Lawrence Keith "Kip" Fulbeck is an American artist, spoken word performer and author. Fulbeck's work explores identity politics, his mixed race ethnic background is Cantonese, English and Welsh. He is best known for his work addressing Hapa and multiracial identity, as the creator of The Hapa Project. Fulbeck attended UCLA, Dartmouth College, the University of California, San Diego, where he was a four-year NCAA All-American Swimmer and 1988 Athlete of the Year, he earned his MFA from UCSD in 1992. Fulbeck's artwork includes video, spoken word and slam poetry, he has exhibited and performed in over 20 countries, has been featured on CNN, MTV, PBS, The Today Show. He has directed twelve films, published four books, keynoted scores of conferences and festivals nationwide, he is a prominent speaker on the college circuit. Much of Fulbeck's work is autobiographical, combining personal stories with political activism, pop culture and stand-up comedy. Fulbeck's group and solo exhibition record is expansive.
Group exhibitions include the Whitney Museum of American Art, Getty Museum, Science Museum of Minnesota, Singapore International Film Festival, Bonn Videonale, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, World Wide Video Festival, Sydney International Film Festival. Solo exhibitions include the Japanese American National Museum, Space180 Gallery, Ghettogloss Gallery, A/P/A Institute, Invisible NYC Gallery, the University of North Carolina, the Field Museum, the Oregon Nikkei Legacy Center, the Asia Society Houston. Fulbeck studied Visual Arts at the University of California, San Diego with David Antin, Eleanor Antin, Allan Kaprow, Lisa Lowe, Martha Rosler, Phel Steinmetz. Fulbeck's first book, a fictional autobiography entitled Paper Bullets was published in 2001 by the University of Washington Press, his second, a photographic book entitled Part Asian, 100% Hapa was published in 2006 by Chronicle Books. It features a foreword by an afterword by Paul Spickard. Many of the photographs from this book were featured in a solo show of the same name at the Japanese American National Museum in 2006.
The show is touring nationally. Permanence: Tattoo Portraits was published in 2008, features photographic portraits and handwritten personal statements by tattooed individuals from all walks of life including celebrities Margaret Cho, Kat Von D, Scott Ian, Joan Jett, Tera Patrick, Scott Weiland, Paul Stanley and Jeffrey Sebelia. Fulbeck's fourth book entitled Mixed: Portraits of Multiracial Kids, was published by Chronicle Books in March 2010, features a foreword by Dr. Maya Soetoro-Ng and an afterword by Cher. An accompanying solo exhibition exhibited at the Japanese American National Museum. Fulbeck is represented by the Faye Bender Literary Agency. Fulbeck teaches as a Professor of Art at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he initiated and taught the first Spoken Word course offered as part of a collegiate art program's core curriculum, he received the UCSB Academic Senate's Distinguished Teaching Award in 2009, has been named an Outstanding Faculty Member four times by the Office of Residential Life.
