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9M133 Kornet

The 9M133 Kornet is a modern Russian man-portable anti-tank guided missile intended for use against main battle tanks. It was first introduced into service with the Russian Army in 1998; the Kornet is among the most capable Russian ATGMs. It is not intended to replace previous systems, due to its high cost; the Kornet comes in variants with thermobaric warheads for use against soft targets. It was further developed into the 9M133 Kornet-EM, which has increased range, fire-and-forget capability, an improved warhead; the Kornet has been exported and is produced under license in several countries. It has since been used in many conflicts; the NATO reporting name AT-14 Spriggan is derived from the spriggan, a legendary creature from Cornish faery lore. The Kornet anti-tank missile was unveiled in October 1994 by the KBP Instrument Design Bureau; the missile started development in 1988 as a modular, universal system able to engage any target from a mix of platforms using a reliable laser beam guidance system, simple to use.

It is a heavy ATGM, superior to the earlier 9K111 Fagot and 9K113 Konkurs wire-guided ATGMs, but not to replace them. The missile entered service in the Russian army in 1998, its export designation is the Kornet-E. The 9P163M-1 Kornet-T tank destroyer entered service in 2012. North Korea has developed a clone of the Kornet known as the Bulsae-3, first revealed on February 27, 2016 publicly during a demo test; the 9M133F-1 Kornet variant with a thermobaric warhead was expected to enter serial production in 2019, according to a company report. The 9M133 missile together with its 9P163-1 tripod launcher and 1PN79-1 thermal sight forms the 9K135 missile system, which can be carried and operated by a two-person infantry crew; the transfer to the firing position takes less than one minute, preparation and production of a shot in at least one second. Kornet anti-tank missile system has been fitted with the ‘top attack’ capability. In addition to an infantry portable version, the 9K133 system has been integrated into a variety of other vehicles and weapons systems as either an upgrade package or a new weapon system.

The 9K133 has been fitted into a BMP-3 to form the 9P163M-1 tank destroyer and is similar in function to the Khrizantema missile system. The 9P163M-1 carries two 9M133 missiles on launch rails, which are extended from a stowed position during transit. Missile are re-loaded automatically by the tank destroyer from an internal magazine with 16 rounds. NBC protection is provided for the two crew of each 9P163M-1 in addition to full armour protection equivalent to the standard BMP-3 chassis; the guidance system of the 9P163M-1 allows two missiles to be fired at once, each operating on different guidance channels. The KBP Instrument Design Bureau has marketed the 9M133 missile as part of the Kvartet system for mounting on vehicles and boats; the turret is operated by a single individual. Another upgrade possibility is the Kliver missile and gun turret, seen as an upgrade option for the BTR series of APC, BMP-1 IFV and patrol boats, it has similar capabilities as the Kvartet turret, but carries a 30 mm 2A72 cannon.

The 9M133 is available in the BEREZHOK turret upgrade made available by KBP. Since 2014, its serial production has been resumed for the domestic market with the designation B05YA01; the 9M133 Kornet-EM is an improved variant introduced in 2012, designed to defeat vehicles with explosive reactive armor, is jamming resistant, uses an automatic target tracker which turns it into a "fire and forget" missile. The "fire and forget" capability allows a vehicle equipped with twin launchers to attack two different targets at once, increasing its rate of fire, decreases the number of vehicles needed for a mission, can defeat vehicles equipped with an active protection system through salvo fire at one target; the system's use of an autotracker can make it effective against low-flying aerial threats like helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. Kornet-EM is used on the Kornet-D system. Iran produces an indigenous system similar to the Kornet-D called the Pirooz, that uses a different launch vehicle and different electro-optical sight configuration.

