The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period; the Song came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia dynasties in the north. It was conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty; the Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass; the Song dynasty is divided into two distinct periods and Southern. During the Northern Song, the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China; the Southern Song refers to the period after the Song lost control of its northern half to the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in the Jin–Song Wars.
During this time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze and established its capital at Lin'an. Although the Song dynasty had lost control of the traditional "birthplace of Chinese civilization" along the Yellow River, the Song economy was still strong, as the Southern Song Empire contained a large population and productive agricultural land; the Southern Song dynasty bolstered its naval strength to defend its waters and land borders and to conduct maritime missions abroad. To repel the Jin, the Mongols, the Song developed revolutionary new military technology augmented by the use of gunpowder. In 1234, the Jin dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who took control of northern China, maintaining uneasy relations with the Southern Song. Möngke Khan, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, died in 1259 while besieging the mountain castle Diaoyucheng, Chongqing, his younger brother Kublai Khan was proclaimed the new Great Khan, though his claim was only recognized by the Mongols in the west.
In 1271, Kublai Khan was proclaimed the Emperor of China. After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song dynasty in 1279; the Mongol invasion led to a reunification under the Yuan dynasty. The population of China doubled in size during the 10th and 11th centuries; this growth was made possible by expanded rice cultivation in central and southern Song, the use of early-ripening rice from south-east and southern Asia, the production of widespread food surpluses. The Northern Song census recorded double of the Han and Tang dynasties, it is estimated that the Northern Song had a population of some 120 million people, 200 million by the time of the Ming dynasty. This dramatic increase of population fomented an economic revolution in pre-modern China; the expansion of the population, growth of cities, the emergence of a national economy led to the gradual withdrawal of the central government from direct involvement in economic affairs. The lower gentry assumed a larger role in local affairs.
Appointed officials in county and provincial centers relied upon the scholarly gentry for their services and local supervision. Social life during the Song was vibrant. Citizens gathered to view and trade precious artworks, the populace intermingled at public festivals and private clubs, cities had lively entertainment quarters; the spread of literature and knowledge was enhanced by the rapid expansion of woodblock printing and the 11th-century invention of movable-type printing. Technology, philosophy and engineering flourished over the course of the Song. Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused with Buddhist ideals, emphasized a new organization of classic texts that brought out the core doctrine of Neo-Confucianism. Although the institution of the civil service examinations had existed since the Sui dynasty, it became much more prominent in the Song period; the officials who gained power by succeeding in the exams became a leading factor in the shift from a military-aristocratic elite to a bureaucratic elite.
After usurping the throne of the Later Zhou dynasty, Emperor Taizu of Song spent sixteen years conquering the rest of China, reuniting much of the territory that had once belonged to the Han and Tang empires and ending the upheaval of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. In Kaifeng, he established a strong central government over the empire; the establishment of this capital marked the start of the Northern Song period. He ensured administrative stability by promoting the civil service examination system of drafting state bureaucrats by skill and merit and promoted projects that ensured efficiency in communication throughout the empire. In one such project, cartographers created detailed maps of each province and city that were collected in a large atlas. Emperor Taizu promoted groundbreaking scientific and technological innovations by supporting such works as the astronomical clock tower designed and built by the engineer Zhang Sixun; the Song court maintained diplomatic relations with Chola India, the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt, the Kara-Khanid Khanate of Central Asia, the Goryeo kingdom in Korea, other countries that were trade partners with Japan.
Chinese records mention an embassy from the ruler of "Fu lin", Michael VII Doukas, its arrival in 1081. However, China's closest neighbouring states had the greatest impact on its domestic and foreign policy. From its
A war elephant is an elephant, trained and guided by humans for combat. The war elephant's main use was to charge the enemy, instilling terror. Elephantry are military units with elephant-mounted troops. War elephants played a critical role in several key battles in antiquity, but their use declined with the spread of firearms in the early modern period. Military elephants were restricted to non-combat engineering and labour roles, some ceremonial uses. However, they continued to be used in combat in some parts of the world such as Thailand and Vietnam into the 19th century. An elephant trainer, rider, or keeper is called a mahout. Mahouts were responsible for handling elephants. To accomplish this, they utilize metal chains and a specialized hook called an aṅkuśa or'elephant goad'. According to Chanakya as recorded in the Arthashastra, first the mahout would have to get the elephant used to being led; the elephant would have learn. The elephants were taught to run and maneuver around obstacles, move in formation.
