The Conejo Valley is a region spanning both southeastern Ventura County and northwestern Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States. It is located in the northwestern part of the Greater Los Angeles Area. Communities in Conejo Valley are Thousand Oaks, Newbury Park, Westlake Village, Oak Park, Agoura Hills, Lake Sherwood and a portion of Calabasas. In 1803, the Spanish land grant in the area was given the name Rancho El Conejo. In Spanish, conejo means "rabbit", refers to the rabbits common to the region the desert cottontail and brush rabbit species; the first human residents of Conejo valley were the native Chumash people. Notable Chumash villages included Satwiwa in Newbury Park, Sap'wi in Thousand Oaks, Hipuk in Westlake Village. Sap'wi is located near Chumash Indian Museum in Oakbrook Regional Park; this park is home to 4-6,000 year old pictographs, which can be observed on docent-led tours. Satwiwa, first settled 13,000 years ago, was located at the foothills of Mount Boney, a sacred mountain to the Chumash people.
The Satwiwa Native American Indian Culture Center is available for visitors. Two additional Chumash villages were found by Ventu Park Road; these had a population of 100-200 in each village, were settled around 2,000 years ago. These former villages, known as Ven-65, Ven-260 and Ven-261, are located on private lands near Ventu Park Road in Newbury Park. A smaller village, known as Yitimasɨh, was located where Wildwood Elementary School is located today. Artifacts retrieved in nearby Wildwood Regional Park include shell beads and stone tools. Local villagers' first contact with Europeans came in 1770; the Spanish exploratory party led by Gaspar de Portolá, returning from its journey up the coast as far as San Francisco, entered the valley from the northwest. On the outward bound journey, the explorers had traveled up the Los Angeles River north to Castaic Junction followed the Santa Clara River back down to the coast. On the return trip, they sought a shorter route to the San Fernando Valley, were guided by natives up and over the Conejo Grade.
Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi kept a diary of the expedition, gave Conejo Valley one name that survives today – Triunfo. Crespi gave the name El triunfo del Dulcísimo Nombre de Jesús to a camping place by a creek – today's Triunfo Canyon Road begins between Thousand Oaks and Westlake Village. Explorer Juan Bautista de Anza used Portolá's shortcut on his way north in 1774, mentioning in his diary a stop at "El Triunfo". On de Anza's second expedition, diarist Father Pedro Font referred to "many watering places, like those of El Triunfo and Los Conejos". Harold and Edwin Janss purchased ten thousand acres of land of what is now central Thousand Oaks from the heir of John Edwards, who had purchased the land from the de la Guerra heirs in 1910. A ranch, named the Janss Conejo Ranch, was utilized as a farm and to raise thoroughbred horses with the Santa Susanna Mountains and Simi Hills framing it. Television Westerns such as The Rifleman and Bonanza were filmed in Janss Conejo between the 1950s and 1960s.
It was used as the filming locations for Disney's Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier and Westward Ho, the Wagons! both starring Fess Parker. Conejo Valley is a 900-foot high valley which occupies 1,884 sq mi The area is bordered by the San Fernando Valley and the city of Los Angeles to the east, Simi Hills to the north, Las Posas Hills and the Santa Rosa Valley to the northwest, Conejo Mountain and Oxnard Plain to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains to the south; the valley is located in the Santa Monica Mountains on an elevated area. The largest non-retail employers in the Conejo Valley include Amgen, the Conejo Valley Unified School District, Los Robles Regional Medical Center, Anthem Blue Cross, California Lutheran University, Shire Biotechnology, Skyworks Solutions, PennyMac Mortgage and Sage Publications. Other notable employers include Jafra Cosmetics, Teledyne, J. D. Power, Dole Food Company, Guitar Center, Bank of America and Teradyne; the Ventura County Star is a daily newspaper published in Camarillo and serves all of Ventura County, including the Conejo Valley.
