Litter consists of waste products that have been disposed of improperly, without consent, at an undesirable location. Litter can be used as a verb. To litter means to drop and leave objects man-made, such as aluminum cans, cardboard boxes or plastic bottles on the ground and leave them there indefinitely or for others to dispose of as opposed to disposing of them properly. Large and hazardous items of rubbish such as tires, electrical appliances, electronics and large industrial containers are sometimes dumped in isolated locations, such as national forests and other public lands, it remains a serious environmental issue in many countries. Litter can exist in the environment for long periods of time before degrading and be transported large distances into the world's oceans. Litter can affect the quality of life. Cigarette butts are the most littered item with 4.5 trillion discarded annually. Estimates on the required time for cigarette butts to break down vary, ranging from five years to 400 years for complete degradation.
In addition to intentional littering half of litter on U. S. roadways is now accidental or unintentional litter debris that falls off improperly secured trash, recycling collection vehicles and pickup trucks. Population levels, traffic density and proximity to waste disposal sites are factors known to correlate with higher litter rates. Illegally dumped hazardous waste may be a result of the costs of dropping materials at designated sites: some of these charge a fee for depositing hazardous material. Lack of access to nearby facilities that accept hazardous waste may deter use. Additionally, ignorance of the laws that regulate the proper disposal of hazardous waste may cause improper disposal. According to a study by the Dutch organization VROM, 80% of people claim that "everybody leaves a piece of paper, tin or something, on the street behind". Young people from 12 to 24 years cause more litter than the average person. However, a 2010 survey of littering in Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont in the United States, placed litterers aged 55 and over at less than 5%.
The same observational study estimated. In 1999, research by Keep America Beautiful found that 75% of Americans admitted to littering the last five years, yet 99% of the same individuals admitted that they enjoyed a clean environment. Negligent or lenient law enforcement contributes to littering behavior. Other causes are inconvenience and economic conditions. A survey of dumping in Pennsylvania found that the largest number of illegal dumps were in townships without municipal trash hauling; the same report cites unavailability of curbside trash and recycling service, shortage of enforcement, habit as possible causes. The presence of litter invites more littering; the two-stage process model of littering behavior describes the different ways in which people litter. The model was proposed by Chris Sibley and James Liu and differentiates between two types of littering: active and passive; the theory has implications for understanding the different types of litter reduction interventions that will most reduce littering in a given environment.
The theory states that, all things being equal, passive littering will be more resistant to change because of two psychological processes: 1. Diffusion of responsibility that increases as the latency between when an individual places litter in the environment and when they vacate the territory, 2. Forgetting, more to occur at longer delays between when an individual places litter in the environment and when they vacate the territory. Litter can remain visible for extended periods of time before it biodegrades, with some items made of condensed glass, styrofoam or plastic remaining in the environment for over a million years. About 18 percent of litter traveling through stormwater systems, ends up in local streams and waterways. Uncollected litter can flow into streams, local bays and estuaries. Litter in the ocean either washes up on beaches or collects in Ocean gyres such as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. About 80 percent of marine debris comes from land-based sources; some litter, collected can be recycled, however degraded litter cannot be recycled and degrades to sludge toxic.
The majority of litter, collected goes to landfills. Litter can have the environment in different ways. Hazardous materials encapsulated within tires and other items of illegally dumped rubbish can leach into water sources, contaminate the soil and pollute the air. Tires are the most dumped hazardous waste. In 2007 the United States generated 262 million scrap tires. Thirty-eight states have laws. Many of these discarded tires end up illegally dumped on public lands. Tires can become a breeding ground for insect vectors. Mosquitoes, which breed in stagnant water, can transmit malaria. Rodents can transmit diseases such as Hantavirus; when tires are burned they can smolder for long periods of time, emitting hundreds of chemical compounds that pollute the air causing respiratory illnesses. Additionally the residue left behind can leach into groundwater. Visual pollution is a major effect of litter. Open containers such as paper cups, cardboard food packets, plastic drinks bottles and aluminum drinks cans may fill up with rainwater, providing breeding locations for mosquitoes.