These elephants would be fit to learn how to systematically charge enemies. The first elephant species to be tamed was the Asian elephant, for use in agriculture. Elephant taming – not full domestication, as they are still captured in the wild, rather than being bred in captivity – may have begun in any of three different places; the oldest evidence comes from the Indus Valley Civilization, around 4500 BC. Archaeological evidence for the presence of wild elephants in the Yellow River valley in Shang China may suggest that they used elephants in warfare; the wild elephant populations of Mesopotamia and China declined because of deforestation and human population growth: by c. 850 BC the Mesopotamian elephants were extinct, by c. 500 BC the Chinese elephants were reduced in numbers and limited to areas well south of the Yellow River. Capturing elephants from the wild remained a difficult task, but a necessary one given the difficulties of breeding in captivity and the long time required for an elephant to reach sufficient maturity to engage in battle.
Sixty-year-old war elephants were always prized as being at the most suitable age for battle service and gifts of elephants of this age were seen as generous. Today an elephant is considered in its prime and at the height of its power between the ages of 25 to 40, yet elephants as old as 80 are used in tiger hunts for they are more experienced. It is thought that all war elephants were male because of males' greater aggression, but it is rather because a female elephant in battle will run from a male. There is uncertainty as to when elephant warfare first started but it is accepted that it began in ancient India; the early Vedic period did not extensively specify the use of elephants in war. However in the Rigveda the king of Gods and chief Vedic deity Indra is depicted as riding either Airavata, a mythological elephant, or on the horse Uchchaihshravas as his mounts. Elephants were utilized in warfare by the Vedic period by the 6th century BC; the increased conscription of elephants in the military history of India coincides with the expansion of the Vedic Kingdoms into the Indo-Gangetic Plain suggesting its introduction during the intervening period.
The practice of riding on elephants in peace and war was common among Aryans and non-Aryans, royalty or commoner, in the 6th or 5th century BC. This practice is believed to be much older than proper recorded history; the ancient Indian epics Ramayana and Mahābhārata, dating from 5th–4th century BC, elaborately depict elephant warfare. They are recognized as an essential component of military processions. In ancient India the army was fourfold, consisting of infantry, cavalry and chariots. Kings and princes principally ride on chariots, considered the most royal, while ride the back of elephants. Although viewed as secondary to chariots by royalty, elephants were the preferred vehicle of warriors the elite ones. While the chariots fell into disuse, the other three arms continued to be valued. Many characters in the epic Mahābhārata were trained in the art. According to the rules of engagement set for the Kurukshetra War two men were to duel utilizing the same weapon and mount including elephants.
In the Mahābhārata the akshauhini battle formation consists of a ratio of is 1 chariot: 1 elephant: 3 cavalry: 5 infantry soldiers. Many characters in the Mahābhārata were described as skilled in the art of elephant warfare e.g. Duryodhana rides an elephant into battle to bolster the demoralized Kaurava army. Scriptures like the Nikāya and Vinaya Pitaka assign elephants in their proper place in the organization of an army; the Samyutta Nikaya additionally mentions the Gautama Buddha being visited by a'hatthāroho gāmaṇi'. He is the head of a village community bound together by their profession as mercenary soldiers forming an elephant corp. Ancient Indian kings valued the elephant in war, some stating that an army without elephants is as despicable as a forest without a lion, a kingdom without a king, or as valor unaided by weapons; the use of elephants further increased with the rise of the Mahajanapadas. King Bimbisara, who began the expansion of the Magadha kingdom, relied on his war elephants.
