Anarcho-pacifism is a tendency within anarchism that rejects the use of violence in the struggle for social change and the abolition of the state. The main early influences were the thought of Henry David Thoreau, Henry David Thoreau was an important early influence in individualist anarchist thought in the United States and Europe. Thoreaus essay Civil Disobedience was named as an influence by Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Buber, according to the Peace Pledge Union of Britain, it was the main precedent for anarcho-pacifism. Thoreau himself did not subscribe to pacifism, and did not reject the use of armed revolt. He demonstrated this with his support for John Brown and other violent abolitionists, writing of Brown that The question is not about the weapon. At some point anarcho-pacifism had as its main proponent Christian anarchism, the Tolstoyan movement in Russia was the first large-scale anarcho-pacifist movement. The movements adherents were active throughout Russia and followed a vegetarian diet, because of their refusal to recognize the authority of the Tsarist state they were targeted for severe repression and many were killed outright or relocated to Siberia.
Most of them were killed in the purges under Lenin and Stalin, Violence has always been controversial in anarchism. While many anarchists embraced violent propaganda of the deed during the nineteenth century, ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis was instrumental in establishing the pacifist trend within the anarchist movement. The Ligue antimilitariste was to become the French section of the Association internationale antimilitariste founded in Amsterdam in 1904, tolstoys philosophy was cited as a major inspiration by Mohandas Gandhi, an Indian independence leader and pacifist who self-identified as an anarchist. Gandhis ideas were popularised in the West in books such as Richard Greggs The Power of Nonviolence, the latter is particularly important for anarchists since, as one himself, de Ligt specifically addressed those who lust for revolution. The more violence, the revolution, he declared. He linked Gandhian principled nonviolence with the nonviolent direct action of the syndicalists. The Conquest of Violence alludes to Kropotkins The Conquest of Bread, the American writer Dwight Macdonald endorsed anarcho-pacifist views in the 1940s and used his journal politics to promote these ideas.
A leading British anarcho-pacifist was Alex Comfort who considered himself an aggressive anti-militarist and he was an active member of CND. Among the works on anarchism by Comfort is Peace and Disobedience, one of many pamphlets he wrote for Peace News and the Peace Pledge Union and he exchanged public correspondence with George Orwell defending pacifism in the open letter/poem Letter to an American Visitor under the pseudonym Obadiah Hornbrooke. In the 1950s and 1960s anarcho-pacifism began to gel, tough-minded anarchists adding to the mixture their critique of the state, other notable anarcho-pacifist historical figures include Ammon Hennacy, Dorothy Day and, for a brief period between 1939 and 1940, Jean-Paul Sartre. Dorothy Day, was an American journalist, social activist and devout Catholic convert and she was considered to be an anarchist, and did not hesitate to use the term
The National Mall is a national park in downtown Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States. The National Park Service administers the National Mall, which is part of its National Mall, a smaller designation, sometimes referred to as the Mall proper, excludes both the Capitol grounds and the Washington Monument grounds, applying only to an area between them. The National Mall contains a number of museums and memorials and receives approximately 24 million visitors each year, in his 1791 plan for the future city of Washington, D. C. The National Mall occupies the site of this grand avenue. The Washington Monument stands near the site of its namesakes equestrian statue. Mathew Careys 1802 map is reported to be the first to name the area west of the United States Capitol as the Mall, during the early 1850s, architect and horticulturist Andrew Jackson Downing designed a landscape plan for the Mall. Over the next century, federal agencies developed several naturalistic parks within the Mall in accordance with Downings plan.
Two such areas were Henry Park and Seaton Park, in addition, railroad tracks crossed the Mall on 6th Street, west of the Capitol. Near the tracks, a market and a railroad station rose on the north side of the Mall. Greenhouses belonging to the U. S. Botanic Garden appeared near the east end of the Mall, the plan differed from LEnfants by replacing the 400 feet wide grand avenue with a 300 feet wide vista containing a long and broad expanse of grass. Four rows of American elm trees planted fifty feet apart between two paths or streets would line each side of the vista. Buildings housing cultural and educational institutions constructed in the Beaux-Arts style would line each outer path or street, on the opposite side of the path or street from the elms. In subsequent years, the vision of the McMillan plan was followed with the planting of American elms. In accordance with a plan that it completed in 1976, the NPS converted the two innermost boulevards into gravel walking paths, the two outermost boulevards remain paved and open to vehicular traffic.