The Acorn is a local weekly newspaper covering Agoura Hills, Hidden Hills, Oak Park, North Ranch and Calabasas, while Thousand Oaks Acorn covers the cities of Thousand Oaks, Newbury Park and Westlake Village. KCLU is the only public radio station in Ventura County. In 2013 the Conejo Valley Tourism Improvement District was formed by the cities of Thousand Oaks and Agoura Hills. CVTID is a non-profit corporation. Conejo Valley's two largest tourist attractions are the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley and the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. American Radio Archives and Museum, one of the world's largest collections of radio broadcasting. Conejo Valley Art Museum, art museum at Janss Marketplace in Thousand Oaks. Conejo Valley Botanic Garden, 33 acres botanical gardens, directly across from Tarantula Hill. Gardens of the World, botanical garden across Thousand Oaks Boulevard from the Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Center. Grant R. Brimhall Library, one of the largest libraries in Southern California.
Joel McCrea Ranch, 19th century ranch at the bottom of the Norwegian Grade. Listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. Paramount Ranch, movie ranch in the Santa Monica Mountains of Agoura Hills. Pederson House and Water Tower, home built by the Norwegian Colony
Janss Investment Company Building
The Janss Investment Company Building known as the Janss Dome, is a historic building in Westwood, Los Angeles, California, in the Westwood Village. The building is located at the five-way intersection of Westwood Boulevard, Kinross Avenue, Broxton Avenue. In 1929 the Janss Dome was the first building, it housed the headquarters of the Janss Investment Company run by the Janss brothers and Harold Janss, who were the developers of the village. The village was built as a shopping and cinema precinct to serve the adjacent University of California, Los Angeles; the second floor of the Janss building was the first male dormitory for UCLA students. The Janss Dome was designed by the architectural firm of Allison & Allison, who designed UCLA’s Royce Hall and Kerckhoff Hall. Architectural features of the building include a high portico and arched windows with the main part of the building having an octagonal shape and being surmounted by its signature dome with its Moorish style aqua and white zig-zag pattern and gold leafing.
Atop the dome is a cupola. This dome ranks alongside the white Spanish Revival/Moderne tower of the Fox Theater as an iconic landmark of Westwood Village. Around the beginning of the 1990s renowned architectural firm Morphosis adapted the dome for use as a clothing store by Contempo Casuals, it was occupied by a Wherehouse Music store. In 1998 restaurateur Michael Chow remodeled the interior for a Eurochow restaurant but had the time-honored aqua and white zig-zag on the rotunda painted over in white; this caused the Westwood Design Review Board to order that the dome be restored to its traditional decoration. The Janss Dome housed a Japanese restaurant, until June 2016, but remains vacant. In 1971, the Paramount Securities Corporation, purchased the property from Bank of America; the property, was leased to Glendale Federal Savings and Loan. A Cupola was placed on the dome,and an original Sir Richard Wallace fountain,dated 1872,was added to the patio; the Janss Investment Company Building was dedicated a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument on June 21, 1988
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Van Nuys is a neighborhood in the central San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California. Home to Van Nuys Airport and the Valley Municipal Building, it is the most populous neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley. In 1909 the Suburban Homes Company, a syndicate led by H. J. Whitley, general manager of the Board of Control, along with Harry Chandler, H. G. Otis, M. H. Sherman and O. F. Brandt purchased 48,000 acres of the Farming and Milling Company for $2,500,000. Henry E. Huntington, extended his Pacific Electric Railway through the Valley to Owensmouth; the Suburban Home Company laid out plans for roads and the towns of Van Nuys and Canoga Park. The rural areas were annexed into the city of Los Angeles in 1915. On April 2, 1915 H. J. Whitley purchased the Suburban Home Company so that he would have complete control for finishing the development; the town was named for Isaac Newton Van Nuys, one of its developers. It was annexed by Los Angeles on May 22, 1915, after completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, providing it with the water required for further growth.