The Mahajanapadas would be conquered by the Nanda Empire under the reign of Mahapadma Nanda. Pliny the Elder and Plutarch estimated the Nanda Army strength in the east as 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 chariots, 6,000 war elephants. Alex
Theodosius I known as Theodosius the Great, was a Roman Emperor from 379 to 395, the last emperor to rule over both the Eastern and the Western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire, his resources were not sufficient to destroy them or drive them out, Roman policy for centuries in dealing with invaders. By treaty, which followed his indecisive victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the Empire's borders, they were given lands and allowed to remain under their own leaders, a grave departure from Roman hegemonic ways. This turn away from traditional policies was accommodationist and had grave consequences for the Western Empire from the beginning of the century, as the Romans found themselves with the impossible task of defending the borders and deal with unruly federates within. Theodosius I was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus in 387-388 and Eugenius in 394, though not without material cost to the power of the Empire.
He issued decrees that made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire. He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria, he dissolved the Order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius's young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves of the empire and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos's death in 480. Theodosius is considered a saint by the Armenian Apostolic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church, his feast day is on January 19. Flavius Theodosius was born in Cauca, Hispania or in Italica, Hispania, to a senior military officer, Theodosius the Elder. Theodosius learned his military lessons by campaigning with his father's staff in Britannia where he went to help quell the Great Conspiracy in 368.
In about 373, he became governor of Upper Moesia and oversaw hostilities against the Sarmatians and thereafter against the Alemanni. He was military commander of Moesia, a Roman province on the lower Danube, in 374, when the empire faced a formidable eruption of the Quadi and Sarmatians, the neighboring province of Illyricum being in fact overrun. Theodosius is reported to have defended his province with marked success. However, shortly thereafter, at about the same time as the sudden disgrace and execution of his father, Theodosius retired to Hispania; the reason for his retirement, the relationship between it and his father's death is uncertain, though probable. The death of Valentinian I in 375 created political pandemonium. Fearing further persecution on account of his family ties, Theodosius abruptly retired to his family estates in the province of Gallaecia where he adopted the life of a provincial aristocrat. From 364 to 375, the Roman Empire was governed by two co-emperors, the brothers Valentinian I and Valens.
In 378, after the disastrous Battle of Adrianople where Valens was killed, Gratian invited Theodosius to take command of the Illyrian army. As Valens had no successor, Gratian's appointment of Theodosius amounted to a de facto invitation for Theodosius to become co-Augustus of the eastern half of the Empire. After Gratian was killed in a rebellion in 383, Theodosius appointed his own elder son, Arcadius, to be his co-ruler in the East. After the death in 392 of Valentinian II, whom Theodosius had supported against a variety of usurpations, Theodosius ruled as sole Emperor, appointing his younger son Honorius Augustus as his co-ruler of the West and by defeating the usurper Eugenius on 6 September 394, at the Battle of the Frigidus he restored peace. By his first wife, the Spanish Aelia Flaccilla Augusta, he had two sons and Honorius, a daughter, Aelia Pulcheria. Both Aelia Flaccilla and Pulcheria died in 385, his second wife was Galla, daughter of the emperor Valentinian I and his second wife Justina.
Theodosius and Galla had a son, born in 388 and who died young, a daughter, Aelia Galla Placidia. Placidia was the only child who survived to adulthood and became an Empress; the Goths and their allies entrenched in the provinces of Dacia and eastern Pannonia Inferior consumed Theodosius's attention. The Gothic crisis was so dire that his co-Emperor Gratian relinquished control of the Illyrian provinces and retired to Trier in Gaul to let Theodosius operate without hindrance. A major weakness in the Roman position after the defeat at Adrianople was the recruiting of barbarians to fight against other barbarians. In order to reconstruct the Roman Army of the West, Theodosius needed to find able bodied soldiers and so he turned to the most capable men at hand: the barbarians settled in the Empire; this caused many difficulties in the battle against barbarians since the newly recruited fighters had little or no loya
Mise of Amiens
The Mise of Amiens was a settlement given by King Louis IX of France on 23 January 1264 in the conflict between King Henry III of England and his rebellious barons, led by Simon de Montfort. Louis' one-sided decision for King Henry led directly to the hostilities of the Second Barons' War; the conflict between king and magnates was caused by dissatisfaction with the influence of foreigners at court, Henry's high level of taxation. In 1258 Henry was forced to accept the Provisions of Oxford that left royal government in the hands of a council of magnates, but this document went through a long series of revocations and reinstatements. In 1263, as the country was on the brink of civil war, the two parties agreed to submit the matter to arbitration by the French king. Louis was a firm believer in the royal prerogative and decided in favour of Henry; the outcome was unacceptable for the rebellious barons, war between the two parties broke out immediately after the announcement of the settlement. After a victory at the Battle of Lewes in May 1264, Montfort took over control of government, but the success was short-lived.
