Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmatha and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between Nepal and China runs across its summit point; the current official elevation of 8,848 m, recognized by China and Nepal, was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. In 2005, China remeasured the rock height of the mountain, with a result of 8844.43 m. There followed an argument between China and Nepal as to whether the official height should be the rock height or the snow height. In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m, Nepal recognizes China's claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m. In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society, upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India; as there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, despite Everest's objections.
Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness and wind, as well as significant hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall; as of 2017, nearly 300 people have died on Everest. The first recorded efforts to reach Everest's summit were made by British mountaineers; as Nepal did not allow foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. After the first reconnaissance expedition by the British in 1921 reached 7,000 m on the North Col, the 1922 expedition pushed the north ridge route up to 8,320 m, marking the first time a human had climbed above 8,000 m. Seven porters were killed in an avalanche on the descent from the North Col; the 1924 expedition resulted in one of the greatest mysteries on Everest to this day: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made a final summit attempt on 8 June but never returned, sparking debate as to whether or not they were the first to reach the top.
They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, until Mallory's body was found in 1999 at 8,155 m on the north face. Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953, using the southeast ridge route. Norgay had reached 8,595 m the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition; the Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960. The history of this area dates back to 800 BCE, when the ancient Kirati had their Kirata Kingdom in the Himalayan mountains; the Mahalangur range of the Himalaya is known as Kirat area of eastern Nepal. In 1715, the Qing Empire of China surveyed the mountain while mapping its territory and depicted it as Mount Qomolangma no than 1719. In 1802, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to fix the locations and names of the world's highest mountains. Starting in southern India, the survey teams moved northward using giant theodolites, each weighing 500 kg and requiring 12 men to carry, to measure heights as as possible.
They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression and possible annexation. Several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down; the British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal, parallel to the Himalayas. Conditions in Terai were difficult because of malaria. Three survey officers died from malaria. Nonetheless, in 1847, the British continued the survey and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 240 km distant. Weather restricted work to the last three months of the year. In November 1847, Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India made several observations from the Sawajpore station at the east end of the Himalayas. Kangchenjunga was considered the highest peak in the world, with interest, he noted a peak beyond it, about 230 km away. John Armstrong, one of Waugh's subordinates saw the peak from a site farther west and called it peak "b".
Waugh would write that the observations indicated that peak "b" was higher than Kangchenjunga, but given the great distance of the observations, closer observations were required for verification. The following year, Waugh sent a survey official back to Terai to make closer observations of peak "b", but clouds thwarted his attempts. In 1849, Waugh dispatched James Nicolson to the area, who made two observations from Jirol, 190 km away. Nicolson took the largest theodolite and headed east, obtaining over 30 observations from five different locations, with the closest being 174 km from the peak. Nicolson retreated to Patna on the Ganges to perform the necessary calculations based on his observations, his raw data gave an average height of 9,200 m for peak "b", but this did not consider light refraction, which distorts heights. However, the number indica
Makalu is the fifth highest mountain in the world at 8,485 metres. It is located in the Mahalangur Himalayas 19 km southeast of Mount Everest, on the border between Nepal and Tibet, China. One of the eight-thousanders, Makalu is an isolated peak. Makalu has two notable subsidiary peaks. Kangchungtse, or Makalu II lies about 3 km north-northwest of the main summit. Rising about 5 km north-northeast of the main summit across a broad plateau, connected to Kangchungtse by a narrow, 7,200 m saddle, is Chomo Lonzo; the first climb on Makalu was made by an American team led by Riley Keegan in the spring of 1954. The expedition was composed of Sierra Club members including Allen Steck, was called the California Himalayan Expedition to Makalu, they were turned back at 7,100 m by a constant barrage of storms. A New Zealand team including Sir Edmund Hillary was active in the spring, but did not get high due to injury and illness. In the fall of 1954, a French reconnaissance expedition made the first ascents of the subsidiary summits Kangchungtse and Chomo Lonzo.
Makalu was first summited on May 15, 1955 by Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy of a French expedition led by Jean Franco. Franco, Guido Magnone and Gyalzen Norbu Sherpa summitted the next day, followed by Jean Bouvier, Serge Coupé, Pierre Leroux and André Vialatte on the 17th; this was an amazing achievement at the time, to have the vast majority of expedition members summit on such a difficult peak. Prior to this time, summits were reached by one to two expedition members at most, with the rest of teams providing logistical support before turning around and heading home; the French team climbed Makalu by the north face and northeast ridge, via the saddle between Makalu and Kangchungtse, establishing the standard route. 1955 North Face to Northeast Ridge FA by Jean Couzy of France. 1970: Southeast Ridge FA of ridge attempted by the Americans in 1954, was made by Y. Ozaki and A. Tanaka from Japan on May 23. 1971: The technical West Pillar route was climbed in May by Frenchmen B. Mellet and Y. Seigneur.