Although the Navy intended the buildings to provide quarters for the United States military during World War I. Much of the area became Constitution Gardens, which was dedicated in 1976. From the 1970s to 1994, a model of a triceratops named Uncle Beazley stood on the Mall in front of the National Museum of Natural History. The life-size statue, which is now located at the National Zoological Park in Northwest Washington, in 2003, the 108th United States Congress enacted the Commemorative Works Clarification and Revision Act
An anti-war movement is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nations decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. The term can refer to pacifism, which is the opposition to all use of military force during conflicts. Many activists distinguish between anti-war movements and peace movements, anti-war activists work through protest and other grassroots means to attempt to pressure a government to put an end to a particular war or conflict. The movement reflected both strict pacifist and more moderate non-interventionist positions, many prominent intellectuals of the time, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau and William Ellery Channing contributed literary works against war. Other names associated with the movement include William Ladd, Noah Worcester, Thomas Cogswell Upham, many peace societies were formed throughout the United States, the most prominent of which being the American Peace Society. Numerous periodicals and books were produced, the Book of Peace, an anthology produced by the American Peace Society in 1845, must surely rank as one of the most remarkable works of anti-war literature ever produced. A recurring theme in this movement was the call for the establishment of a court which would adjudicate disputes between nations.
Another distinct feature of antebellum anti-war literature was the emphasis on how war contributed to a moral decline, during the war, the New York Draft Riots were started as violent protests against Abraham Lincolns Enrollment Act of Conscription plan to draft men to fight in the war. The outrage over conscription was augmented by the ability to buy your way out, William Thomas Stead formed an organization against the Second Boer War, the Stop the War Committee. In Britain, in 1914, the Public Schools Officers Training Corps annual camp was held at Tidworth Pennings, head of the British Army Lord Kitchener was to review the cadets, but the immenence of the war prevented him. General Horace Smith-Dorrien was sent instead, having voiced these sentiments did not hinder Smith-Dorriens career, or prevent him from carrying out his duty in the First World War to the best of his abilities. With the increasing mechanization of war, opposition to its horrors grew, european avant-garde cultural movements such as Dada were explicitly anti-war.
The Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 gave the American authorities the right to close newspapers, on June 16,1918, Eugene V. Debs made an speech and was arrested under the Espionage Act of 1917. He was convicted, sentenced to ten years in prison. In 1924 Ernst Friedrich published Krieg dem Krieg. an album of photographs drawn from German military, in On the pain of others Sontag describes the book as photography as shock therapy that was designed to horrify and demoralize. It was in the 1930s that the Western anti-war movement took shape, in 1933, the Oxford Union resolved in its Oxford Pledge, That this House will in no circumstances fight for its King and Country. Many war veterans, including US General Smedley Butler, spoke out against wars and these trends were depicted in novels such as All Quiet on the Western Front, For Whom the Bell Tolls and Johnny Got His Gun
The anti-nuclear movement is a social movement that opposes various nuclear technologies. Some direct action groups, environmental groups, and professional organisations have identified themselves with the movement at the local, the initial objective of the movement was nuclear disarmament, though since the late 1960s opposition has included the use of nuclear power. Many anti-nuclear groups oppose nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The formation of parties in the 1970s and 1980s was often a direct result of anti-nuclear politics. Scientists and diplomats have debated nuclear weapons policy since before the bombings of Hiroshima. The public became concerned about nuclear testing from about 1954. In 1963, many countries ratified the Partial Test Ban Treaty which prohibited atmospheric nuclear testing, some local opposition to nuclear power emerged in the early 1960s, and in the late 1960s some members of the scientific community began to express their concerns. In the early 1970s, there were protests about a proposed nuclear power plant in Wyhl.
The project was cancelled in 1975 and anti-nuclear success at Wyhl inspired opposition to power in other parts of Europe. Nuclear power became an issue of public protest in the 1970s. A protest against nuclear power occurred in July 1977 in Bilbao, following the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, an anti-nuclear protest was held in New York City, involving 200,000 people. The largest protest was held on June 12,1982, when one million people demonstrated in New York City against nuclear weapons, a 1983 nuclear weapons protest in West Berlin had about 600,000 participants. In May 1986, following the Chernobyl disaster, an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 people marched in Rome to protest against the Italian nuclear program. In the US, public opposition preceded the shutdown of the Shoreham, Yankee Rowe, Millstone 1, Rancho Seco, Maine Yankee, and many other nuclear power plants. For many years after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster nuclear power was off the agenda in most countries. The 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents undermined the nuclear power industrys proposed renaissance and revived nuclear opposition worldwide.