Henry's oldest son Edward – the King Edward I – started a military campaign that ended in the Battle of Evesham in August 1265, where Montfort was defeated and killed. Parts of the baronial resistance still held out, but by the end of 1266 the final garrison at Kenilworth Castle surrendered; the rebels were given pardons according to terms set out in the Dictum of Kenilworth. By 1264, the reign of Henry III was troubled by disputes between the king and his nobility; the conflict was caused by several factors. One source of discontent was the influence two groups of royal favourites enjoyed at court: the Savoyards, relatives of Queen Eleanor of Provence, the king's half-brothers, known as Poitevins or Lusignans; the native nobility were offended by the great political influence held by these foreigners. Secondly, the king had in 1254 accepted Pope Innocent IV's offer of the crown of Sicily for his younger son Edmund; the offer involved repelling the current Hohenstaufen rulers of the island, proved to be expensive.
Lastly, there was a personal dispute between King Henry and one of his subjects, Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester. Montfort, a foreigner himself, was on good terms with Henry, had in 1238 married the king's sister Eleanor; the two fell out and Montfort became the leader of the opposition, together with Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. In 1258, Henry was forced to accept the so-called Provisions of Oxford, whereby he surrendered control of royal government to a council of magnates. In 1259 the baronial program of reform was further elaborated upon in the Provisions of Westminster; the provisions remained in effect for three years. It was not until 1261. Receiving a papal annulment of the provisions, he reassumed control of government. Over the next two years, Henry's governing deteriorated the situation once more, he failed to reconcile with Montfort, alienated Gloucester's son and heir Gilbert. In April 1263 Montfort returned to England after a long stay in France, reignited the reform movement.
On 16 July Henry was surrounded by rebel forces in the Tower of London, once more forced to accept the conditions of the provisions. The Lord Edward, now on the side of his father against Montfort, now took control of the situation. In October Edward took Windsor Castle, the baronial alliance started to break up. Cornered, Montfort had to accept a truce and agree to submit the issue to arbitration by the French king Louis IX. On 28 December 1263 Henry left for France to present his case to King Louis. Montfort was prevented from attending by an accident, he was represented by Peter de Montfort and others. Henry had tried once before, in September, to appeal to the French king; that time Louis had been sympathetic to Henry's cause, but decided in favour of maintaining the provisions. At Amiens Henry argued that his right to appoint his own ministers and officials had been denied him, in violation of the royal prerogative, he accused his opponents of destroying royal castles and laying waste to royal lands.
For his injuries he demanded a compensation of the barons of £ 200,000 marks. Referring to the papal writ of annulment, Henry asked the French king to free him from observing the provisions forced upon him by the barons. Two documents survive of the barons' complaints. In the first of these, the barons reiterated the background of the conflict, stressed the fact that the king himself had accepted the conditions of the provisions. Henry had in fact, in an effort to gain public support, pledged to uphold the provisions, a fact, now made the most of; the document further goes on to explain the reform instituted by the baronial council. In order to restore law and peacekeeping to the country, the council had installed a new Chief Justiciar and Chancellor, they had appointed new sheriffs in the counties, who were to be directly accountable to the government and be replaced annually. The king had violated these conditions, it was argued, when he had appointed his own chancellor and a number of sheriffs.