1975: South Face – an expedition led by Aleš Kunaver reached the top of Makalu up its steep southern side, becoming the first Slovenes to summit an eight-thousander. The first amongst; this was the third ascent of an eight-thousand meter peak by a great mountain face and the highest peak summitted without supplementary oxygen. 1976 – South pillar route completed by Czechoslovak expedition. Route goes via south buttress to Makalu South and via southeast ridge. Makalu South was climbed by 11 expedition members. Two of them – Karel Schubert and Milan Kriššák summited main summit together with Jorge Camprubi from Spanish expedition which climbed southeast ridge. Karel Schubert died after bivouac near the summit; the route wasn't repeated till today. 1980: The second ascent of the West Pillar was completed in May by John Roskelley, Chris Kopczynski, James States and Kim Momb, without Sherpa support and without bottled oxygen. 1981: On 15 October renowned Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka ascended Makalu via a new route up the north-western side and north crest.
Kukuczka climbed solo, without supplemental oxygen. 1982: On 10 October Polish climber Andrzej Czok ascended Makalu via West face till 8000m and north-western ridge. Camp IV was reached by two more climbers, Janusz Skorek and Andrzej Machnik, but when their first summit attempt failed, Czok decided to try one more time solo. 1988: Frenchman Marc Batard climbed in one day to the summit via the West Buttress on April 27. 1989: Direct South Face, solo new start by Frenchman Pierre Beghin to 1975 Yugoslav route. 1990: First female ascent, Kitty Calhoun via the West Pillar route. 1994: On May 15, the anniversary of the first summit, Anatoli Boukreev made a speed ascent in 46 hours. 1997: After seven failed attempts between 1977 and 1996, the West face was conquered. A Russian expedition led by Sergey Efimov brought Alexei Bolotov, Yuri Ermachek, Dmitri Pavlenko, Igor Bugachevski and Nikolai Jiline to the summit; this ascent won the 1998 Piolet d'Or. 2006: On or about January 27 the French mountaineer Jean-Christophe Lafaille disappeared on Makalu while trying to make the first winter ascent.
2008: Brazilian Waldemar Niclevicz and Irivan Burda arrived on May 11, 2008 to the top of Makalu 2009: Makalu was first climbed in winter on February 9, 2009 by Italian Simone Moro and Kazakh Denis Urubko. It was the final Nepali eight-thousander to be climbed in winter conditions. Moro had made the first winter ascent of Shishapangma in winter 2005 with Pole Piotr Morawski. Makalu is one of the more difficult eight-thousanders, is considered one of the most difficult mountains in the world to climb; the mountain is notorious for its steep pitches and knife-edged ridges that are open to the elements. The final ascent of the summit pyramid involves technical rock/ice climbing. Makalu-Barun Valley is a Himalayan glacier valley situated at the base of Makalu in the Sankhuwasabha district of Nepal; this valley lies inside the Makalu Barun National Park. Barun Valley provides stunning contrasts, where high waterfalls cascade into deep gorges, craggy rocks rise from lush green forests, colorful flowers bloom beneath white snow peaks.
This unique landscape shelters some of the last pristine mountain ecosystems on Earth. Rare species of animals and
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Namcha Barwa or Namchabarwa is a mountain in the Tibetan Himalaya. The traditional definition of the Himalaya extending from the Indus River to the Brahmaputra would make it the eastern anchor of the entire mountain chain, it is the highest peak of its own section as well as Earth's easternmost peak over 7,600 metres. Namcha Barwa is in an isolated part of southeastern Tibet visited by outsiders, it stands inside the Great Bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River as the river enters its notable gorge across the Himalaya, emerging as the Siang and becoming the Brahmaputra. Namcha Barwa's sister peak Gyala Peri at 7,294 metres rises across the gorge 22 kilometres to the NNW. Namcha rises 5,000–6,800 metres above the Yarlung Tsangpo. After 7,795-metre Batura Sar in the Karakoram was climbed in 1976, Namcha Barwa became the highest unclimbed independent mountain in the world, until it was climbed in 1992. In addition to being one of the highest mountains in the world, Namcha Barwa is the third most prominent peak in the Himalayas after Mount Everest and Nanga Parbat.