In addition, a spark or a lightning flash can start a fire if it strikes litter
A recycling bin is a container used to hold recyclables before they are taken to recycling centers. Recycling bins exist in various sizes for use inside and outside homes and large public facilities. Separate containers are provided for paper, tin or aluminum cans, glass or plastic bottles, or may be commingled. Many recycling bins are designed to be recognizable, are marked with slogans promoting recycling on a blue or green background along with the universal recycling symbol. Others are intentionally unobtrusive. Bins are sometimes in different colors so that user may differentiate between the types of materials to be placed in them. While there is no universal standard, the color blue is used to indicate a bin is for recycling in public settings. Recycling bins or cans, or carts are a common element of municipal kerbside collection programs, which distribute the bins to encourage participation
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A house is a building that functions as a home. They can range from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, concrete or other materials containing plumbing and electrical systems. Houses use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms, a kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A house may have a separate dining room; some large houses in North America have a recreation room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock may share part of the house with humans; the social unit that lives in a house is known as a household. Most a household is a family unit of some kind, although households may be other social groups, such as roommates or, in a rooming house, unconnected individuals.
Some houses only have a dwelling space for similar-sized group. A house may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a shed for gardening equipment and tools. A house may have a backyard or frontyard, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat; the English word house derives directly from the Old English hus meaning "dwelling, home, house," which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic husan, of unknown origin. The house itself gave rise to the letter'B' through an early Proto-Semitic hieroglyphic symbol depicting a house; the symbol was called "bayt", "bet" or "beth" in various related languages, became beta, the Greek letter, before it was used by the Romans. Ideally, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house. Feng shui a Chinese method of moving houses according to such factors as rain and micro-climates, has expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces, with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the house, although no actual effect has been demonstrated.
Feng shui can mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the real-estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow". The square footage of a house in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square metres" figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces. The number of floors or levels making up the house can affect the square footage of a home. Many houses have several large rooms with specialized functions and several small rooms for other various reasons; these may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, separate or combined washing and lavatory areas. Some larger properties may feature rooms such as a spa room, indoor pool, indoor basketball court, other'non-essential' facilities. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock share part of the house with human beings.
Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A typical "foursquare house" occurred in the early history of the US where they were built, with a staircase in the center of the house, surrounded by four rooms, connected to other sections of the home. Little is known about the earliest origin of the house and its interior, however it can be traced back to the simplest form of shelters. Roman architect Vitruvius' theories have claimed the first form of architecture as a frame of timber branches finished in mud known as the primitive hut. Philip Tabor states the contribution of 17th century Dutch houses as the foundation of houses today; as far as the idea of the home is concerned, the home of the home is the Netherlands. This idea's crystallization might be dated to the first three-quarters of the 17th century, when the Dutch Netherlands amassed the unprecedented and unrivalled accumulation of capital, emptied their purses into domestic space.
In the Middle Ages, the Manor Houses facilitated different events. Furthermore, the houses accommodated numerous people, including family, employees and their guests, their lifestyles were communal, as areas such as the Great Hall enforced the custom of dining and meetings and the Solar intended for shared sleeping beds. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Italian Renaissance Palazzo consisted of plentiful rooms of connectivity. Unlike the qualities and uses of the Manor Houses, most rooms of the palazzo contained no purpose, yet were given several doors; these doors adjoined rooms in which Robin Evans describes as a "matrix of discrete but interconnected chambers." The layout allowed occupants to walk room to room from one door to another, thus breaking the boundaries of privacy. "Once inside it is necessary to pass from one room to the next to the next to traverse the building. Where passages and staircases are used, as they are, they nearly always connect just one space to another and never serve as general distributors of movement.
Thus, despite the precise architectural containment offe
A maid, or housemaid or maidservant, is a female domestic worker. Although now found only in the most wealthy of households, in the Victorian era domestic service was the second largest category of employment in England and Wales, after agricultural work. Maids were once part of an elaborate hierarchy in great houses, where the retinue of servants stretched up to the housekeeper and butler, responsible for female and male employees respectively; the word "maid" itself is short for "maiden", meaning virgin. Domestic workers those low in the hierarchy, such as maids and footmen, were expected to remain unmarried while in service, highest-ranking workers such as butlers could be dismissed for marrying. In Victorian England, all middle class families would have "help", but for most small households, this would be only one employee, the maid of all work known colloquially as "the girl". Many maids suffered from Prepatellar bursitis, an inflammation of the Prepatellar bursa caused by long periods spent on the knees for purposes of scrubbing and fire-lighting, leading to the condition attracting the colloquial name of "Housemaid's Knee".
In the contemporary Western world, comparatively few households can afford live-in domestic help relying on cleaners, employed directly or through an agency. Today a single maid may be the only domestic worker that upper-middle class households employ, as was the case. In less developed nations, various factors ensure a labour source for domestic work: large differences in the income of urban and rural households, widespread poverty, fewer educated women, limited opportunities for the employment of less educated women. Maids perform typical domestic chores such as laundry, cleaning the house, grocery shopping and caring for household pets, they may take care of children, although there are more specific occupations for this, such as nanny. In some poor countries, maids take care of the elderly and people with disabilities. Many maids are required by their employers to wear a uniform. Legislation in many countries makes certain living conditions, working hours, or minimum wage a requirement of domestic service.
Nonetheless, the work of a maid has always been hard, involving a full day, extensive duties. Maids traditionally have a fixed position in the hierarchy of the large households, although there is overlap between definitions the positions themselves would be rigidly adhered to; the usual classifications of maid in a large household are: Lady's maid: a senior servant who reported directly to the lady of the house, but ranked beneath the Housekeeper, accompanied her lady on travel. She took care of her mistress's clothes and hair, sometimes served as confidante. House-maid or housemaid: a generic term for maids whose function was chiefly "above stairs", were a little older, better paid. Where a household included multiple housemaids the roles were sub-divided as below. Head house-maid: the senior house maid, reporting to the Housekeeper.. Parlour maid: they cleaned and tidied reception rooms and living areas by morning, served refreshments at afternoon tea, sometimes dinner, they tidied studies and libraries, answered bells calling for service.
Chamber maid: they cleaned and maintained the bedrooms, ensured fires were lit in fireplaces, supplied hot water. Laundry maid: they maintained bedding and towels, they washed and ironed clothes for the whole household, including the servants. Under house parlour maid: the general deputy to the house parlour maid in a small establishment which had only two upstairs maids. Nursery maid: an "upstairs maid", but one who worked in the children's nursery, maintaining fires and good order. Reported to the Nanny rather than the Housekeeper. Kitchen maid: a "below stairs" maid who reported to the Cook, assisted in running the kitchens. Head kitchen maid: where multiple kitchen maids were employed, the "head kitchen maid" was a deputy to the cook, engaged in the plainer and simpler cooking. Under kitchen maid: where multiple kitchen maids were employed these were the staff who prepared vegetables, peeled potatoes, assisted in presentation of finished cooking for serving. Scullery maid: the lowest grade of "below stairs" maid, reporting to the cook, the scullery maids were responsible for washing cutlery and glassware, scrubbing kitchen floors, as well as monitoring ovens while kitchen maids ate their own supper.
Between maid: equivalent in status to scullery maids, paid less, the between maids in a large household waited on the senior servants and were therefore answerable to all three department heads leading to friction in their employment. Sometimes known by the name'tweeny'. Still room maid: a junior maid employed in the still room. In more modest households a single maid-of-all-work or skivvy was the only staff, it is possible. One of the most in-depth and enduring representations of the lives of several types of maid was seen in the 1970s television drama Upstairs, set in England between 1903 and 1936. Another representation of the lives of maids is seen nowadays
A valet is a male servant who serves as personal attendant to his employer. In the Middle Ages and Ancien Régime, valet de chambre was a role for junior courtiers and specialists such as artists in a royal court, but the term "valet" by itself most refers to a normal servant responsible for the clothes and personal belongings of an employer, making minor arrangements. In the United States, the term most refers to a parking valet. In English, valet as "personal man-servant" is recorded since 1567, though use of the term in the French-speaking English medieval court is older, the variant form varlet is cited from 1456. Both are French importations of valet or varlet, Old French variants of vaslet "man's servant" "squire, young man", assumed to be from Gallo-Romance Vulgar Latin *vassellittus "young nobleman, page", diminutive of Medieval Latin vassallus, from vassus "servant" cognate to an Old Celtic root wasso- "young man, squire". See yeoman derived from yonge man, a related term; the modern use is short for the valet de chambre, described in the following section.
Since the 16th century, the word has traditionally been pronounced as rhyming with pallet, though an alternative pronunciation, rhyming with chalet, as in French, is now common. The Oxford English Dictionary lists both pronunciations as valid. A valet or "gentleman's gentleman" is a gentleman's male servant; the valet performs personal services such as maintaining his employer's clothes, running his bath and shaving his employer. In a great house, the master of the house had his own valet, in the grandest great houses, other adult members of the employing family would have their own valets. At a court minor princes and high officials may be assigned one, but in a smaller household the butler – the majordomo in charge of the household staff – might have to double as his employer's valet. In a bachelor's household the valet might perform light housekeeping duties as well. Valets learned the skills for their role in various ways; some began as footmen, learning some relevant skills as part of that job, picking up others when deputising for their master's valet, or by performing valeting tasks for his sons before they had a valet of their own, or for male guests who did not travel with a valet.
Others started out as soldier-servants to army stewards to naval officers. Traditionally, a valet did much more than lay out clothes and take care of personal items, he was responsible for making travel arrangements, dealing with any bills and handling all money matters concerning his master or his master's household. Alexandre Bontemps, the most senior of the thirty-six valets to Louis XIV of France, was a powerful figure, who ran the Château de Versailles. In courts, valet de chambre was a position of some status given to artists, musicians and others, who spent most of their time on their specialized work; the role was at least during the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, a common first step or training period in a nobleman's career at court. Valets, like butlers and most specialized domestic staff, have become rare. A more common, though still infrequent, arrangement is the general servant performing combined roles. Jeeves, created in 1915 by P. G. Wodehouse, starred in a series of stories until Wodehouse's death in 1975.
Mervyn Bunter, created in 1923 by Dorothy L. Sayers in the Lord Peter Wimsey series a paragon of discreet competence, taking his duties beyond what was expected of a valet to help his master. Alfred Pennyworth, valet to Bruce Wayne, created by Bob Kane. Played by Alan Napier in the 1960s TV series and 1966 Batman film starring Adam West, Michael Gough in Batman, Batman Returns, Batman Forever and Batman & Robin, Michael Caine in Batman Begins, The Dark Knight, The Dark Knight Rises, most by Jeremy Irons in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and Justice League. A rotund domestic servant in comic stories, the role of Alfred Pennyworth has evolved to a technical and mechanical aide skilled medic, occasional wheelman for Batman on his various travels. Hobson, from the comedy film Arthur. Kato, Inspector Clouseau's valet and martial arts partner in the Pink Panther movies. Kato, fictional sidekick/valet of The Green Hornet. Passepartout, in the 1872 novel Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne.
George, created by Agatha Christie in the Hercule Poirot novels. Edward Henry Masterman, the victim's valet and a suspect in Agatha Christie's Murder on the Orient Express. Figaro, the Count of Almaviva's valet from Beaumarchais' play The Marriage of Figaro, as well as the Mozart and Rossini operas based on it. Leporello, valet of Don Giovanni in the opera by Mozart. Giles French in the sitcom Family Affair. Probert, valet to Sir William McCordle, Robert Parks, valet to Lord Stockbridge, in the 2001 film Gosford Park, directed by Robert Altman. Baptistin, in The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas. Pork, Gerald O'Hara's valet in Gone With the Wind. Smerdyakov, the valet to Fyodor Pavlovitch in The Brothers Karamazov by Fyodor
A sink — known by other names including sinker, hand basin and wash basin—is a bowl-shaped plumbing fixture used for washing hands and other purposes. Sinks have taps that supply hot and cold water and may include a spray feature to be used for faster rinsing, they include a drain to remove used water. Sinks may have an integrated soap dispenser. Many sinks in kitchens, are installed adjacent to or inside a counter; when a sink becomes clogged, a person will resort to use a chemical drain cleaner or a plunger, though most professional plumbers will remove the clog with a drain auger. The washstand was a bathroom sink made in the United States in the late 18th century; the washstands were small tables on which were placed a pitcher and a deep bowl, following the English tradition. Sometimes the table had a hole which led to the making of dry sinks. From about 1820 to 1900 the dry sink evolved by the addition of a wooden cabinet with a trough built on the top, lined with zinc or lead; this is where the buckets for water were kept.
Splashboards were sometimes added to the back wall, as well as shelves and drawers, the more elaborate designs placed in the kitchen. Sinks are made of many different materials; these include: Stainless steel is used in kitchens and commercial applications because it represents a good trade-off between cost, usability and ease of cleaning. Most stainless steel sinks are made by drawing a sheet of stainless steel over a die; some deep sinks are fabricated by welding. Stainless steel sinks will not resist damage from impacts. One disadvantage of stainless steel is that, being made of thin metal, they tend to be noisier than most other sink materials, although better sinks apply a heavy coating of vibration-damping material to the underside of the sink. Enamel over cast iron is a popular material for bathroom sinks. Heavy and durable, these sinks can be manufactured in a wide range of shapes and colors. Like stainless steel, they are resistant to hot or cold objects, but they can be damaged by sharp impacts and once the glass surface is breached, the underlying cast iron will corrode, spalling off more of the glass.
Aggressive cleaning will dull the surface. Enamel over steel is a similar-appearing less cost-effective alternative. Solid ceramic sinks have many of the same characteristics as enamel over cast iron, but without the risk of surface damage leading to corrosion. Plastic sinks come in several basic forms: Inexpensive sinks are made using injection-molded thermoplastics; these are deep, free-standing sinks used in laundry rooms. Subject to damage by hot or sharp objects, the principal virtue of these sinks is their low cost. High-end acrylic drop-in and undermount sinks are becoming more popular, although they tend to be damaged by hard objects - like scouring a cast iron frying pan in the sink. Plastic sinks may be made from the same materials used to form "solid surface" countertops; these sinks are durable and can be molded with an integrated countertop or joined to a separate countertop in a seamless fashion, leading to no sink-to-countertop joint or a smooth sink-to-countertop joint that can not trap dirt or germs.
These sinks are subject to damage by hot objects but damaged areas can sometimes be sanded down to expose undamaged material. Soapstone sinks were once common, but today tend to be used only in very-high-end applications or applications that must resist caustic chemicals that would damage more-conventional sinks. Wood sinks are from the early days of sinks and baths were made from natural teak with no additional finishing. Teak is chosen because of its natural waterproofing properties – it has been used for hundreds of years in the marine industry for this reason. Teak has natural antiseptic properties, a bonus for its use in baths and sinks. Glass sinks: A current trend in bathroom design is the handmade glass sink which has become fashionable for wealthy homeowners. Stone sinks have been used for ages; some of the more popular stones used are: marble, onyx and soap stone on high end sinks. Glass and terrazzo sinks are designed for their aesthetic appeal and can be obtained in a wide variety of unusual shapes and colors such as floral shapes.
Concrete and terrazzo are also used in very-heavy-duty applications such as janitorial sinks. Self-rimming sinks sit in appropriately shaped holes cut in the countertop using a jigsaw or other cutter appropriate to the material at hand and are suspended by their rim; the rim inherently forms a close seal with the top surface of the countertop when the sink is clamped into the hole from below. Bottom-mount or under-mount sinks are installed below the countertop surface; the edge of the countertop material is exposed at the hole created for the sink. The sink is clamped to the bottom of the material from below. For bottom-mount sinks, silicone-based sealants are used to assure a waterproof joint between the sink and the countertop material. Advantages of an undermount sink include a contemporary look. No matter how the cut out is made