He had taken over custody of Winchester Castle, given over to Montfort by the provisions. Furthermore, there were accusation made against individual royal adherents, such as Roger Mortimer for his military raids in the Welsh Marches; the second document goes into more detail on the king's alleged transgressions. By extortionate taxation, it was claimed, Henry had impoverished the land, he had infringed the libertie
Louis IX of France
Louis IX known as Saint Louis, was King of France, the ninth from the House of Capet, is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louis' childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian Crusade which had started 20 years earlier; as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most-powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions, but was utterly defeated at the battle of Taillebourg, his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably parts of Aquitaine and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king was the supreme judge to whom anyone could appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment, he banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, introduced the presumption of innocence in criminal procedure.
To enforce the application of this new legal system, Louis IX created bailiffs. Following a vow he made after a serious illness and confirmed after a miraculous cure, Louis IX took an active part in the Seventh and Eighth Crusades, he died from dysentery during the latter crusade, was succeeded by his son Philip III. Louis's actions were inspired by Catholic devotion, he decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution. He spent exorbitant sums on presumed relics of Christ, for which he built the Sainte-Chapelle, he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds and other Jewish books, he is the only canonized king of France, there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louis's life comes from Jean de Joinville's famous Life of Saint Louis. Joinville was a close friend and counselor to the king, he participated as a witness in the papal inquest into Louis' life that ended with his canonisation in 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII. Two other important biographies were written by the king's confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, his chaplain, William of Chartres.
While several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the king's death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king, all three are biased favorably to the king. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus' 19th century biography, which he wrote using the papal inquest mentioned above. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church, his grandfather on his father's side was king of France. Tutors of Blanche's choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, government, he was nine years old when his grandfather Philip II died and his father ascended as Louis VIII. Louis was 12 years old when his father died on 8 November 1226, he was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral. Because of Louis's youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority.
Louis' mother trained him to be a good Christian. She used to say: I love you, my dear son, as much as a mother can love her child, his younger brother Charles I of Sicily was created count of Anjou, thus founding the Capetian Angevin dynasty. No date is given for the beginning of Louis's personal rule, his contemporaries viewed his reign as co-rule between the king and his mother, though historians view the year 1234 as the year in which Louis began ruling with his mother assuming a more advisory role. She continued to have a strong influence on the king until her death in 1252. On 27 May 1234, Louis married Margaret of Provence, whose sister Eleanor became the wife of Henry III of England; the new queen's religious zeal made her a well suited partner for the king. He enjoyed her company, was pleased to show her the many public works he was making in Paris, both for its defense and for its health, they enjoyed riding together and listening to music. This attention raised a certain amount of jealousy in his mother, who tried to keep them apart as much as she could.
In the 1230s, Nicholas Donin, a Jewish convert to Christianity, translated the Talmud and pressed 35 charges against it to Pope Gregory IX by quoting a series of blasphemous passages about Jesus, Mary or Christianity. There is a Talmudic passage, for example, where Jesus of Nazareth is sent to Hell to be boiled in excrement for eternity. Donin selected an injunction of the Talmud that permits Jews to kill non-Jews; this led to the Disputation of Paris, which took place in 1240 at the court of Louis IX, where rabbi Yechiel of Paris defended the Talmud against the accusations of Nicholas Donin. The translation of the Talmud from Judeo Aramaic to a non-Jewish, profane language was seen by Jews as a profound violation; the disputation led to the burning of thousands of copies. When Louis was 15, his mother brought an end to the Albigensian Crusade in 1229 after signing an agreement with Count Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse that cleared the latter's father of wrongdoing. Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse had been suspected of murde
Honorius was Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, brother of Arcadius, the Eastern Emperor from 395 until his death in 408. During his reign, Rome was sacked for the first time in 800 years. By the standards of the declining Western Empire, Honorius's reign was precarious and chaotic, his reign was supported by his principal general, successively Honorius's guardian and his father-in-law. Stilicho's generalship helped preserve some level of stability, but with his execution in 408, the Western Roman Empire moved closer to collapse. After holding the consulate at the age of two, Honorius was declared Augustus by his father Theodosius I, thus co-ruler, on 23 January 393 after the death of Valentinian II and the usurpation of Eugenius; when Theodosius died, in January 395, Honorius and Arcadius divided the Empire, so that Honorius became Western Roman Emperor at the age of ten. During the first part of his reign Honorius depended on the military leadership of the general Stilicho, appointed by Theodosius and was of mixed Vandal and Roman ancestry.