The Kornet-EM first entered service with the Russian Army. It has been exported to Algeria, it is built under license in Saudi Iran. During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Kornets were used by some groups of Iraqi special forces to attack U. S. armored vehicles, disabling at least two Abrams tanks and one Bradley infantry fighting vehicle in the opening week of the war. The second verified episode of the Kornet ATGM in combat use occurred during the 2006 Lebanon War, where the missiles supplied by Syria, were used by Hezbollah fighters to destroy up to four Israeli Merkava tanks. Kornets pierced the armor of 24 tanks in total. One of the first detailed accounts of IDF's successful capture of Kornet ATGMs on Hezbollah positions in the village of Ghandouriyeh appeared in the Daily Telegraph article, which reported that the boxes were marked with "Customer: Ministry of Defense of Syria. Supplier: KBP, Russia". Several months after the cease-fire, reports have provided sufficient photographic evidence that Ko

R. Bruce Ricketts

Robert Bruce Ricketts distinguished himself as an artillery officer in the American Civil War. He is best known for his battery's defense against a Confederate attack on Cemetery Hill on the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg. Elijah Ricketts was a farmer in Orangeville in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, he married Margaret Leigh Lockart in 1830. Robert Bruce Ricketts was the fifth of nine children of this union, born on April 29, 1839. An older brother, William Wallace Ricketts, attended the United States Military Academy. Bruce Ricketts was educated at the Wyoming Seminary near Wilkes-Barre; when the war broke out, he was studying law and considering the possibility of a university education. The First Pennsylvania Light Artillery was organized in 1861; the regiment left for Washington, D. C. in August of that year. Battery F was formed under Capt. Ezra W. Matthews. Bruce Ricketts joined the service on July 8, as a private of that year, he was commissioned as first lieutenant in that battery about a month later.

The regiment was split up, with individual batteries serving with different divisions of the Army of the Potomac. Battery F first saw combat at the Battle of Dranesville on December 20, 1861. Ricketts' section had one gun disabled in that action; the section served in the defense of Hancock, against a foray by Stonewall Jackson. Battery F served in the Army of Virginia in the corps of Major General Irwin McDowell, joining it on March 21, 1862, at Warrenton, Virginia. In that context it was involved, under Ricketts' leadership, in a reconnaissance expedition to Rappahannock Station, that left on April 7, of that year; this force advanced and withdrew, having accomplished its information-gathering purpose. Thereafter the battery was involved in the campaign culminating in the Second Battle of Bull Run. Battery F was engaged in the Battle of Cedar Mountain on August 8, helping McDowell cover the retreat of the corps of Major General Nathaniel Banks; the battery helped defend Henry House Hill at Second Bull Run, it was present at the Battle of Chantilly though not engaged.

It participated in the "artillery hell" of the Battle of Antietam. Lt. Ricketts missed most of these actions while serving on recruiting duty, he returned to the Army of the Potomac on September 23, 1862. Ricketts commanded Battery F, First Pennsylvania Light Artillery from on until the summer of 1864. Capt. Matthews did not return to battery command. Ricketts was engaged with his guns at the Battle of Fredericksburg, serving with second division I Corps under Major General John F. Reynolds; when Capt. Matthews was promoted to the rank of major, Ricketts became a captain on March 14, 1863. At the Battle of Chancellorsville Ricketts' battery was with Major General Abner Doubleday's third division I Corps. Ricketts' battery was – beginning on May 13, 1863 – in the third volunteer brigade of the Reserve Artillery under Capt. James F. Huntington. Battery G, First Pennsylvania Light Artillery, was attached to Ricketts' battery a few weeks before the Battle of Gettysburg, on June 1, 1863; this merger was resented until gunners from Battery G were permitted to form a section of the consolidated battery.

This merger took place while the army was marching north in pursuit of the Army of Northern Virginia, beginning on May 15. Ricketts' battery arrived in Gettysburg on the Taneytown Road on the morning of July 2, 1863, replaced Capt. James H. Cooper's Battery B, First Pennsylvania Light Artillery, on East Cemetery Hill about 4:00 PM, it was exposed to enfilade fire from Benner's Seminary Ridge. Around nightfall, two Confederate brigades from the division of Major General Jubal Early attacked the hill, it broke the thin Union front line at the foot of the hill in two places. In other places they were repelled; some Confederates reached the top of the hill, one group attacked the left of Ricketts' battery, trying to spike the guns. The fight for the guns became hand to hand, but the Confederates were unable to capture the whole battery. Union reinforcements from the II Corps brigade of Col. Samuel S. Carroll drove the Confederates down hill. A monument to the battery stands in the general location of their fight.