As of 2016, countries such as Australia, Denmark, Malaysia, New Zealand, Italy, Spain and Switzerland are phasing-out nuclear power. Globally, more nuclear reactors have closed than opened in recent years
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud, a related term is ahimsa, which is a core philosophy in Buddhism and Hinduism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, in Christianity, Jesus Christs injunction to love your enemies and asking for forgiveness for his crucifiers for they know not what they do have been interpreted as calling for pacifism. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy in his late works, Mohandas Gandhi propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called satyagraha, instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement. Its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr. James Lawson, James Bevel, Thich Nhat Hanh and many others in the Civil Rights Movement. Pacifism was widely associated with the much publicized image of Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989 with the Tank Man, historians of pacifism Peter Brock and Thomas Paul Socknat define pacifism in the sense generally accepted in English-speaking areas as an unconditional rejection of all forms of warfare.
Philosopher Jenny Teichman defines the form of pacifism as anti-warism. Teichmans beliefs have been summarized by Brian Orend as, a pacifist rejects war and believes there are no moral grounds which can justify resorting to war. War, for the pacifist, is always wrong, in a sense the philosophy is based on the idea that the ends do not justify the means. Pacifism may be based on moral principles or pragmatism, principled pacifism holds that at some point along the spectrum from war to interpersonal physical violence, such violence becomes morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and interpersonal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found, some pacifists follow principles of nonviolence, believing that nonviolent action is morally superior and/or most effective. Some however, support physical violence for emergency defence of self or others, by no means is all nonviolent resistance based on a fundamental rejection of all violence in all circumstances.
Many leaders and participants in such movements, while recognizing the importance of using non-violent methods in particular circumstances, have not been absolute pacifists, sometimes, as with the civil rights movements march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965, they have called for armed protection. The interconnections between civil resistance and factors of force are numerous and complex, the principle is described as difficult to abide by consistently, due to violence not being available as a tool to aid a person who is being harmed or killed. It is further claimed that such a pacifist could logically argue that violence leads to undesirable results than non-violence. Although all pacifists are opposed to war between states, there have been occasions where pacifists have supported military conflict in the case of civil war or revolution. Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, French pacifist René Gérin urged support for the Spanish Republic, Gérin argued that the Spanish Nationalists were comparable to an individual enemy and the Republics war effort was equivalent to the action of a domestic police force suppressing crime.
Advocacy of pacifism can be found far back in history and literature, during the Warring States period, the pacifist Mohist School opposed aggressive war between the feudal states
Free Republic is a moderated Internet forum for activists, and chat site for self-described conservatives, primarily within the United States. It presents articles and comments posted pseudonymously by registered members, known as Freepers, the site is supported entirely by donations, with pledge drives known as Freepathons held each quarter. Free Republic has been involved in several organized conservative campaigns including against CBS anchor Dan Rather, Freepers were instrumental in raising the question of a lack of authenticity in the so-called Killian memos. There are local chapters unconnected with Free Republic, organized through ping lists, e-mail, some are only ping list groups, members who include their names in a list to be pinged on news articles of a certain nature. Some cover presidential events, some focus on contemporary issues such as the Second Amendment. The more active chapters organize live protests, which they call Freeps, since the 2000 election, these are often counter-protests, responses to protests by opposition groups, or small rallies.
The Free Republic actively censors users and posts, usually spam, uncivil posts, founded in September 1996 as a sole proprietorship by Founder and President James C. Jim Robinson of Fresno, Free Republic opened to the public in February 1997. Robinson filed for LLC status on September 11,1998 and it has always been a for-profit company and donations have never been tax exempt. Many were introduced to the site through an impeachment rally in Washington, attended by over 3000 participants, called the March for Justice, broadcast live on Halloween 1998 by C-SPAN. Featured speakers included Alan Keyes, Bob Barr, Reverend Jesse Lee Peterson of B. O. N. D. and Larry Klayman, Ann Coulter, Lucianne Goldberg, other Free Republic events over the years have been televised by C-SPAN. Drudge dropped the link to Free Republic by February 1999, because they were doing racist stuff over the, I click on and I see this headline, Nigger Baby. Drudge quickly restored the link, but dropped it again for unknown reasons, as of April 2008 the Free Republic link is back on Drudge.