To strengthen his bonds with the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him. The epithalamion written for the occasion by Stilicho's court poet Claudian survives. Honorius was greatly influenced by the Popes of Rome, who sought to extend their influence through his youth and weak character. So it was that Pope Innocent I contrived to have Honorius write to his brother, condemning the deposition of John Chrysostom in 407. At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths under King Alaric I entered Italy in 401 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect Central Italy from the regular threat of barbarian incursions, it was significant that the Emperor's residence remained in Ravenna until the overthrow of the last western Roman Emperor in 476. That was the reason why Ravenna was chosen not only as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy, but for the seat of the Byzantine exarchs as well.
Honorius' reign was plagued by constant barbarian incursions into Gaul and Hispania. At the same time, a host of usurpers rose up due to the apparent inability of the Emperor to see to the Empire's defences; the first crisis faced by Honorius was a revolt led by Gildo, the Comes Africae and Magister utriusque militiae per Africam, in Northern Africa, which lasted for two years. It was subdued by Stilicho, under the local command of Mascezel, the brother of Gildo; the next crisis was the Visigoth invasion of Italy in 402 under the formidable command of their king, Alaric. Stilicho was absent in Raetia in the latter months of 401, when Alaric, the Eastern Empire's magister militum in Illyricum marched with a large army to the Julian Alps and entered Italy. Stilicho hurried back to protect Honorius and the legions of Gaul and Britain were summoned to defend Italy. Honorius, slumbering at Milan, was caught unaware and fled to Asti, only to be pursued by Alaric, who marched into Liguria. Stilicho defeated Alaric on the river Tanarus on Easter Day.
Alaric retreated to Verona. The Visigoths, were allowed to retreat back to Illyricum. In 405 Stilicho met, they brought devastation to the heart of the Empire, until Stilicho defeated them in 406 and recruited most of them into his forces. In 405/6, an enormous barbarian horde, composed of Ostrogoths, Alans and Quadi, crossed the frozen Rhine and invaded Gaul; the situation in Britain was more difficult. The British provinces were isolated, lacking support from the Empire, the soldiers supported the revolts of Marcus and Constantine III. Constantine invaded Gaul in 407, occupying Arles, while Constantine was in Gaul, his son Constans ruled over Britain. By 410, Britain was told to look after its own affairs and expect no aid from Rome. There was good reason for this as the western empire was overstretched due to the massive invasion of Alans and Vandals who, although they had been repulsed from Italy in 406, moved into Gaul on 31 December 406, arrived in Hispania in 409. In early 408, Stilicho attempted to strengthen his position at court by marrying his second daughter, Thermantia, to Honorius after the death of the Empress Maria in 407 making Honorius the last Western Roman Emperor to have multiple wives.
Another invasion by Alaric was prevented in 408 by Stilicho when he forced the Roman Senate to pay 4,000 pounds of gold to persuade the Goths to leave Italy. Honorius, in the meantime, was at Bononia, on his way from Ravenna to Ticinum, when the news reached him of his brother's death in May 408, he at first was planning to go to Constantinople to help set up the court in the wake of the accession of Theodosius II. Summoned from Ravenna for advice, Stilicho advised Honorius not to go, proceeded to go himself. In Stilicho's absence, a minister named, he convinced the emperor that his Arian father-in-law was conspiring with the barbarians to overthrow him. On his return to Ravenna, Honorius ordered the execution of Stilicho. With Stilicho’s fall, Honorius moved against all of his former father-in-law’s allies and torturing key individuals and ordering the confisca
History of the Song dynasty
The Song dynasty of China was a ruling dynasty that controlled China proper and southern China from the middle of the 10th century into the last quarter of the 13th century. The dynasty was established by Emperor Taizu of Song with his usurpation of the throne of Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period; the Song is considered a high point of classical Chinese innovation in science and technology, an era that featured prominent intellectual figures such as Shen Kuo and Su Song and the revolutionary use of gunpowder weapons. However, it was a period of political and military turmoil, with opposing and aggressive political factions formed at court that impeded political and economic progress; the frontier management policies of the Chancellor Wang Anshi exacerbated hostile conditions along the Chinese-Vietnamese border. This sparked a border war with Vietnam's Lý dynasty, fought to a mutual draw and concluded with a peace treaty in 1082. To the northwest the Song Empire quarreled with the rival Western Xia, led by the Tanguts, as well as the Liao Dynasty to the northeast, led by ethnic Khitans.
