enable women from any financial background to study at Oxford, St Anne's continues to strive towards this goal; the college has around 450 200 graduate students. The college is situated between the Woodstock and Banbury roads, adjacent to the University Parks and the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter. In April 2017, Helen King took up her appointment as Principal, in succession to Tim Gardam. King is a former Metropolitan Police Assistant Commissioner and was elected to the position of Principal upon her retirement from the police. Alumnae of the college include Ruth Deech, Danny Alexander, Helen Fielding, Simon Rattle, Victor Ubogu and Martha Kearney. What is now St Anne's College began life as part of the Association for the Education of Women, the first institution in Oxford to allow for the education of women.
It became the Society of Oxford Home-Students. Unlike other women's associations, the Society had no fixed site, instead offering lodgings in houses spread across Oxford; this allowed students from a range of financial backgrounds to study at Oxford, as the cost of accommodation in the women's halls was prohibitive. In 1942, it became the St Anne's Society, which received a university charter to be founded as a women-only college in 1952; the society allowed access to tutorials, as would any Oxford college. In 1910, the Society for Home Students, along with the other women's societies, were recognised by the University. In 1912, the society acquired its first tutors, in German and English Literature. In the 1920s, the principals of the Women's societies became the first women to receive degrees from the University. By the early 1930s, the society still had no centralised site. However, during this decade, the current site was chosen, by 1937 construction of Hartland House was under way. In 1942, the Society of Home Students was renamed the St Anne's Society, given its coat of arms by Eleanor Plumer.
In 1952, the St Anne's Society acquired a royal charter as St Anne's College and in 1959 full college status along with the other women's colleges. The Principal, Lady Ogilvie, pressed for a transition from many disparate dining rooms to a common building; this resulted in the construction of the dining hall, completed in 1959, visited by Queen Elizabeth II in 1960. During this period, the student numbers grew to nearly 300, leading to a need for more accommodation; this led to the construction of the Wolfson and Rayne buildings in 1968 respectively. In 1977, the decision was made to become coeducational, with the first male undergraduates matriculating in 1979. Since St Anne's has continued to use female words and pronouns to refer to their students, as in the word "alumnae"; the College explains that this is because "on 17 June 1979, in the nervous time when the first male Fellows had been elected, the first male students admitted though they had not yet arrived, a note from the Dean to Governing Body asks hesitantly'Would Governing Body wish "he" to be substituted for "she" throughout the College Regulations?'
The question was answered with the following worded statement which still stands in the preamble to our Regulations:'words importing the feminine gender shall include the masculine and vice versa, where the construction so permits and the Regulations do not otherwise expressly provide'." The annual magazine for alumni of the college is known as The Ship. When it was still the Society for Home-Students, the college had its first common room in Ship Street, located in central Oxford; the Ship started to be published c. 1910, by the centenary of the college, 1979, there had been 69 issues. The Ship celebrated its centenary 2010/2011 issue with some anniversary content; the college grounds are bounded by Woodstock Road to the west, Banbury Road to the east, Bevington Road to the north. The college extends as far south as 48 Woodstock Road, 27 Banbury Road; these grounds house all of the college's administrative and academic buildings, undergraduate accommodation, as well as the hall, among the largest in Oxford.
The College owned a number of houses throughout Oxford used for undergraduate accommodation, some of which used to be boarding houses of the Society of Oxford Home-Students. Many of these properties were sold off to fund the building of the Ruth Deech Building, completed in 2005. St Anne's can accommodate undergraduates on the college site for three years of study. Undergraduates at St Anne's are housed in 14 Victorian houses owned by the college and four purpose-built accommodation blocks; the college supplies accommodation for some of its graduate students. All undergraduates pay the same amount for their rooms, every student has access to a communal kitchen in their building; the college uses 1–10 Bevington Road, 58/60 Woodstock Road, 39/41 Banbury Road as undergraduate accommodation for freshers. The junior post room is located in 10 Bevington Road, the college laundry in 58/60 Woodstock Road, the college bar, including a pool room, in 39/41 Banbury Road. Five additional Victorian houses hold teaching rooms, seminar rooms, music practice rooms, college offices.
The Rayne and Wolfson Buildings were built in 1964 and are Grade II Listed Buildi
History Today is an illustrated history magazine. Published monthly in London since January 1951, it presents serious and authoritative history to as wide a public as possible; the magazine covers all periods and geographical regions and publishes articles of traditional narrative history alongside new research and historiography. A sister publication History Review, produced tri-annually until April 2012, provided information for sixth form history students. Founded by Brendan Bracken, Minister of Information after the Second World War, chairman of the Financial Times and lieutenant to Sir Winston Churchill, the magazine has been independently owned since 1981; the founding co-editors were Alan Hodge. The current editor is Paul Lay; the website contains all the magazine's published content since 1951. A digital edition was launched in 2012. History Review was a tri-annual sister publication of History Today magazine publishing material for sixth form level history students; the final issue of History Review was published in April 2012 but the archive of published material is available for research in the History Today archive.