After the battle, Ricketts criticized Adelbert Ames' division of XI Corps, although he could not see what was going on down there at the foot of the hill. He thought. Ricketts' account of the action makes. However, a less colorful account by a modern historian shows that some of the XI Corps troops had rallied and stood fast atop Cemetery Hill before reinforcements from Col. Carroll's brigade of II Corps came up behind Ricketts' position. After Gettysburg, Ricketts' battery F was transferred to the artillery brigade of II Corps in time for the Bristoe Campaign. At the Second Battle of Auburn on October 14, 1863, the battery helped first division II Corps cover the withdrawal of the corps under harassing fire from horse artillery of Major General J. E. B. Stuart's command. At the Battle of Bristoe Station that day, Ricketts' battery F came up at a gallop and unlimbered behind BG Alexander S. Webb's second division II Corps, their fire helped defeat Major General Henry Heth's attack on the federal line.

The battery was given the privilege of presenting captured Confederate guns to Major General George G. Meade, the commanding general. Ricketts' battery remained with the II Corps for the Overland Campaign. During the Battle of the Wilderness, a section of Ricketts' battery advanced on the Plank Road with Major General

Italian submarine Scirè (1938)

Italian submarine Scirè was an Adua-class submarine, built in 1930s which served during World War II in the Regia Marina. It was named at the time part of Italian East Africa; the Adua-class submarines were repeats of the preceding Perla class. They displaced 680 metric tons surfaced and 844 metric tons submerged; the submarines were 60.18 meters long, had a beam of 6.45 meters and a draft of 4.7 meters. For surface running, the boats were powered by two 600-brake-horsepower diesel engines, each driving one propeller shaft; when submerged each propeller was driven by a 400-horsepower electric motor. They could reach 14 knots on 7.5 knots underwater. On the surface, the Adua class had a range of 3,180 nautical miles at 10.5 knots, they had a range of 74 nmi at 4 knots. The boats were armed with four in the bow and two in the stern, they were armed with one 100 mm deck gun for combat on the surface. The light anti-aircraft armament consisted of two pairs of 13.2 mm machine guns. Scirè was launched on 6 January 1938 in OTO's shipyard in La Spezia and commissioned on 25 April 1938.

At the beginning of the war, she was assigned to 15th Squadron based at La Spezia and was under command of Adriano Pini. On July 10, 1940, while on patrol in the western Mediterranean, French cargo ship SS Cheik was torpedoed and sunk by Scirè 54nm from the Asmare Light, north of Sardinia. In the summer of 1940 Scirè underwent a series of modifications converting her to a SLC boat; the size of the tower was reduced, her deck gun was removed, 3 watertight cylinders were mounted on her deck instead to accommodate maiali. These cylinders, each weighing 2.8 tons, could hold up depths down to 90 meters. On September 24, 1940 Scirè, under command of captain Junio Valerio Borghese, sailed from La Spezia for her first special mission to be performed in Gibraltar. In the evening of September 29, upon reaching the Strait of Gibraltar, Sciré received an order from Supermarina to suspend the mission and return to the base as Force H had left the Mediterranean to operate in the Atlantic. In 1940 Scire made it first foray into the Bay of Gibraltar intent on sabotage of the British ships in Gibraltar Harbour with three manned torpedoes.

None of the three were successful with the most daring getting stuck 100 metres from HMS Barham. The crew were forced to withdraw and the explosion of the torpedo's only achievement was to tip off the defenders of Gibraltar Harbour, they organised for boats to drop small charges into the water each night that would have proved fatal to any diver in range of the shock wave. Scirè entered the Bay of Gibraltar again in September 1941 with better results than the previous time. On September 20, 1941 three tankers were attacked and Fiona Shell was sunk whilst other two ships, RFA Denbydale and MS Durham were damaged; the Italians decided to create a permanent base in Spain converting a ship called Olterra, moored off Algeciras into a permanent base for naval sabotage. Scirè accomplished many missions inside enemy waters. Among these, the most important was carried out on 3 December 1941. Scirè left La Spezia carrying three manned torpedoes. At the island of Leros in the Aegean Sea, it secretly loaded six crew for them: Luigi Durand de la Penne and Emilio Bianchi, Vincenzo Martellotta and Mario Marino, Antonio Marceglia and Spartaco Schergat.