The newspapers obtained a permanent injunction, although stipulated damages of $1 million were reduced to $10,000 during settlement negotiations which allowed the defendants to drop their appeal, the case, often cited when arguing cyberlaw, is called L. A. From 1996-2000, the board was virtually unmoderated. No censorship is made and all views are permitted, bush to drug-dealing by the CIA. Robinson famously blasted George W. Bushs presidential candidacy back in 2000, White House Press Secretary and former Fox News commentator Tony Snow was a registered member of Free Republic. Snow was not afraid to mix it up with the Freepers who sometimes disagreed with his political philosophy, Free Republic had been criticized during the pre-moderation period for the actions of several of its members
Chinatown (Washington, D.C.)
It is known for its annual Chinese New Year festival and parade and the Friendship Arch, a Chinese gate built over H Street at 7th Street. Other nearby prominent landmarks include the Verizon Center, a sports and entertainment arena, and the Old Patent Office Building, the neighborhood is served by the Gallery Place-Chinatown station of the Washington Metro. The Chinatown area was home to many Chinese immigrants. The newcomers marked it with decorative metal latticework and railings as well as Chinese signage, at its peak, Chinatown extended from G Street north to Massachusetts Avenue, and from 9th Street east to 5th Street. The colorful, US$1 million work of art includes seven roofs up to 60 feet high,7000 tiles. Erected to celebrate friendship with Washingtons sister city of Beijing, it was hoped the arch would reinforce the neighborhoods Chinese character, according to the plaque next to the arch, it is the largest such single-span archway in the world. In 1993, the Friendship Archway underwent a renovation funded by D. C.
Artisans from China performed extensive repairs on the archway and repainted its decorations, in 1986, the Metro station was given its present name, Gallery Place-Chinatown. The city constructed the Wah Luck House apartments at 6th and H Streets, NW, designed by architect Alfred Liu, the apartment building introduced modern Chinese design motifs due to the red-paneled balconies. The MCI Center was completed in 1997, after the construction of the Verizon Center, AsianWeek said in 2000 that the neighborhood barely remains. Chinatown had fallen into disrepair after the 1968 riots, ethnic Chinese residents, as well as many others, left for suburban areas in Maryland and Virginia. In 2010, the tract that contains Chinatown has around 3,000 residents. Chinatown is only 21% Asian, compared to 1990, when it had a majority Chinese American population, in 1990, its population was 66% Asian and 20% African American. Approximately half of Chinatowns residents live in the Wah Luck House, the closest Chinese supermarket, the Great Wall Supermarket, is fourteen miles west in Falls Church, Virginia.
North Potomac, Maryland is 18. 4% Chinese American, the highest of any community within the Washington metropolitan area, the Maryland city of Rockville has a significant population of residents of Chinese descent, at eight percent. In Virginia, sizable Chinese American communities are located in Centreville, within a short time, a significant mixed-use office-residential-retail development on the southeast corner of 7th and H streets commenced construction. Chinatown has become home to many technology companies, such as Blackboard, Blue State Digital, LivingSocial. It is the location of the Washington branch of the Goethe-Institut, Chinatowns most prominent businesses are the approximately 20 Chinese and Asian restaurants, almost all of which are owned by Asian American families
Christian anarchism is a movement in political theology that claims anarchism is inherent in Christianity and the Gospels. Christian anarchists denounce the state as they claim it is violent, deceitful and, more than any other Bible source, the Sermon on the Mount is used as the basis for Christian anarchism. Most Christian anarchists are pacifists and reject the use of violence, Leo Tolstoys The Kingdom of God Is Within You is often regarded as a key text for modern Christian anarchism. Jacques Ellul, a French philosopher and Christian anarchist, notes that the verse of the Book of Judges states that there was no king in Israel. Subsequently, as recorded in the first Book of Samuel the people of Israel wanted a king so as to be like other nations, God declared that the people had rejected him as their king. He warned that a king would lead to militarism and taxation. Samuel passed on Gods warning to the Israelites but they demanded a king. Much of the subsequent Old Testament chronicles the Israelites trying to live with this decision, more than any other Bible source, the Sermon on the Mount is used as the basis for Christian anarchism.