In 1995 it compiled The History Today Companion to British history, with 4500 entries covering the entire field in 840 pages edited by Neil Wenborn. History Today commissions its articles directly from academic authors and historians, though it does accept unsolicited essays from freelance historians and others if the article is deemed to be serious history, of wide interest or of academic worth. Since 1997, The Longman History Today Charitable Trust, has held an annual awards ceremony at which presentations are made to those that have fostered a wider understanding of, enthusiasm for, history; the awards are for Book of the Year, awarded for a first or second book, Historical Picture Researcher of the Year, an undergraduate dissertation prize and the Trustees' Award, for a person or organisation that has made a major contribution to history. Official website
The Oxford Times
The Oxford Times is a weekly newspaper, published each Thursday in Oxford, England. A broadsheet, it changed to compact format in 2008; the paper is published from a large production facility at Osney Mead, west Oxford, is owned by Newsquest, the UK subsidiary of US-based Gannett Company. The Oxford Times has a number of colour supplements. Oxfordshire Limited Edition is included with the first edition of each month. There is a monthly In Business supplement; the Oxford Times has several sister publications: The Herald Series - a set of weekly newspapers covering Abingdon, Wantage and Didcot. Witney Gazette - a weekly newspaper covering Witney and Carterton. Bicester Advertiser - a weekly newspaper covering Bicester. Banbury Cake - a free weekly newspaper for the Banbury area. Oxford Star - a free weekly newspaper established in 1976; the Oxford Times was founded in 1862 as a weekly broadsheet. In 1922, Lawrence of Arabia commissioned The Oxford Times to typeset and print an advance private edition of Seven Pillars of Wisdom.
This is known as the "Oxford Text" of Seven Pillars. The Oxford Times has won a number of national awards including Regional Weekly Newspaper of the Year in 2004, 2005, 2007. In March 2008 the paper changed to compact style; until 24 October 2008 the paper was published each Friday. The Oxford Times circulation fell from 26,262 in 2006 to 20,537 in January 2008. In 2011 Editor Derek Holmes left Newsquest. Oxford Mail editor Simon O'Neill added the responsibility to his role under a new job title of Group editor; the Oxford Times Oxford Mail Newsquest
History of art
The history of art focuses on objects made by humans in visual form for aesthetic purposes. Visual art can be classified such as separating fine arts from applied arts. In recent years, technological advances have led to video art, computer art, Performance art, animation and videogames; the history of art is told as a chronology of masterpieces created during each civilization. It can thus be framed as a story of high culture, epitomized by the Wonders of the World. On the other hand, vernacular art expressions can be integrated into art historical narratives, referred to as folk arts or craft; the more that an art historian engages with these latter forms of low culture, the more it is that they will identify their work as examining visual culture or material culture, or as contributing to fields related to art history, such as anthropology or archaeology. In the latter cases art objects may be referred to as archeological artifacts; the oldest human art, found dates to the Stone Age, when the first creative works were made from shell and paint.
During the Paleolithic, humans practiced hunting and gathering and lived in caves, where cave painting was developed. During the Neolithic period, the production of handicrafts commenced; the earliest human artifacts showing evidence of workmanship with an artistic purpose are the subject of some debate. It is clear that such workmanship existed by 40,000 years ago in the Upper Paleolithic era, although it is quite possible that it began earlier. Engraved shells created by homo erectus dating as far back as 500,000 years ago have been found, although experts disagree on whether these engravings can be properly classified as ‘art’; the Paleolithic had its first artistic manifestation in 25,000 BCE, reaching its peak in the Magdalenian period. Surviving art from this period includes small carvings in stone or bone and cave painting; the first traces of human-made objects appeared in southern Africa, the Western Mediterranean and Eastern Europe, Siberia and Australia. These first traces are worked stone, wood or bone tools.
To paint in red, iron oxide was used. Cave paintings have been found in the Franco-Cantabrian region. There are pictures as well as pictures that are naturalistic. Animals were painted in the caves of Altamira, Trois Frères and Lascaux. Sculpture is represented by the so-called Venus figurines, feminine figures which may have been used in fertility cults, such as the Venus of Willendorf. There is a theory. Other representative works of this period are the Venus of Brassempouy. In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic is the period between the Neolithic; the term Epipaleolithic is used synonymously for outside northern Europe, for the corresponding period in the Levant and Caucasus. The Mesolithic has different time spans in different parts of Eurasia, it refers to the final period of hunter-gatherer cultures in Europe and West Asia, between the end of the Last Glacial Maximum and the Neolithic Revolution. In Europe it spans 15,000 to 5,000 BP, in Southwest Asia 20,000 to 8,000 BP; the term is less used of areas further east, not all beyond Eurasia and North Africa.