On 19 December, Scirè reached Alexandria in Egypt, its manned torpedoes entered the harbour and sank in shallow waters the British battleships HMS Valiant, Queen Elizabeth and damaged the tanker Sagona and the destroyer Jervis. All six torpedo-riders were captured and the battleships returned to service after several months of repairs. During a mission to launch manned torpedoes, on 10 August 1942, Scirè was depth charged by the British naval trawler Islay in Haifa bay, about 11 kilometres from the harbour. Scirè surfaced before sinking during which time she was shelled by 300 Coast Battery, Royal Artillery. Islay was captained by Lieutenant Commander John Clements Ross of North Shields and Wear, awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his actions; the wreck of Scirè, lying at a depth of 32 metres, became a popular diving site and Shayetet 13 training location. In 1984 a joint Italian-Israeli Navy ceremony was performed, in which the forward section was removed from the submarine and sent to Italy to become part of a memorial. Italia - Sciré missions Coastal submarines: Adua class

Metropolitan Mykhayil

Metropolitan Mykhayil Javchak Champion is the Metropolitan Bishop of New York City and America for the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. Champion is a native of Peekskill, New York, spent 20 years of ministry in the Cleveland, Ohio area, he graduated from Duquesne University in Pittsburgh and received a Master of Arts Degree in Theology from Saint Mary Seminary and Graduate School of Theology of the Cleveland Diocese in 1993. During his seminary years, Javchak-Champion worked as a cantor and pastoral associate in various Eastern Orthodox and Greek Catholic parishes in the Cleveland Area. From 1986-1989 he worked in the chancery office of the Eparchy of Parma, as director of the eparchial cantor's programs, editor of The Cantor's Voice, a publication for music ministers. Additionally, he was editorial cantor to Bishop Andrew Pataki. Among other things, the future Metropolitan was key in producing the bishop's ad limina report, multiple liturgical publications among other efforts. Ordained to the priesthood in 1997, he became a bishop of Cleveland in the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church in 1999.

He was pastor of the UAOC Cathedral Church of SS Hlib during that era. On May 2, 2001, Metropolitan Javchak Champion offered the opening prayer at the United States House of Representatives, at the invitation of Congressman John E. Sununu of New Hampshire. In December 2002 Javchak-Champion supported the ideology of UAOC-Sobornopravna. Javchak-Champion took on the leadership of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church in the Americas in 2004, after the retirement of Metropolitan Stephan. At the April 2004 convocation of the regular Metropolitan synod, the Council of Hierarchs of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church of North & South America and the Diaspora accepted the resignation of Archbishop Petrovich, who voluntarily asked to retire due to health reasons. In 2004-2005 within the UAOC-Sobornopravna in the USA, events took place; the UAOC of North and South America, headed by Javchak-Champion, joined with UAOC in Ukraine, on April 21, 2004 declared Metropolitan Mefodiy to be their Primate.

Javchak-Champion returned to Northern Westchester in 2005, where he relocated the church's administrative office and founded the Holy Spirit Ukrainian Orthodox Parish. He supported in Metropolitan Mefodiy in a conflict with Archbishop Ihor Isichenko. In February 2006 Metropolitan Mefodiy, Metropolitan of Kyiv and All Ukraine, worldwide primate of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church made a pastoral visit to the United States, at the invitation of Metropolitan Javchak-Champion, they visited church communities. In 2005, 2007 and 2008, Metropolitan Mykhayil made official visits to the Primate of the UAOC, Metropolitan Mefodiy in Kyiv. In 2007 Javchak-Champion said that his church supported Cardinal Lubomyr Husar, Archbishop Ihor Vozniak and members of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in their dispute with Latin Traditionalist Catholics in Ukraine. In 2007, while on an official visit to the Primate of the UAOC, Metropolitan Mefodiy, Metropolitan Mykhayil visited Ternopil, had interview with Ukrainian journalists After the death of Metropolitan Mefodiy on February 24, 2015, Metropolitan Javchak-Champion sent official condolences and promulgated an official period of mourning for the death of the church's visible head.

Due to developing and uncertain political/ecclesiastical developments in Ukraine, subsequent to the death of Metropolitan Mefodiy, the UAOC in the USA asserts autonomy. In 2007, Archbishop Javchak-Champion was the first Orthodox Christian hierarch to write a response to the document A Common Word Between Us and You, an historic outreach by Muslim leaders to the interfaith community, he was a participant in the Yale conference "Loving God and Neighbor in Word and Deed", a workshop on the same document. The event gathered religious scholars and activists from several countries and was co-sponsored by Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad of Jordan and the Yale University Center for Faith and Culture's Reconciliation Program; the Archbishop has long been a proponent of liberation theology and took an early interest in the development of the Latin American church. He studied the Spanish language at the high school and university levels. Champion speaks as an advocate for the rights of immigrants and any persons who are marginalized or experience bias.

He has been a co-chair of the Cortlandt Taskforce on Diversity. The church has conducted a weekly breakfast program as a gesture of hospitality for local immigrant workers. In 2011, New York became the sixth U. S. state to legalize same-sex marriages. At that time Archbishop Champion opened his local parish to same-sex couples wishing to marry, he said that the freedom to marry is a civil right all Americans should have: I think it’s a matter of civil rights, the more equality we have amongst people in this country the better,” Champion said. While the state has legalized gay marriage, Champion pointed out churches in the state are not required to recognize or perform them. “I do realize there are some faith leaders that may not agree with performing same-sex unions, however they are not obliged to do so.” In 2011 his parish of Montrose, New York began to offer weddings to same-sex couples. The ministry has led the Archbishop to travel to parishes in Ukraine, Ecuador and Colombia among other places.

Javchak-Champion works extensively in inter-religious ministry, having served for four years as president of the Peekskill Area Pastors Association, the larges

David Turner (computer scientist)

David A. Turner is a British computer scientist, he is best known for designing and implementing the first functional programming languages based on lazy evaluation, combinator graph reduction, polymorphic types: SASL, KRC, the commercially supported Miranda. Miranda had a strong influence on the Haskell programming language, he has a D. Phil. From the University of Oxford, he has held professorships at Queen Mary College, University of Texas at Austin and the University of Kent at Canterbury, where he has spent most of his career and retains the title of Emeritus Professor of Computation. He is an Emeritus Professor at Middlesex University, England. Turner, David A. SASL language manual. Tech. Rept. CS/75/1. Department of Computational Science, University of St. Andrews 1975. Turner, D. A.. "A New Implementation Technique for Applicative Languages". Software - Practice and Experience. 9: 31. Doi:10.1002/spe.4380090105. Another Algorithm for Bracket Abstraction, D. A. Turner, Journal of Symbolic Logic, 44:267–270, 1979.

Functional Programming and its Applications, D. A. Turner, Cambridge University Press 1982. A Parser Generator for use with Miranda, ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pages 401–407, Philadelphia, USA, Feb 1996. Elementary Strong Functional Programming, D. A. Turner, in R. Plasmeijer, P. Hartel, eds, "First International Symposium on Functional Programming Languages in Education", Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 1022, pages 1–13, Springer-Verlag, 1996. Ensuring Streams Flow, Alastair Telford and David Turner, in Johnson, ed. "Algebraic Methodology and Software Technology", 6th International Conference, AMAST'97, Sydney Australia, December 1997, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 1349, pages 509–523. AMAST, Springer-Verlag, December 1997. Ensuring the Productivity of Infinite Structures, A. J. Telford, D. A. Turner, "Technical Report TR 14-97", 37 pages, Computing Laboratory, University of Kent, March 1998. Under submission to "Journal of Functional Programming". Ensuring Termination in ESFP, A. J. Telford and D. A. Turner, in "15th British Colloquium in Theoretical Computer Science", page 14, April 1999.

To appear in "Journal of Universal Computer Science". A Hierarchy of Elementary Languages with Strong Normalisation Properties, A. J. Telford, D. A. Turner, "Technical Report TR 2-00", 66 pages, University of Kent Computing Laboratory, January 2000. Total Functional Programming, Keynote address, pp 1–15, SBLP 2004, Rio de Janeiro, May 2004. Church's Thesis and Functional Programming, in A. Olszewski ed. "Church's Thesis after 70 years'", pages 518-544, Ontos Verlag, 2006. Staff page at the University of Kent at Canterbury Archive copy of an old Staff page at Middlesex University Miranda functional programming language