Van Nuys was the first new stop on the San Fernando Line of the Pacific Electric Railway red cars system, which boosted its early land sales and commercial success. Van Nuys became the Valley's satellite Los Angeles municipal civic center with the 1932 Art Deco Valley Municipal Building, a visual landmark and Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, starting the present-day Government Center complex of government services buildings. In 1991, Marvin Braude, a member of the Los Angeles City Council, redesignated a 45-block area of Van Nuys as a part of Sherman Oaks; this redesignated area included the community of Magnolia Woods. Some area residents had presented a petition and several original deeds that stated "Sherman Oaks" to Braude, they argued that the area was a part of Sherman Oaks until the 1960s, when ZIP Codes labeling the area as Van Nuys were established. In October 2005, the Metro Orange Line opened with two stations. In 2014, a "Great Streets" project was introduced by Mayor Eric Garcetti with Van Nuys Blvd. to be redesigned between Victory Blvd. and Oxnard Street.
Sepulveda Blvd. was resurfaced between Victory Blvd and Oxnard Street in May 2014. A new Los Angeles County family services building was built on the southwest corner of Van Nuys Blvd. and Saticoy Street in 2016. In 2017, a new Los Angeles Fire Department fire station is under construction on the northwestern corner of Oxnard St and Vesper Ave. Van Nuys is bordered on the north by North Hills, on the northeast by Panorama City, on the east by Valley Glen, on the south by Sherman Oaks, on the southwest by the Sepulveda Basin, on the west by Lake Balboa, on the northwest by Northridge, its street and other boundaries are Roscoe Boulevard on the north, Sepulveda Boulevard, the Tujunga Wash, Woodman Avenue and Hazeltine Avenue on the east, Oxnard Street on the south, the Sepulveda Basin on the southwest and Odessa and Hayvenhurst avenues and Balboa Boulevard on the west. The 2000 U. S. census counted 136,443 residents in the 8.99-square-mile Van Nuys neighborhood—or 11,542 people per square mile.
In 2000, the median age for residents was 28, considered young for city and county neighborhoods, the percentages of residents aged 10 or younger and 19 to 34 were among the highest in Los Angeles County. The neighborhood was considered "moderately diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles; the breakdown was Hispanics, 60.5%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 49.8% of the residents who were born abroad—a high percentage for Los Angeles. There were 4,917 families headed by single parents or 21.3%, considered high for both the city and the county. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $41,134, considered average for the city, but low for the county; the percentages of households that earned $40,000 or less were high for the county. Renters occupied 73.9% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 26.1%. Van Nuys Boulevard has a long and diverse commercial district along it, as do other major streets crossing through Van Nuys. There are two Target stores in Van Nuys, one on Sepulveda and Hatteras and another on Raymer and Noble.
Van Nuys has two Asian supermarkets, one on Sherman Way and White Oak, one on Sepulveda and Victory. From 1947 until 1992, GM operated an automobile factory called Van Nuys Assembly at Van Nuys Boulevard and Arminta Street to augment their production efforts at their South Gate, California factory called South Gate Assembly, which opened in 1936; the Van Nuys location manufactured the Chevrolet Impala and Corvair and was the primary location for the Nova and the Camaro. Badge engineered versions of the Impala and Camaro were manufactured at this location. Due to air quality remediation efforts and decreasing market share of GM products, the factory was closed. Sound City Studios is a well-respected recording studio in Van Nuys. Van Nuys, along with Chatsworth, is home to numerous pornographic movie studios and manufacturers. Grupo TACA operates a Van Nuys-area TACA Center at 6710 Van Nuys Boulevard. Various parts of the movie Terminator were filmed here; some former Van Nuys neighborhoods have won approval by the Los Angeles City Council to break off from Van Nuys and join the neighboring communities of Lake Balboa, Valley Glen, Sherman Oaks in an effort to raise their property values.