The Neolithic period began in about 8,000 BCE. The rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin—dated between the Mesolithic and Neolithic eras—contained small, schematic paintings of human figures, with notable examples in El Cogul, Valltorta and Minateda. Neolithic painting is similar to paintings found in northern Africa and in the area of modern Zimbabwe. Neolithic painting is schematic, made with basic strokes. There are cave paintings in Pinturas River in Argentina the Cueva de las Manos. In portable art, a style called Cardium Pottery was decorated with imprints of seashells. New materials were used in art, such as amber and jasper. In this period, the first traces of urban planning appeared, such as the remains in Tell as-Sultan, Jarmo and Çatalhöyük. In South-Eastern Europe appeared many cultures, such as the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, the Hamangia culture. Another region with many cultures is China most notable being the Yangshao culture and the Longshan culture; the last prehistoric phase is the Metal Age, during which the use of copper and iron transformed ancient societies.
When humans could smelt metal and forge metal implements could make new tools and art. In the Chalcolithic megaliths emerged. Examples include the dolmen and menhir and the English cromlech, as can be seen in the complexes at Newgrange and Stonehenge. In Spain the Los Millares culture was formed, characterized by the Beaker culture. In Malta, the temple complexes of Ħaġar Qim, Tarxien and Ġgantija were built. In the Balearic Islands notable megalithic cultures developed, with different types of monuments: the naveta, a tomb shaped like a truncated pyramid, with an elongated burial chamber. In the Iro
See also: British literature This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, the Crown dependencies, the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States. However, until the early 19th century, it only deals with the literature of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and Ireland, it does not include literature written in the other languages of Britain. The English language has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years; the earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the fifth century, are called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible as well as the Great Vowel Shift.
Through the influence of the British Empire, the English language has spread around the world since the 17th century. Old English literature, or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses the surviving literature written in Old English in Anglo-Saxon England, in the period after the settlement of the Saxons and other Germanic tribes in England c. 450, after the withdrawal of the Romans, "ending soon after the Norman Conquest" in 1066. These works include genres such as epic poetry, sermons, Bible translations, legal works and riddles. In all there are about 400 surviving manuscripts from the period. Widsith, which appears in the Exeter Book of the late 10th century, gives a list of kings of tribes ordered according to their popularity and impact on history, with Attila King of the Huns coming first, followed by Eormanric of the Ostrogoths, it may be the oldest extant work that tells the Battle of the Goths and Huns, told in such Scandinavian works as Hervarar's saga and Gesta Danorum. Lotte Hedeager argues that the work is far older and that it dates back to the late 6th or early 7th century, citing the author's knowledge of historical details and accuracy as proof of its authenticity.
She does note, that some authors, such as John Niles, have argued the work was invented in the 10th century. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English, from the 9th century, that chronicle is the history of the Anglo-Saxons; the poem Battle of Maldon deals with history. This is a work of uncertain date, celebrating the Battle of Maldon of 991, at which the Anglo-Saxons failed to prevent a Viking invasion. Oral tradition was strong in early English culture and most literary works were written to be performed. Epic poems were popular, some, including Beowulf, have survived to the present day. Beowulf is the most famous work in Old English, has achieved national epic status in England, despite being set in Scandinavia; the only surviving manuscript is the Nowell Codex, the precise date of, debated, but most estimates place it close to the year 1000. Beowulf is the conventional title, its composition is dated between the 8th and the early 11th century. Nearly all Anglo-Saxon authors are anonymous: twelve are known by name from medieval sources, but only four of those are known by their vernacular works with any certainty: Cædmon, Alfred the Great, Cynewulf.
Cædmon is the earliest English poet whose name is known, his only known surviving work Cædmon's Hymn dates from the late 7th century. The poem is one of the earliest attested examples of Old English and is, with the runic Ruthwell Cross and Franks Casket inscriptions, one of three candidates for the earliest attested example of Old English poetry, it is one of the earliest recorded examples of sustained poetry in a Germanic language. The poem, The Dream of the Rood, was inscribed upon the Ruthwell Cross. Two Old English poems from the late 10th century are The Seafarer. Both have a religious theme, Richard Marsden describes The Seafarer as "an exhortatory and didactic poem, in which the miseries of winter seafaring are used as a metaphor for the challenge faced by the committed Christian ". Classical antiquity was not forgotten in Anglo-Saxon England, several Old English poems are adaptations of late classical philosophical texts; the longest is King Alfred's 9th-century translation of Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy.
After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the written form of the Anglo-Saxon language became less common. Under the influence of the new aristocracy, French became the standard language of courts and polite society; as the invaders integrated, their language and literature mingled with that of the natives, the Norman dialects of the ruling classes became Anglo-Norman. From until the 12th century, Anglo-Saxon underwent a gradual transition into Middle English. Political power was no longer in English hands, so that the West Saxon literary language had no more influence than any other dialect and Middle English literature was written in the many dialects that corresponded to the region, history and background of individual writers. In this period religious literature continued to enjoy popularity and Hagiographies were written and translated: for example, The Life of Saint Audrey, Eadmer's. At the end of the 12th century, Layamon in Brut adapted the Norman-French of Wace to produce the first English-language work to present the legends of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table.
It was the first historiography written in English since the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Middle English Bible translations, notably Wycliffe's Bible, helped to establish English as