Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
Nasir bin Olu Dara Jones, known professionally as Nas, is an American rapper and entrepreneur. The son of jazz musician Olu Dara, Nas has released eight consecutive platinum and multi-platinum albums and has sold over 30 million records worldwide, he is an entrepreneur through his own record label. His musical career began in 1991, as a featured artist on Main Source's "Live at the Barbeque", his debut album Illmatic received universal acclaim from both critics and the hip-hop community and is ranked as one of the greatest hip-hop albums of all time. Nas's follow-up It Was Written debuted at #1 on the Billboard 200, stayed on top for four consecutive weeks, went Double Platinum in two months, made Nas internationally known. From 2001 to 2005, Nas was involved in a publicized feud with Jay-Z, popularized by the diss track "Ether". Nas signed to Def Jam in 2006. In 2010, he released Distant Relatives, a collaboration album with Damian Marley, donating all royalties to charities active in Africa.
His 11th studio album, Life Is Good was nominated for Best Rap Album at the 55th Annual Grammy Awards. MTV ranked him at #5 on their list of "The Greatest MCs of All Time". In 2012, The Source ranked him #2 on their list of the "Top 50 Lyricists of All Time". In 2013, Nas was ranked 4th on MTV's "Hottest MCs in the Game" list. About.com ranked him first on their list of the "50 Greatest MCs of All Time" in 2014, a year Nas was featured on "The 10 Best Rappers of All Time" list by Billboard. Nasir bin Olu Dara Jones was born on September 1973, in Brooklyn, New York, his father, Olu Dara, is a blues musician from Mississippi. His mother, Fannie Ann Jones, was a Postal Service worker from North Carolina, he has one sibling, a brother named Jabari Fret, best known as "Jungle", a member of the hip-hop group Bravehearts. His father took his name "Olu Dara" from the Yoruba people, his African DNA indicates he has roots in countries with high Yoruba populations Nigeria, Benin and Ghana – as well as Mali, the Ivory Coast, Congo, South Africa, Senegal.
His matrilineal DNA haplogroup is of African origin, found among the Yoruba and Fulbe populations in Western Africa. As a young child and his family relocated to the Queensbridge Houses in the Long Island City neighborhood of Queens, his neighbor, Willy "Ill Will" Graham, influenced his interest in hip hop by playing. His parents divorced in 1985, he dropped out of school after the eighth grade, he educated himself about African culture through the Nuwaubian Nation. In his early years, he began writing his own rhymes; as a teenager, Nas enlisted his best friend and upstairs neighbor Willy "Ill Will" Graham as his DJ. Nas went by the nickname "Kid Wave" before adopting his more known alias of "Nasty Nas". In the late-1980s, he met up with the producer Large Professor and went to the studio where Rakim and Kool G Rap were recording their albums; when they were not in the recording studio, Nas would record his own material. However, none of it was released. In 1991, Nas performed on Main Source's "Live at the Barbeque".
In mid-1992, Nas was approached by MC Serch of 3rd Bass, who became his manager and secured Nas a record deal with Columbia Records during the same year. Nas made his solo debut under the name of "Nasty Nas" on the single "Halftime" from MC Serch's soundtrack for the film Zebrahead. Called the new Rakim, his rhyming skills attracted a significant amount of attention within the hip-hop community. In 1994, Nas's debut album, was released, it was awarded best album of 1994 by The Source. It featured production from Large Professor, Pete Rock, Q-Tip, LES and DJ Premier, as well as guest appearances from Nas's friend AZ and his father Olu Dara; the album spawned several singles, including "The World Is Yours", "It Ain't Hard to Tell", "One Love". Shaheem Reid of MTV News called Illmatic "the first classic LP" of 1994. In 1994, Nas recorded the song "One on One" for the soundtrack to the film Street Fighter. In his book To the Break of Dawn: A Freestyle on the Hip Hop Aesthetic, William Jelani Cobb writes of Nas's impact at the time: Nas, the poetic sage of the Queensbridge projects, was hailed as the second coming of Rakim—as if the first had reached his expiration date.
Nas never became'the next Rakim,' nor did he have to. Illmatic stood on its own terms; the sublime lyricism of the CD, combined with the fact that it was delivered into the crucible of the boiling East-West conflict solidified reputation as the premier writer of his time. Steve Huey of AllMusic described Nas's lyrics on Illmatic as "highly literate" and his raps "superbly fluid regardless of the size of his vocabulary", adding that Nas is "able to evoke the bleak reality of ghetto life without losing hope or forgetting the good times". Reviewing Nas's second album It Was Written, Leo Stanley of allmusic believed the rhymes to be not as complex as those in Illmatic but still "not only flow, but manage to tell coherent stories as well". About.com ranked Illmatic as the greatest hip-hop album of all time, Prefix magazine praised it as "the best hip-hop record made". Columbia Records began to press Nas to work towards more commercial topics, such as that of The Notorious B. I. G. who had become successful by releasing street singles that still retained radio-friendly appeal.