City Council member Tony Cardenas "suggested the change was motivated by racism." The Los Angeles Fire Department operates Station 39, Station 90 Van Nuys Airport Area, Station 100 West Van Nuys, Station 102 East Van Nuys, serving the community. The Los An
Yorba Linda, California
Yorba Linda is a suburban city in Orange County, California 37 miles southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The suburb's most famous resident was Richard Nixon, his birthplace is a National Historic Landmark, at his presidential library and museum located there. Yorba Linda is part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area according to the US Census; as of the 2010 census, its population was 64,234. This area was the home of the Luiseño, Juaneño Indians at one time. In 1834, Jose Antonio Yorba's most successful son, Bernardo Yorba, was granted the 13,328-acre Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana by Mexican governor José Figueroa. Most of this original land was retained after the Mexican–American War in 1848 by descendants of the Yorba family. A portion of the city's land is still owned and developed by descendants of Samuel Kraemer, who acquired it through his marriage to Angelina Yorba, the great-granddaughter of Bernardo Yorba; the site of the Bernardo Yorba Hacienda, referred to as the Don Bernardo Yorba Ranch House Site, is listed as a California Historical Landmark.
Near that same site sits the second oldest private cemetery in the county, the historic Yorba Cemetery. The land was given to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles by Bernardo Yorba in 1858 since Orange County was not established out of Los Angeles County as a separate county until 1889; the cemetery was subsequently vandalized. A section of the land was sold in 1907 by the Yorba family to Fullerton businessman Jacob Stern, who used the land for barley fields and sheep grazing. Stern subsequently sold the tract to the Janss Investment Company, which first called the area Yorba Linda, proceeded to subdivide the land and sell it for agriculture and manufacturing. In 1910, the agricultural aspect of that endeavor materialized, the first of many lemon and orange groves were planted: at the time, the population was still less than 50. A year The Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company began serving Yorba Linda, the first school was constructed. In 1912, several things happened in Yorba Linda: it received its first post office.
The area that would become downtown was connected to Los Angeles by the Pacific Electric Railway in 1912 for citrus transport. In 1913, Richard Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, the chamber of commerce was set up, a library opened as part of the school, avocado trees were first planted. A year a separate district was established for the library system. In 1915, the Susanna Bixby Bryant Ranch house was constructed, it is a museum, open to the public. In 1917, the first street was paved, Yorba Linda Boulevard; the Yorba Linda Star began publication also. It has since become an online section of the OC Register. A printed version of the Star is available at various city buildings free of charge and is delivered to every household in Yorba Linda each Thursday. Past articles are on microfilm at the Yorba Linda Public Library; the population exceeded 300 for the first time prior to 1920. In 1929, the citrus association's packing house burned down, it reopened the next year. During this period, the eastern two-thirds of Yorba Linda remained part of cattle and agricultural ranches controlled by pioneer families such as the Yorba, de los Reyes, Travis, Dominguez and Bryant ranches.
The small town had grown by the 1960s, with more than 1,000 residents by the 1960 Census. Three annexation attempts were made by adjoining cities: Brea in 1958 and Anaheim and Placentia in 1963; these experiences culminated in incorporation, which occurred in 1967. The new city implemented a municipal general plan in 1972. By the 1980 Census, the population was nearing 30,000. Within ten years it exceeded 50,000. In 1990, the Birthplace of Richard Nixon opened as museum, it would become a federal presidential library. In 1994, the community center opened. With over 20,000 housing units in the city as of 2016, many residents now oppose further urban development and have organized to reduce traffic congestion; the Yorba Linda Preservation Foundation seeks to protect historical buildings in the city. In 2005, CNN ranked Yorba Linda 21st among the best places in the U. S. to live. In 2012, Yorba Linda was ranked 42nd on Money magazine's list of America's best small cities. In an article by CNN Money, Yorba Linda was one of the richest U.