Alexandre Christoyannopoulos explains that the Sermon perfectly illustrates Jesuss central teaching of love, Christian anarchists claim that the state, founded on violence, contravenes the Sermon and Jesus call to love our enemies. The gospels tell of Jesuss temptation in the desert, for the final temptation, Jesus is taken up to a high mountain by Satan and told that if he bows down to Satan he will give him all the kingdoms of the world. Christian anarchists use this as evidence that all Earthly kingdoms and governments are ruled by Satan, Jesus refuses the temptation, choosing to serve God instead, implying that Jesus is aware of the corrupting nature of Earthly power. Christian eschatology and various Christian anarchists, such as Jacques Ellul, have identified the state, whether or not Christianity is compatible with anarchism is a point of contention, as some hold that one cannot consistently be a Christian and anarchist simultaneously. Critics include Christians and anarchists as well as those who reject both categories, for example, anarcho-syndicalists often cite the phrase no gods, no masters and Christians often cite Romans 13.
Others, such as Friedrich Nietzsche and Frank Seaver Billings, criticize Christianity, according to Alexandre Christoyannopoulos, several of the Church Fathers writings suggest anarchism as Gods ideal. Christian anarchists, such as Keven Craig, insist that these communities were centred on true love and they allege that the reason the early Christians were persecuted was not because they worshipped Jesus Christ, but because they refused to worship human idols claiming divine status. Given that they refused to worship the Roman Emperor they refused to swear any oath of allegiance to the Empire, for Christian anarchists the moment which epitomises the degeneration of Christianity is the conversion of Emperor Constantine after his victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312. Following this event Christianity was legalised under the Edict of Milan in 313, Francis of Assisi was an ascetic preacher and nature lover. As the son of a wealthy cloth merchant he led a privileged life and fought as a soldier
Antimilitarism is a doctrine that opposes war, relying heavily on a critical theory of imperialism and was an explicit goal of the First and Second International. Cynthia Cockburn defines an anti-militarist movement as one opposed to military rule, pacifism is the belief that disputes between nations can and should be settled peacefully. It is the opposition to war and the use of violence as a means of settling disputes and it can include the refusal to participate in military action. Antimilitarism does not reject war in all circumstances, but rejects the belief or desire to maintain a large, similarities are seen between Sorel and the International Workingmens Association theorization of propaganda of the deed. The violence that conserves the law is equivalent to the states monopoly of legitimate violence. The violence that founds the law is the original violence necessary to the creation of a state, revolutionary violence is totally separated from the juridical sphere. Giorgio Agamben showed the theoretical link between the law and violence permitted Nazi-thinker Carl Schmitt to justify the state of exception as the characteristic of sovereignty, thus indefinite suspension of the law may only be blocked by breaking this link between violence and right.
Henry David Thoreaus 1849 essay Civil Disobedience, originally titled Resistance to Civil Government and his refusal to pay taxes is justified as an act of protest against slavery and against the Mexican–American War, in accordance to the practice of civil disobedience. He writes in his essay that the individual is not with obligations to the majority of the State, instead the individual should break the law if the law is is of such a nature that it requires you to be the agent of injustice to another. Capitalism has often thought by antimilitarist literature to be a major cause of wars. The military-industrial complex has been accused of pushing for war in pursuit of economic or financial interests. The assassination of French socialist leader Jean Jaurès days before the proclamation of World War I resulted in massive participation in the coming war, after World War II, US President Eisenhowers 1961 issued a warning on the influence of the military-industrial complex. American right-wing antimilitarists draw heavily upon the statements of Thomas Jefferson and other Founding Fathers condemning standing armies, such an instrument is a standing army.
To this end, there is overlap between the Militia movement and right-wing antimilitarists, although the two groups are not mutually inclusive. Such antimilitarist constitution was based on the belief that Japans military organizations were to blame for thrusting the country into World War II. These evidences include the Yoshida Doctrine, adopted after the World War II, the postwar constitution on which Japan’s antimilitarism is based has seen some proposed amendments, and article 9 has been renounced by the Liberal Democratic Party. Some new legislation allows Japan’s Self Defense Forces to act more like a conventional army and this legislation has been strongly opposed by Japanese opposition parties, especially the Japanese Communist Party, which is strongly pacifist. Until its dissolution, the Second International was antimilitarist, Jaurès assassination on July 31,1914, marks antimilitarisms failure in the socialist movement
A conscientious objector is an individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion. In general, conscientious objector status is considered only in the context of military conscription and is not applicable to military forces. In some countries, conscientious objectors are assigned to a civilian service as a substitute for conscription or military service. Some conscientious objectors consider themselves pacifist, non-interventionist, non-resistant, non-aggressionist and this was re-affirmed in 1998, when resolution 1998/77 recognized that persons performing military service may develop conscientious objections. A number of organizations around the world celebrate the principle on May 15 as International Conscientious Objectors Day, the term has been extended to objecting to working for the military–industrial complex due to a crisis of conscience. Historically, many conscientious objectors have been executed, imprisoned, or otherwise penalized when their beliefs led to conflicting with their societys legal system or government.
The legal definition and status of conscientious objection has varied over the years, Religious beliefs were a starting point in many nations for legally granting conscientious objector status. An early recognition of conscientious objection was granted by William the Silent to the Dutch Mennonites in 1575 and they could refuse military service in exchange for a monetary payment. Formal legislation to exempt objectors from fighting was first granted in mid-18th century Great Britain following problems with attempting to force Quakers into military service. In the United States, conscientious objection was permitted from the countrys founding, in 1948, the issue of the right to conscience was dealt with by the United Nations General Assembly in Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The proclamation was ratified during the General Assembly on 10 December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favour,0 against and it is The Right to Refuse to Kill. In 1976, the United Nations treaty the International Covenant on Civil and it was based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and was originally created in 1966.
Nations that have signed this treaty are bound by it and its Article 18 begins, Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought and religion. Some states argue that such limitations would permit them to make conscientious objection during time of war a threat to public safety, even that it is a moral duty to serve the state in its military. In 2006, the Committee has found for the first time a right to conscientious objection under article 18, in 1998, the Human Rights Commission reiterated previous statements and added states should. Refrain from subjecting conscientious objectors. to repeated punishment for failure to perform military service, the Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees states,171. Not every conviction, genuine though it may be, will constitute a sufficient reason for claiming refugee status after desertion or draft-evasion and it is not enough for a person to be in disagreement with his government regarding the political justification for a particular military action.
Air Commodore Lionel Charlton, of the British Royal Air Force, in 1923 he selectively refused to serve in the RAF Iraq Command
Peace testimony, or testimony against war, is a shorthand description of the action generally taken by members of the Religious Society of Friends for peace and against participation in war. Like other Quaker testimonies, it is not a belief, but a description of committed actions, in case to promote peace. Because of this testimony, the Religious Society of Friends is considered one of the traditional peace churches. Friends peace testimony is largely derived from beliefs arising from the teachings of Jesus to love ones enemies, Quakers believe that nonviolent confrontation of evil and peaceful reconciliation are always superior to violent measures. Peace testimony does not mean that Quakers engage only in passive resignation, in fact, the Peace Testimony is probably the best known testimony of Friends. The belief that violence is wrong has persisted to this day, because of their peace testimony, Friends are considered as one of the historic peace churches. The Peace Testimony has not always well received in the world.
Some Friends today regard the Peace Testimony in even a broader sense, Yearly Meetings in the United States and other parts of the world endorse and support these Friends actions. The Quaker Council for European Affairs campaigns in the European Parliament for the right of conscientious objectors in Europe not to be made to pay for the military, some do pay the money into peace charities and still get goods seized by bailiffs or money taken from their bank accounts. Some Yearly meetings in the US run escrow accounts for conscientious objectors, many Friends engage in various non-governmental organizations such as Christian Peacemaker Teams serving in some of the most violent areas of the world. Quaker author Howard Brinton, for example, served in the American Friends Service Committee during World War I, I told them I was come into the covenant of peace which was before wars and strifes were. The most well-known statement of belief was stated that year in a declaration to King Charles II of England in 1660 by George Fox and 11 others.
Some Quakers initially opposed this statement because it did not deny use of the sword to the magistrate or ruler of the state and it contained no prohibition against paying taxes for purposes of war, something that would trouble Friends to the present. Not all Quakers embrace this testimony as an absolute, for example, there were Friends that fought in World War I, some others were firm Christian pacifists. Apart from the question of war, other ways in which Friends have testified to peace have included vegetarianism. The Religious Society of Friends was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947, the Nobel Prize was awarded to Friends for Friends work to relieve suffering and feed many millions of starving people during and after both world wars. The Nobel prize was accepted by the American Friends Service Committee, some Early Statements Concerning the Quaker Peace Testimony Think Peace - a series of six articles from Quaker Peace & Social Witness of Britain Yearly Meeting