In 1995, Nas did guest performances on the albums Doe or Die by AZ, The Infamous by The Infamous Mobb Deep, Only Built 4 Cuban Linx by Raekwon and 4,5,6 by Kool G Rap. Nas
"Groovin" is a single released in 1967 by the Young Rascals that became a number-one hit and one of the group's signature songs. Written by group members Felix Cavaliere and Eddie Brigati and with a lead vocal from Cavaliere, it is a slow, relaxed groove, based on Cavaliere's newfound interest in Afro-Cuban music. Instrumentation included a conga, a Cuban-influenced bass guitar line from session musician Chuck Rainey, a harmonica part, performed first for the single version by New York session musician Michael Weinstein, for the album version by Gene Cornish; the result was different from the Rascals' white soul origins, enough so that Atlantic Records head Jerry Wexler did not want to release "Groovin'". Cavaliere credits disc jockey Murray the K with intervening to encourage Atlantic to release the song. "To tell you the truth, they didn't like the record because it had no drum on it," admits Cavaliere. "We had just cut it, he came in the studio to say hello. After he heard the song, he said,'Man, this is a smash.'
So, when he heard that Atlantic didn't want to put it out, he went to see Jerry Wexler and said,'Are you crazy? This is a friggin' No. 1 record.' He was right, because it became No. 1 for four straight weeks."Lyrically, "Groovin'" is the evocation of a person in love: Life would be ecstasy, you and me endlessly... Groovin'... on a Sunday afternoon Really couldn't get away too soon —"Groovin" was inspired by Cavaliere's then-girlfriend, Adrienne Buccheri. He said of her, "I believe she was divinely sent for the purpose of inspiring my creativity."The single became an instant hit in May 1967, spending four weeks atop the Billboard pop singles chart, but not four consecutive weeks. The sequence was interrupted by Aretha Franklin's cover of "Respect", which spent two weeks at No. 1 in the middle of "Groovin'"'s run. The song was RIAA-certified a gold record on June 13, 1967. "Groovin'" dropped so from the charts that Casey Kasem remarked on it in his radio show American Top 40 five years later. Showing it crossover appeal, the song reached No. 3 on the Billboard Black Songs chart.
"Groovin'" was the only hit the group had in the United Kingdom, reaching No. 8 on the UK Singles Chart. "Groovin'" was subsequently included on the Young Rascals' late July 1967 album of the same name, but with the alternate harmonica solo by Cornish. "Groovin'" is one of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll, is the recipient of a Grammy Hall of Fame Award. The phrase "you and me endlessly" was misheard as the mondegreen "you and me and Leslie"; the Young Rascals recorded "Groovin" in Spanish and Italian in 1968. Within weeks of the Young Rascals release, Booker T. and the M. G.'s recorded an instrumental cover of "Groovin'". Issued as a single, the track reached No. 21 on the pop charts and No. 10 on the R&B charts in the summer of 1967. In 1996, English reggae singer Pato Banton recorded a version with the Reggae Revolution that reached number 14 on the UK Singles Chart in July; the next month, the cover became a major hit in New Zealand, reaching number four on the RIANZ Singles Chart and staying in the top 20 for nine weeks.
It was the country's 47th best-selling single of the year."Groovin'" appeared in the 1991 film Dogfight, though it created an anachronism, as the scene in which the song appeared took place in 1966, nearly a year before the song was released
Ronald Isley known as Mr. Biggs, is an American recording artist, record producer, occasional actor. Isley is best known as the lead singer and founding member of the family music group the Isley Brothers. Born in 1941 to Sallye Bernice and O'Kelly Isley Sr, Isley was the third of six brothers. Ronald, like many of his siblings, began his career in the church. Isley began singing at the age of two, winning a $25 war bond for singing at a spiritual contest at the Union Baptist Church. By the age of seven, Isley was singing on-stage at venues such as the Regal Theater in Chicago, alongside Dinah Washington and a few other notables. By his early teens, Isley was singing with his brothers in church tours and first appeared on TV on Ted Mack's Amateur Hour. In 1957, 16-year-old Isley and his two elder brothers O'Kelly and Rudy 19 and 18 moved to New York to pursue a music career. While in New York and his brother began recording doo-wop for local labels before landing a major deal with RCA Records in 1959.
By the summer of 1959, the Isley family had moved from Cincinnati to a home in Englewood, New Jersey. For much of the Isley Brothers' duration, Isley would remain the group's consistent member of the group as well as the lead vocalist for most of the group's tenure with sporadic lead shares with his older brothers. In 1969, Isley reformed T-Neck Records with his brothers in a need to produce themselves without the control of record labels, forming the label shortly after ending a brief tenure with Motown. In 1973, the group's style and sound drastically changed following the release of the 3 + 3 album where brothers Ernie Isley and Marvin Isley and in-law Chris Jasper permanently enter the brothers' lineup, writing the music and lyrics to the group's new sound; the younger brothers had been providing instrumental help for the brothers since the late 1960s. By the mid-1970s, Isley was living in New Jersey. After Kelly Isley's death in 1986 and Rudy Isley's exit to fulfill a dream of ministry in 1989, Ronald has carried on with the Isley Brothers name either as a solo artist or with accompanying help from the group's younger brothers, much more prominently, Ernie Isley.