S. cities and the richest in Orange County as reported by the Census data, showing a median household income of more than $120K: "Among towns of between 65,000 and 250,000 in population, Yorba Linda, where six-figure incomes are the rule, had the highest median income at $121,075". Yorba Linda has been identified as one of the richest cities in the U. S. by the U. S. Census Bureau, which shows a median household income of $121,075, higher than any other city in 2006. In 2007, Yorba Linda High School broke ground after many years of planning. In November 2008, eastern Yorba Linda suffered from fires that destroyed 113 homes and damaged 50 others; the destruction was due to erratic winds causing embers to fly up to half a mile away. On February 3, 2019 at 1:45 pm a twin engine 1981 Cessna on route from Fullerton Municipal Airport to Nevada crashed from 7500 ft into a single family residence in the 19700 block of Crestknoll Drive near Glenknoll Eleme
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles – Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, Venice on the south; the Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736. Due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century; the city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism. The Santa Monica Pier and Pacific Park remain popular destinations. Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language; the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the city's name came to be.
One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, but her feast day is May 4. Another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety. In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. Following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848. In the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, a wharf out into the bay; the first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building a beer hall, now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure. By 1885, the town's first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel. Amusement piers became enormously popular in the first decades of the 20th century and the extensive Pacific Electric Railroad brought people to the city's beaches from across the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica and Venice; the two ethnic minorities were viewed differently by White Americans who were well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an integral economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community. Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, were greeted on their return September 23, 1924, by a crowd of 200,000; the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply. One report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000.
Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt. In the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica; the federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall. The main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects. Douglas's business grew astronomically with the onset of World War II, employing as many as 44,000 people in 1943. To defend against air attack, set designers from the Warner Brothers Studios prepared elaborate camouflage that disguised the factory and airfield; the RAND Corporation began as a project of the Douglas Company in 1945, spun off into an independent think tank on May 14, 1948. RAND acquired a 15-acre campus between the Civic Center and the pier entrance; the completion of the Santa Monica Freeway in 1966 brought the promise of new prosperity, though at the cost of decimating the Pico neighborhood, a leading African American enclave on the Westside. Beach volleyball is believed to have been developed by Duke Kahanamoku in Santa Monica during the 1920s.
The Santa Monica Looff Hippodrome is a National Historic Landmark. It sits on the Santa Monica Pier, built in 1909; the La Monica Ballroom on the pier was once the largest ballroom in the US and the source for many New Year's Eve national network broadcasts. The Santa Monica Civic Auditorium was an important music venue for several decades and hosted the Academy Awards in the 1960s. McCabe's Guitar Shop is a leading acoustic performance space as well as retail outlet. Bergamot Station is a city-owned art gallery compound; the city is home to the California Heritage Museum and the Angels Attic dollhouse and toy museum. The New West Symphony is the resident orchestra of Barnum Hall, they are resident orchestra of the Oxnard Performing Arts Center and the Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Plaza. Santa Monica has three main shopping districts: Montana Avenue on the north side, the Downtown District in the city's core, Main Street on the south end; each has personality. Montana Avenue is a stretch of luxury boutique stores and small offices that features more upscale shopping.
The Main Street district offers an eclectic mix of clothing and other specialty retail. The Downtown District is the home of the Third Street Promenade, a major outdoor pedestrian-on
Keokuk is a city in and a county seat of Lee County, United States, along with Fort Madison. It is Iowa's southernmost city; the population was 10,780 at the 2010 census. The city is named after the Sauk chief Keokuk, thought to be buried in Rand Park, it is in the extreme southeast corner of Iowa. It is at the junction of U. S. Routes 61, 136 and 218. Just across the rivers are the towns of Hamilton and Warsaw and Alexandria, Missouri. Keokuk, along with the city of Fort Madison, is a principal city of the Fort Madison-Keokuk micropolitan area, which includes all of Lee County, Hancock County and Clark County, Missouri. Situated between the Des Moines and Mississippi rivers, the area that became Keokuk had access to a large trading area and was an ideal location for settlers. In 1820, the US Army prohibited soldiers stationed along the Mississippi River from having wives who were Native American. Dr. Samuel C. Muir, a surgeon stationed at Fort Edwards, instead resigned his commission rather than leave his Indian wife and crossed the river to resettle.