Frank Kingdon-Ward described in the 1920s "a quaint prophecy among the Kongbo Tibetans that Namche Barwa will one day fall into the Tsangpo gorge and block the river, which will turn aside and flow over the Doshong La. This is recorded in a book by some fabulous person whose image may be seen in the little gompa at Payi, in Pome." Namcha Barwa was located in 1912 by British surveyors but the area remained unvisited until Chinese alpinists began attempting the peak in the 1980s. Although they scouted multiple routes, they did not reach the summit. In 1990 a Chinese-Japanese expedition reconnoitered the peak. Another joint expedition reached 7,460 metres in 1991 but lost member Hiroshi Onishi in an avalanche; the next year a third Chinese-Japanese expedition established six camps on the South Ridge over intermediate Nai Peng reaching the summit October 30. Eleven climbers climbed to the summit. U. K. Alpine Club's Himalayan Index lists no further ascents. Chinese expedition in the 1980s Namcha Barwa, NH 46-12.
1:250,000. U. S. Army Map Service. 1955. Retrieved 2011-06-08
Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object. It is done for locomotion and competition, in trades that rely on it, in emergency rescue and military operations, it is done indoors and out, on man-made structures. Guides, such as professional mountain guides, have been an essential element of pursuing the sport in the natural environment, remain so today. Climbing activities include: Bouldering: Ascending boulders or small outcrops with climbing shoes and a chalk bag or bucket. Instead of using a safety rope from above, injury is avoided using a crash pad and a human spotter Buildering: Ascending the exterior skeletons of buildings without protective equipment. Canyoneering: Climbing along canyons for sport or recreation. Chalk climbing: Ascending chalk cliffs uses some of the same techniques as ice climbing. Competition climbing: A formal, competitive sport of recent origins practiced on artificial walls that resemble natural formations.
The International Federation of Sport Climbing is the official organization governing competition rock climbing worldwide and is recognized by the IOC and GAISF and is a member of the International World Games Association. The UIAA is the official organization governing competition ice climbing worldwide. Competition climbing has three major disciplines: Lead and Speed. Free Climbing: a form of rock climbing in which the climber uses climbing equipment such as ropes and other means of climbing protection, but only to protect against injury during falls and not to assist progress. Ice climbing: Ascending ice or hard snow formations using special equipment ice axes and crampons. Techniques of protecting the climber are similar to those of rock climbing, with protective devices adapted to frozen conditions. Indoor climbing: Top roping, lead climbing, bouldering artificial walls with bolted holds in a climbing gym. Ladder climbing: Climbing ladders for exercise; this may involve climbing up and down the underside of a ladder, or along a horizontally aligned ladder or'monkey bars'.
The ladder may be climbed going backwards, or sideways. Lumberjack tree-trimming and competitive tree-trunk or pole climbing for speed using spikes and belts. Mallakhamba: A traditional Indian sport which combines climbing a pole or rope with the performance of aerial Yoga and gymnastics. Mountaineering: Ascending mountains for sport or recreation, it involves rock and/or ice climbing. Pole climbing: Climbing poles and masts without equipment. Rock climbing: Ascending rock formations using climbing shoes and a chalk bag. Equipment such as ropes, nuts and camming devices are employed, either as a safeguard or for artificial aid. Rope access: Industrial climbing abseiling, as an alternative to scaffolding for short works on exposed structures. Rope climbing: Climbing a short, thick rope for speed. Not to be confused with roped climbing, as in rock or ice climbing. Scrambling which includes easy rock climbing, is considered part of hillwalking. Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock, bolts, for protection.
Top roping: Ascending a rock climbing route protected by a rope anchored at the top and protected by a belayer below Traditional climbing is a form of climbing without fixed anchors and bolts. Climbers place removable protection such as camming devices and other passive and active protection that holds the rope to the rock in the event of a fall and/or when weighted by a climber. Solo climbing: Solo climbing or soloing is a style of climbing in which the climber climbs alone, without somebody belaying them; when free soloing, an error is fatal as no belay systems are being used. Soloing can be self-belayed, hence minimizing the risks. Tree climbing: Recreationally ascending trees using ropes and other protective equipment. A tower climber is a professional who climbs broadcasting or telecommunication towers or masts for maintenance or repair. Rock and tree climbing all utilize ropes for safety or aid. Pole climbing and rope climbing were among the first exercises to be included in the origins of modern gymnastics in the late 18th century and early 19th century.