In 1990, Isley scored a top-ten duet with Rod Stewart with a cover of his brothers' hit "This Old Heart of Mine", in 2003 Ronald recorded a solo album, Here I Am: Bacharach Meets Isley, with Burt Bacharach. In addition, Ron Isley became a sought-after hook singer for R&B veteran R. Kelly, hip-hop acts such as Warren G, 2Pac and UGK. Ronald released his first solo album Mr. I on November 30, 2010; the album includes the first single "No More" It debuted at number 50 on the Billboard 200, selling 22,243 copies. It was his first solo album to crack that chart. In 2010, Isley received a "Legend Award" at the Soul Train Music Awards. In 2013, Ronald released his second solo album; the album includes the first single "Dinner and A Movie". Second single, Premiere Song "My Favorite Thing" wrote and produced singer, Kem. Ronald received a nominees Independent R&B/Soul Artist Performance, at the Soul Train Music Awards. In 2014, Ronald made a cameo appearance in the music video for Kendrick Lamar song "i".
In 1993, Isley married singer Angela Winbush in California. They divorced in early 2002; when Winbush received chemotherapy following her ovarian cancer diagnosis, Isley was by her side giving her his support in her recovery. Isley has older children including daughters Tawanna and Trenisha. In 2004, while in London, Isley suffered a mild stroke. In September 2005, he married background singer Kandy Johnson, their son, Ronald Isley, Jr. was born in December 2007. In 2007, it was reported. Isley still resides in St. Louis. In 2006, Isley was convicted of tax evasion charges and sentenced to three years and one month in prison. Isley's sentence was affirmed by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Isley was imprisoned at the Federal Correctional Institution at Terre Haute and was scheduled for release on April 13, 2010, he was moved to a half-way house in St. Louis, following an early departure that October. After his sentence was completed, Isley was released from a federal half-way house on April 13, 2010.
Isley is listed as one of California's most delinquent taxpayers, with a $303,411.43 debt from a lien filed on October 22, 2002. Honorary doctorate of music, awarded by the Berklee College of Music, May 7, 2016. Ronald Isley on IMDb
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Edward Brigati Jr. is an American singer and songwriter. Brigati shared vocal duties with other group members, played tambourine, in the pop group The Young Rascals from 1964 to 1970. Prior to his stint with The Young Rascals, Brigati had been a member of Joey Dee and the Starliters. With the help of group founder Billy Amato and manager Sid Bernstein; the Rascals were the first all-white group signed to Atlantic Records. They, were practitioners of a genre of music coined'blue-eyed soul'. Raised in Garfield, New Jersey, Brigati graduated from Garfield High School in 1963. Brigati wrote the songs that made the Rascals' one of the more successful recording groups of their era, he helped compose "You Better Run", "I've Been Lonely Too Long", "Groovin'", "How Can I Be Sure", "A Beautiful Morning", "People Got to Be Free". Brigati left the group in 1970 after their contract with Atlantic expired, they chose to sign with Columbia. In 1976, Eddie and David Brigati recorded Lost in the Wilderness, under the name Brigati.
They performed on The New York Rock and Soul Revue: Live at the Beacon in 1992. The Rascals were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997 and in 2005, the Vocal Group Hall of Fame. On June 18, 2009, Brigati was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame. On April 24, 2010, Brigati reunited with the other three members of the Rascals, they performed at the Kristen Ann Carr benefit. The quartet played a set that ran over one hour and featured several of their top hits from the 1960s, he reunited with his band-mates in 2012. The Rascals appeared at the Capitol Theater in Port Chester, NY for six shows in December 2012 and for fifteen dates at the Richard Rogers Theatre on Broadway; the production was entitled'Once Upon A Dream' and was produced by long-time Rascals' fans, Steven Van Zandt and his wife Maureen. They toured for seven months after Broadway. Tour dates included venues in Los Angeles, Chicago, Clearwater, Atlanta, Wantagh, Atlantic City and Toronto, Canada. On May, 8th 2017, Brigati debuted a cabaret show at the Cutting Room in New York City, produced by Steven and Maureen Van Zandt.
The show consisted of some Broadway tunes, some Brill Building hits as well as a song written for Brigati by Steven Van Zandt entitled'Reintroduce Myself to Me'. After the month long residency at The Cutting Room, Brigati appeared at Tim McLoones Supper Club on August 4th, he will appear again at McLoones on October 19th. Brigati performed with the Rockit! Live Foundation at their August 26th, 2017 concert at the Count Basie Theater in Red Bank, New Jersey. Brigati and his wife, Susan Lovell, reside in his home state of New Jersey; the Rascals Appreciation Site
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular