A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may be described as such by others. A poet may be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience; the work of a poet is one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, have produced works that vary in different cultures and periods. Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced. In Ancient Rome, professional poets were sponsored by patrons, wealthy supporters including nobility and military officials. For instance, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, friend to Caesar Augustus, was an important patron for the Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. Poets held an important position in pre-Islamic Arabic society with the poet or sha'ir filling the role of historian and propagandist.
Words in praise of the tribe and lampoons denigrating other tribes seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The sha'ir represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, mock battles in poetry or zajal would stand in lieu of real wars.'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the sha'irs would be exhibited. In the High Middle Ages, troubadors were an important class of poets and came from a variety of backgrounds, they lived and travelled in many different places and were looked upon as actors or musicians as much as poets. They were under patronage, but many travelled extensively; the Renaissance period saw a continuation of patronage of poets by royalty. Many poets, had other sources of income, including Italians like Dante Aligheri, Giovanni Boccaccio and Petrarch's works in a pharmacist's guild and William Shakespeare's work in the theater. In the Romantic period and onwards, many poets were independent writers who made their living through their work supplemented by income from other occupations or from family.
This included poets such as Robert Burns. Poets such as Virgil in the Aeneid and John Milton in Paradise Lost invoked the aid of a Muse. Poets of earlier times were well read and educated people while others were to a large extent self-educated. A few poets such as John Gower and John Milton were able to write poetry in more than one language; some Portuguese poets, as Francisco de Sá de Miranda, wrote not only in Portuguese but in Spanish. Jan Kochanowski wrote in Polish and in Latin, France Prešeren and Karel Hynek Mácha wrote some poems in German, although they were poets of Slovenian and Czech respectively. Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of Polish language, wrote a Latin ode for emperor Napoleon III. Another example is a Polish poet; when he moved to Great Britain, he ceased to write poetry in Polish, but started writing novel in English. He translated poetry from English and into English. Many universities offer degrees in creative writing though these only came into existence in the 20th century.
While these courses are not necessary for a career as a poet, they can be helpful as training, for giving the student several years of time focused on their writing. List of poets Bard Lyricist Reginald Gibbons, The Poet's Work: 29 poets on the origins and practice of their art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226290546 at Google Books Poets' Graves
Slovakia the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the west, the Czech Republic to the northwest. Slovakia's territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres and is mountainous; the population is over 5.4 million and consists of Slovaks. The capital and largest city is Bratislava, the second largest city is Košice; the official language is Slovak. The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 6th centuries. In the 7th century, they played a significant role in the creation of Samo's Empire and in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra, conquered by the Principality of Moravia to establish Great Moravia. In the 10th century, after the dissolution of Great Moravia, the territory was integrated into the Principality of Hungary, which would become the Kingdom of Hungary in 1000. In 1241 and 1242, much of the territory was destroyed by the Mongols during their invasion of Central and Eastern Europe.
The area was recovered thanks to Béla IV of Hungary who settled Germans which became an important ethnic group in the area in what are today parts of central and eastern Slovakia. After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Czechoslovak National Council established Czechoslovakia. A separate Slovak Republic existed during World War II as a totalitarian, clero-fascist one-party client state of Nazi Germany. At the end of World War II, Czechoslovakia was re-established as an independent country. A coup in 1948 ushered in a totalitarian one-party state under the Communist regime during whose rule the country existed as a satellite of the Soviet Union. Attempts for liberalization of communism in Czechoslovakia culminated in the Prague Spring, crushed by the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. In 1989, the Velvet Revolution ended the Communist rule in Czechoslovakia peacefully. Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia, sometimes known as the Velvet Divorce.
Slovakia is a developed country, with a high-income advanced economy and a high Human Development Index, a high standard of living and performs favourably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance and peacefulness. The country maintains a combination of market economy with a comprehensive social security system. Citizens of Slovakia are provided with universal health care, free education and one of the longest paid parental leave in the OECD; the country joined the European Union on 1 May 2004 and joined the Eurozone on 1 January 2009. Slovakia is a member of the Schengen Area, NATO, the United Nations, the OECD, the WTO, CERN, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group. Although regional income inequality is high, 90% of citizens own their homes. In 2018, Slovak citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 179 countries and territories, ranking the Slovak passport 10th in the world; as part of Eurozone, Slovak legal tender is the world's 2nd-most-traded currency.
Slovakia is the world's largest per-capita car producer with a total of 1,040,000 cars manufactured in the country in 2016 alone and the 7th largest car producer in the European Union. The car industry represents 43% of Slovakia's industrial output, a quarter of its exports; the first written mention of name Slovakia is in 1586. It derives from the Czech word Slováky; the native name Slovensko derives from an older name of Slovaks Sloven what may indicate its origin before the 15th century. The original meaning was geographic, since Slovakia was a part of the multiethnic Kingdom of Hungary and did not form a separate administrative unit in this period. Radiocarbon dating puts the oldest surviving archaeological artefacts from Slovakia – found near Nové Mesto nad Váhom – at 270,000 BCE, in the Early Paleolithic era; these ancient tools, made by the Clactonian technique, bear witness to the ancient habitation of Slovakia. Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic era come from the Prévôt cave in Bojnice and from other nearby sites.
The most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal cranium, discovered near Gánovce, a village in northern Slovakia. Archaeologists have found prehistoric human skeletons in the region, as well as numerous objects and vestiges of the Gravettian culture, principally in the river valleys of Nitra, Ipeľ, Váh and as far as the city of Žilina, near the foot of the Vihorlat and Tribeč mountains, as well as in the Myjava Mountains; the most well-known finds include the oldest female statue made of mammoth-bone, the famous Venus of Moravany. The statue was found in the 1940s in Moravany nad Váhom near Piešťany. Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile gastropods of the Tertiary period have come from the sites of Zákovská, Podkovice and Radošina; these findings provide the most ancient evidence of commercial exchanges carried out between the Mediterranean and central Europe. The Bronze Age in the geographical territory of modern-day Slovakia went through three stages of development, stretching from 2000 to 800 BCE.
Major cultural and political development can be attributed to the significant growth in production of copper in central Slovakia and northwe
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Ľudovít Velislav Štúr, known in his era as Ludevít Štúr, was the leader of the Slovak national revival in the 19th century, the author of the Slovak language standard leading to the contemporary Slovak literary language. Štúr was an organizer of the Slovak volunteer campaigns during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. He was a politician, journalist, teacher, philosopher and member of the Hungarian Parliament. At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, Slovaks were divided concerning the literary language to be used: Catholics continued to use the standard that had developed in Slovak writing by 1610. Anton Bernolák's language codified in the 1780s was an attempt to blend that standard with the west-Slovakian idiom of the university town of Trnava, but most authors respected Bernolák's standard only to the degree that it did not diverge from the traditional written standard; this situation did not change until the 1840s, when Ľudovít Štúr became the chief figure of the Slovak national movement.
At the same time, modern nations started to develop in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Hungarians favoured the idea of a centralized state, although the Magyar population was only some 40% of the population of the Hungarian Kingdom in the 1780s; this was unacceptable to other national groups, including the Slovaks, they expressed their disapproval. In the 1830s, a new generation of Slovaks began to make themselves heard, they had grown up under the influence of the national movement at the prestigious Lutheran Lýceum in Bratislava, where the Czech-Slav Society had been founded in 1829. The society operated in accordance with the ideas of Ján Kollár, a Protestant minister and academic, supporter of Czech-Slovak unity, of the users of the language of Bible of Kralice. In the latter part of the decade, when Ľudovít Štúr came to the fore, its activities intensified; the most prominent representatives of the new generation were, along with Ľudovít Štúr, Jozef Miloslav Hurban and Michal Miloslav Hodža.
Ľudovít Štúr expressed his philosophy in one sentence: "My country is my being, every hour of my life shall be devoted to it". Štúr, a Lutheran, was aware of the fact that Czech, the language of educated Lutherans, was not enough to carry out a national campaign, that Slovaks, if they were to become autonomous and be an effective force against Magyarization, needed a language they could call their own. The central Slovak dialect was chosen as the basis of a literary language. Štúr's codification work was disapproved of by Ján Kollár and the Czechs, who saw it as an act of Slovak withdrawal from the idea of a common Czecho-Slovak nation and a weakening of solidarity. But the majority of Slovak scholars, including the Catholics, welcomed the notion of codification; the standard language thus became an important political tool. Štúr's notions came to fruition with the 1848 Revolution in Hungary, which dealt with the liberation of peasants from serfdom and other national and ethnic issues. Hungarian revolutionaries called for Hungary’s separation from Vienna, but at the same time, they wanted to see Hungary as one nation with one language and one educational system.