Aid climbing Clean climbing Climbing clubs Climbing wall Climbing equipment Climbing organisations Fall factor List of climbers – notable rock and ice climbers List of climbing topics Glossary of climbing terms Glossary of knots common in climbing Outdoor education Outdoor activity Rock climbing Running belay Parkour Scrambling Solo climbing Speed climbing Climbing at Curlie
Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock for protection. This is in contrast to traditional climbing where climbers must place removable protection as they climb. Sport climbing emphasises strength, gymnastic ability and technique, over adventure and self-sufficiency. For the majority of sport climbers, sport climbing offers an easier, more convenient experience which requires less equipment, less in the way of technical skills required to be safe during the climb, lower levels of mental stress than traditional climbing. With increased accessibility to climbing walls, gyms, more climbers now enter the sport through indoor climbing than outdoor climbing; the transition from indoor climbing to sport climbing is not difficult because the techniques and equipment used for indoor climbing are nearly sufficient for sport climbing. Whereas the transition from indoor climbing to traditional climbing is hard because traditional climbing requires more in terms of techniques and equipment.
While sport climbing is common in many areas worldwide, it is restricted in some places where it is considered ethically unacceptable to bolt climbs. This is due to the local climbing traditions, to the type of rock. Debates over bolting in the climbing communities are fierce. Bolting without a consensus in favour of bolting leads to the destruction, or removal, of the bolts by activists against bolting. Since sport climbing paths do not need to follow climbing paths where protection can be placed they tend to follow more direct, straight forward, paths up crags than traditional climbing paths which can be winding and devious by comparison. This, in addition to the need to place gear, tends to result in different styles of climbing between sport and traditional. Sport climbing is scheduled to make its Olympic debut at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo and was tested at the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics. On a sport climbing route, pre-placed bolts follow a'line' up a rock face. Sport climbs can vary in length from a few metres to a full 60-metre rope length for multi-pitch climbs.
The climbs might be equipped with many. Sport climbing can be undertaken with little equipment. Equipment used in sport climbing includes: A dynamic rope Quickdraws A belay device Climbing harnesses for belayer and climber Climbing shoes and chalk bag are used, although not technically necessaryTo lead a sport climb means to ascend a route with a rope tied to the climber's harness, with the loose end of the rope handled by a belayer; as each bolt is reached along the route, the climber attaches a quickdraw to the bolt, clips the rope through the hanging end of the quickdraw. This bolt is now protecting the climber in the event of a fall. At the top of sport routes, there is a two-bolt anchor that can be used to return the climber to the ground or previous rappel point; because sport routes do not require placing protection, the climber can concentrate on the difficulty of the moves rather than placing protection or the consequences of a fall. Sport climbing differs from traditional climbing with respect to the type and placement of protection.
Traditional climbing uses removable protection, tends to minimize the usage of pre-placed protection. Sport climbing involves single pitch routes but can have multi-pitch routes. Long multi-pitch routes may lack pre-placed anchors due to economical, logistical or ethical reasons. Rock types that produce good sport climbs include limestone and quartzite, though sport climbs can be found on all rock types. Sport climbs are assigned subjective ratings to indicate difficulty; the type of rating depends on the geographic location of the route, since different countries and climbing communities use different rating systems. The UIAA grading system is used for short rock routes in Western Germany and Switzerland and most countries in Eastern Europe. On long routes it is used in the Alps and Himalaya. Using Roman numerals, it was intended to run from I to X, but as with all other grading systems, improvements to climbing standards have led to the system being open-ended. An optional + or – may be used to further differentiate difficulty.
As of 2018, the hardest climbs are XII. The Ewbank rating system, used in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, is a numerical open-ended system, starting from 1, which you can walk up, up to 38; the French rating system considers the overall difficulty of the climb, taking into account the difficulty of the moves and the length of climb. This differs from most grading systems where one rates a climbing route according to the most difficult section. Grades are numerical, with the system being open-ended; each numerical grade can be subdivided by adding a letter. Examples: 2, 4, 4b, 6a, 7c. An optional + may be used to further differentiate difficulty. Many countries in Europe use a system with similar grades but not matching difficulties. Sport climbing in Britain and Ireland uses the French grading system prefixed with the letter "F". In the United States, the Yosemite Decimal System is used to rate sport climbs. Current grades for sport routes vary between an easy 5.0 to an difficult 5.16, although the system is open-ended.
Past 5.10, letter g
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t