The Song Empire suffered a disastrous military defeat at the hands of invading Jurchens from the north in 1127 during the Jin–Song wars. Following the Jingkang Incident, the remnants of the Song court were forced to flee south from Kaifeng and establish a new capital at Hangzhou; the loss of northern territory and shifting of the capital marks the division of the dynasty into two distinct periods: the Northern Song and the Southern Song. The Southern Song developed a new navy to combat the Jurchen's Jin dynasty formed in the north; the Song dynasty was able to defeat further Jurchen invasions and fought the Jin dynasty in an erstwhile alliance with the Mongols. However, the Mongol rulers Genghis Khan, Ögedei Khan, Möngke Khan, Kublai Khan conquered China, until the fall of the final Song emperor at the Battle of Yamen in 1279; the Later Zhou was the last of the Five Dynasties that had controlled northern China after the fall of the Tang dynasty in 907. Zhao Kuangyin known as Emperor Taizu, usurped the throne and deposed the last Zhou ruler Guo Zongxun with the support of military commanders in 960, initiating the Song dynasty.
Upon taking the throne, his first goal was the reunification of China after half a century of political division. This included the conquests of Nanping, Wu-Yue, Southern Han, Later Shu, Southern Tang in the south as well as the Northern Han and the Sixteen Prefectures in the north. With capable military officers such as Yang Ye, Liu Tingrang, Cao Bin and Huyan Zan, the early Song military became the dominant force in China. Innovative military tactics, such as defending supply lines across floating pontoon bridges led to success in battle such as the Song assault against the Southern Tang state while crossing the Yangzi River in 974. Using a mass of arrow fire from crossbowmen, Song forces were able to defeat the renowned war elephant corps of the Southern Han on January 23, 971, thus forcing the submission of Southern Han and terminating the first and last elephant corps that would make up a regular division within a Chinese army. Consolidation in the south was completed with the conquest of Wu-Yue.
Song military forces turned north against the Northern Han, which fell to Song forces in 979. However, efforts to take the Sixteen Prefectures were unsuccessful and they were incorporated into the Liao state based in Manchuria to the immediate north instead. To the far northwest, the Tanguts had been in power over northern Shaanxi since 881, after the earlier Tang court appointed a Tangut chief as a military governor over the region, a seat that became hereditary. Although the Song state was evenly matched against the Liao dynasty, the Song gained significant military victories against the Western Xia. After political consolidation through military conquest, Emperor Taizu held a famous banquet inviting many of the high-ranking military officers that had served him in Song's various conquests; as his military officers drank wine and feasted with Taizu, he spoke to them about the potential of a military coup against him like those of Five Dynasties era. His military officers protested against this notion, insisted that none were as qualified as him to lead the country.
The passage of this account in the Song Shi follows as such: The emperor said,'The life of man is short. Happiness is to have the wealth and means to enjoy life, to be able to leave the same prosperity to one's descendents. If you, my officers, will renounce your military authority, retire to the provinces, choose there the best lands and the most delightful dwelling-places, there to pass the rest of your lives in pleasure and peace...would this not be better than to live a life of peril and uncertainty? So that no shadow of suspicion shall remain between prince and ministers, we will ally our families with marriages, thus and subject linked in friendship and amity, we will enjoy tranquility'... The following day, the army commanders all offered their resignations, reporting maladies, withdrew to the country districts, where the emperor, giving them splendid gifts, appointed them to high official positions. Emperor Taizu developed an effective centralized bureaucracy staffed with civilian scholar-officials and regional military governors and their supporters were replaced by centrally appointed officials.
This system of civilian rule led to a greater concentration of power in the central government headed by the emperor than had bee