But the desires of the Magyars for a centralized Hungarian state ran contrary to the wishes of other national groups, including the Slovaks. Slovak and Hungarian revolutionary claims ran counter to each other. In the spring of 1848, Slovak leaders spread their ideas throughout Upper Hungary. Slovak nationalists in the progressive western and central Upper Hungary, joined them. In May 1848, a huge public meeting took place in Liptovský Svätý Mikuláš, where a pan-Slovak program, known as the "Requirements of the Slovak Nation" was proclaimed and accepted. Ethnic Slovaks sought to back this revolutionary manifesto by force of arms; the provisional Hungarian revolutionary government was not willing to accept the Requirements of the Slovak Nation and the situation developed into open hostility between Hungarian and Slovak revolutionaries. In September 1848, the Slovak National Council was established in Vienna and it forthwith proclaimed the secession of the Slovak territory from Hungary; the so-called September campaign took place in western Upper Hungary.
Slovak demands remained unfulfilled. Between November 1848 and April 1849, the armed Slovaks helped the Habsburg king – along with imperial troops in present-day Hungary – to defeat Hungarians and their revolutionary government on present-day Slovak territory. In March 1849, Slovaks temporarily managed to start to administer Slovakia themselves and they sent a petition to the emperor. However, in the summer of 1849, the Russians helped the Habsburg monarchy defeat the revolutionary Hungarians, in November, when the Slovaks were not needed anymore, the Slovak corps was dissolved in Vienna. In December 1851, Emperor Franz Joseph abolished the last vestiges of constitutionalism and began to rule as an absolute emperor. Francis Joseph co
Liptovský Mikuláš is a town in northern Slovakia, on the Váh River, about 285 kilometres from Bratislava. It lies in Liptov Basin near the Low Tatra and Tatra mountains; the town, known as Liptovský Svätý Mikuláš before communist times, is renowned as a town of guilds and culture. From the second half of the 10th century until 1918, it was part of the Kingdom of Hungary; the town of Mikuláš was first mentioned in the royal deed of King Ladislaus IV in 1286. The first written record mentioning the Church of Saint Nicolaus, to become the founding element of a larger settlement dates back to 1299; the Church of Saint Nicolaus is the oldest building in the town of Liptovský Mikuláš. Mikuláš was one of the most important centres of crafts in the Liptov region; the craftsmen formed guilds. The oldest guild was the shoemaker's guild mentioned in 1508. There were other guilds: the guild of smiths, tailors and butchers. In 1677, Liptovský Mikuláš became the seat of the local district, as well as Liptó county.
The legendary Slovak "Robin Hood" Juraj Jánošík was sentenced and executed here in 1713 by being hung by the ribcage on a hook. Liptovský Mikuláš played an important role for Slovaks in the 19th century during the period of magyarization, it was one of the centres of Slovak national movement. The first Slovak theater was founded there in 1830 called "The theater of G. F. Belopotocký". Liptovský Mikuláš was a home to an important Slovak romantic poet and national activist, Janko Kráľ, fighting for the right of self-determination of Slovak nation in the Hungarian Empire. Another national revivalist Michal Miloslav Hodža lived there; the leader of Slovak national revival, Ľudovít Štúr, publicly revealed a document called "The demands of Slovak nation" in 1848 in Liptovský Mikuláš as an official appeal to the leaders of Austrian-Hungarian empire to help solve the present existentional problems of Slovak people. In the 20th century, many once independent villages were annexed to Liptovský Mikuláš.
Thus, what was once the bucolic farmers' hamlet of Vrbica is now a street in the middle of the town. The town is one of the most famous tourist centres in Slovakia because of its rich cultural life and because it is a perfect starting point for tourists, from where it is easy to reach the Low Tatras with well-known caves such as the Demänová Ice Cave or Demänová Cave of Freedom, or to the Western Tatras. Folk architecture can be seen nearby in Vlkolínec near Ružomberok, or Pribylina, a few kilometres west of the town, for recreation the lake called Liptovská Mara is available. Since 2004 a new aquapark called; the area is well-known due to its location close to the biggest ski resort in Slovakia, Jasná. Many modern lifts and recent additions made to its infrastructure have meant it has become a popular ski centre for many western tourists over the last few years. According to the 2001 census, the town had 33,007 inhabitants. 94.07 % of inhabitants were 2.30 % Roma, 2.10 % Czech and 0.28 % Hungarians.
The religious make-up was 34.48% Roman Catholics, 32.26% people with no religious affiliation, 26.85% Lutherans. According to the Hungarian census of 1910, the population make up was 50% Slovak, 30% Hungarian 20% German. After WWII, the ethnic minorities were expelled leaving a majority Slovak population. Ice hockey: MHk 32 Liptovský Mikuláš played in the Slovak Extraliga until 2010 playing in the First League; the Ondrej Cibak Whitewater Slalom Course on the nearby Váh river is the oldest whitewater slalom course in Slovakia. The 2008 Olympic champion in canoe slalom, C-1, Michal Martikán lives here. Elena Kaliská, another Olympic winner, is a member of the town sports club. A new raised sport talent Petra Vlhová was born and lives in Liptovský Mikuláš. Liptovský Mikuláš hosted the 2012 FAI World Championship for Space Models, taking place from 31 August to 9 September. Liptovský Mikuláš is located near the main Slovak D1 motorway, as well as being on the main railroad from Bratislava to Košice.
The closest international airport is in Poprad. The town has its own public transport network with 13 lines operating. Liptovský Mikuláš is twinned with: Jozef Božetech Klemens, painter Janko Kráľ, poet Ján Levoslav Bella, composer Aurel Stodola, physicist Samuel Fischer, publisher Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, inventor Ivan Stodola, dramatist, doctor Martin Rázus, author, politician Janko Alexy, painter Koloman Sokol, painter Mária Rázusová-Martáková, author Ladislav Hanus, theologian, author Pavol Strauss, writer, translator Ivan Laučík, professor Michal Martikán, sportsman Peter Sejna, AHL/NHL player Martin Cibák, 2004 Stanley cup winner with Tampa Bay Lightning Milan Jurčina, NHL player Diana Doll, model Petra Vlhová, ski racer Klaudia Medlová, professional snowboarder / Olympian Notes Official website
Zlaté Moravce is a town in south-western Slovakia. It is the biggest town of Zlaté Moravce District, it is 120 km from the Slovak capital Bratislava and 32 km from Nitra. The town is situated on the banks of the river Žitava, in the northern part of the Podunajská Heights. Nowadays, it includes the area of separate boroughs Chyzerovce and Prílepy. Thanks to its favourable location on the natural terrace of the river Žitava, the traces of the continuous settlement of this area go back to the Paleolithic Age; the rich archeological findings in the town area prove intensive Great Moravian settlement in the 9th-10th century. A unique finding – a golden pectoral cross – is associated with this settlement; the origin of the oldest name of the borough "Morowa" in the Charter of Zobor of 1113 is related to that time as well. This charter is the oldest written proof of the existence of Moravce as Zobor Monastery’s property; the borough, situated on the important route to Tekov was in the 13th century dominated by a small Roman church surrounded by a cemetery, located on the site of today’s square.
The first written mentions of the town are from 12th century A. D.. "Moravce", a word in plural, was a frequent settlement name in Slovakia and means "settlement of Moravians". The attribute "zlaté", meaning "golden", was added only in order to distinguish the settlement's name from all the other "Moravce"s. Ottomans plundered the city in 1530 and 1573. Rivers in the surrounding areas were known in the past for gold washing. Note the name of the second river. In the Slavic languages Zlato means gold. According to the 2001 census, the town had 15,618 inhabitants. 97.09 % of inhabitants were 0.60 % Czechs and 0.29 % Hungarians. The religious makeup was 82.52% Roman Catholics, 10.59% people with no religious affiliation and 1.48% Lutherans. An active Jewish community had existed here until the Holocaust. Zlaté Moravce has a town status from 1960; the town is known for the production of kitchen technologies and building materials - bricks. Janko Kráľ, a poet of Slovak Romanticism Tono Stano, photographer Ján Kocian, football trainer Homepage - The official website of Zlaté Moravce Map of Zlaté Moravce
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website