He built a log cabin for them at the bottom of the bluff, became the area's first white settler. As steamboat traffic on the Mississippi increased, more European Americans began to settle here. Around 1827, John Jacob Astor established a post of his American Fur Company at the foot of the bluff. Five buildings were erected to the business; this area became known as the "Rat Row." One of the earliest descriptions of Keokuk was by Caleb Atwater in 1829: The village is a small one containing twenty families perhaps. The American Fur Company have a store here and there is a tavern. Many Indians were fishing and their lights on the rapids in a dark night were darting about appearing and disappearing like so many fire flies. Fish were caught here in abundance; the settlement was part of the land designated in 1824 as a Half-Breed Tract by the United States Government for allotting land to mixed-race descendants of the Sauk and Fox tribes. Children of European or British men and Native women, they were excluded from tribal communal lands because their fathers were not tribal members.
Native Americans considered the settlement a neutral ground. Rules for the tract prohibited individual sale of the land, but the US Congress ended this provision in 1837, creating a land rush and instability. Centering on the riverboat trade, the settlement continued to grow; the village became known as Keokuk shortly after the Blackhawk War in 1832. Why residents named it after the Sauk chief is unknown. Keokuk was incorporated on December 13, 1847. Barnard States Merriam was elected mayor in 1852 and reelected in 1854. In 1853, Keokuk was one of the centers for outfitting Mormon pioneers for their journey west. Keokuk was the longtime home of Orion Clemens, brother of Samuel Clemens, better known as Mark Twain. Samuel's visits to his brother's home led him to write of the beauty of Keokuk and southeastern Iowa in Life on the Mississippi. At one time, because of its position at the foot of the lower rapids of the Mississippi, Keokuk was known as the Gate City. During the American Civil War, Keokuk became an embarking point for Union troops heading to fight in southern battles.
Injured soldiers were returned to Keokuk for treatment, so several hospitals were established. A national cemetery was designated for those. After the war was over, Keokuk continued its expansion. A medical college was founded, along with a major-league baseball team, the Keokuk Westerns, in 1875. In 1913, Lock and Dam No. 19 was completed nearby on the Mississippi River. The population of Keokuk reached 15,106 by 1930. During the last half of the 20th century, Keokuk became less engaged in Mississippi River trade and more dependent on jobs in local factories; the town celebrated 150 years in 1997. Keokuk has deep baseball history that started in 1875 when the Keokuk Westerns played in the National Association. On May 4, 1875, the Westerns and the Chicago White Stockings played the first professional baseball game in Iowa; the Keokuk Indians minor league team played in the Iowa State League, Central Association, Mississippi Valley League and Western League. After the Indians, Keokuk was home to the Keokuk Pirates, Keokuk Kernels, Keokuk Cardinals and the Keokuk Dodgers.
The team was an affiliate of the St. Louis Cardinals, Pittsburgh Pirates, Cleveland Indians and the Los Angeles Dodgers. Notable players included baseball pioneer Bud Fowler, 1961 Home Run Record Holder Roger Maris and Player/Announcer Tim McCarver. Keokuk is in Iowa's southeast corner along the Mississippi River and just northeast of the Des Moines River. Hamilton, lies to the east across the Mississippi on U. S. Route 136. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.58 square miles, of which 9.13 square miles is land and 1.45 square miles is water. The lowest point in the state of Iowa is 480 feet, located at the confluence of the Des Moines River with the Mississippi, just southwest of Keokuk. Keokuk has a humid continental climate, it is known for having recorded the highest temperature in Iowa, 118 °F, on July 20, 1934. As of the census of 2010, there are 10,780 people, 4,482 households, 2,818 families r