He is an affiliate faculty in Asian American Studies and Film & Media Studies at UCSB, has taught as a visiting professor of Asian American Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. Fulbeck is extensively tattooed, wears the work of Horitaka and Horiyoshi III, he is a multiple national champion and world-ranked masters swimmer, ocean lifeguard, junior lifeguard instructor. In 2010, he was named Athlete of the Year by the Santa Barbara Athletic Round Table, he received his black belt in shotokan karate from Steve Ubl. An avid guitar player, he produces videos for the Seymour Duncan company. Kip Fulbeck Artist Site TODAY Show feature on Kip Fulbeck on YouTube MTV feature on Kip Fulbeck on YouTube Pacific Fusion segment on Kip Fulbeck on YouTube CNN segment on Kip Fulbeck CNN's Betty Nguyen interviews Kip Fulbeck about Hapa identity Kip Fulbeck slamming at the Boston Convention Center on YouTube Kip Fulbeck in the Video Data Bank "Kip Fulbeck: Part Asian, 100% Hapa" at the Japanese American National Museum kip fulbeck: part asian, 100% hapa – An Artist's Thoughts Seymour Duncan feature produced by Kip Fulbeck on YouTube Kip Fulbeck on IMDb mixedkids.com Project Site
New Worlds, New Lives
New Worlds, New Lives: Globalization and People of Japanese Descent in the Americas and from Latin America in Japan is a 2002 academic book edited by Lane Ryo Hirabayashi, James A. Hirabayashi, Akemi Kikumura-Yano and published by the Stanford University Press; the volume, edited by three Japanese American anthropologists, was produced by the Japanese American National Museum's International Nikkei Research Project. The same project produced the Encyclopedia of Japanese Descendants in the Americas: An Illustrated History of the Nikkei, the two books are companion volumes; the book addresses larger theoretical considerations of individual empirical cases as well as the cases themselves. The book was published in Japanese by Jinbun-shoin in 2006, under the title Nikkeijin to gurōbarizēshon: Hokubei, Nihon. New Worlds, New Lives discusses the effects of globalization on a Nikkei identity, concerning those from the main islands of Japan and those from Okinawa; this discussion of the Nikkei includes those from the Bolivia, Canada, Paraguay and United States, the dekasegi, Nikkei who reside in Japan.
The editors state that to understand how globalization has affected the Nikkei community one must put together Japan, the originating country, the overall Nikkei community in a "triadic perspective". Yoko Yoshida of the Journal of International Migration and Integration wrote that "The greatest insight one can glean from this book is that only looking at ethnic groups in relation to their host societies does not capture the entire dynamics of the migration experience and the negotiation of cultural identity." Ayumi Takenaka of the University of Oxford argued that the book's chapters "neither address their relationship nor the impact of globalization."The book considers five results that may occur due to globalization. It may increase the Nikkei identity. Yoshida wrote that the editors of the book "fail to answer which outcome has emerged because globalization is never conceptualized throughout this book."Of the chapters, half only cite their own case studies and do not cite anything else. Jose C.
Moya of the University of California, Los Angeles argued that, in those chapters, this results in "a certain parochialism in their inability to engage the broader literature on migration and ethnicity." Keiko Yamanaka of the University of California, Berkeley wrote that before this book was published, there was scarce information about the Japanese in South America in English, a lot of the information had been published in Spanish and Japanese, inaccessible to Anglophones. The volume, divided into 20 chapters, includes 18 articles. Of the eighteen authors, seventeen are either Japanese or Nikkei; the book's arguments are presented in the third sections. The question of conjunction and disjunction of Nikkei identities is presented in sections two and three. Yoshida argued that this was "an interesting way to frame these sections". Yamanaka wrote that most chapters are short in length. Yoshikuni Igarashi of Vanderbilt University stated that the average chapter length was 16 pages, because of the short length the essays "read more like encyclopedia entries than critical essays."
Takenaka argued that concluded that "most of the chapters seem to address some aspects of conjunction and disjunction of identities in one way or another" and that the chapters should have been organized by topic or geographic region. Igarashi wrote. There are four chapters. One chapter chronicle Japanese Peruvian history, covering from the year 1899 to the rule of Alberto Fujimori. Another chapter refers to one opinion poll of Peruvian Japanese conducted in 1989 and another conducted in 1998 and compares and contrasts the two. There is an essay that discusses the Japanese political empowerment movements in three places: Brazil and Gardena, California in Greater Los Angeles. There is a section where the book discusses the formation of cosmopolitan and transnational identities. Robert Efird of Seattle University stated that the essays by Yuko Takezawa and Makoto Araki examine the boundary of what a "Nikkei" is; the first section is Part One: The Impact of Globalization on Nikkei Identities. It includes two chapters.
Prior to those two chapters is the introduction to part one by Eiichiro Azuma. Harumi Befu wrote "Globalization as Human Dispersal: Nikkei in the World", the introductory chapter, which puts Japanese immigration in a historical context; this chapter is an overview of Japanese immigration from the 15th through the 21st centuries. This chapter argues that the Japanese government encouraged immigration after 1870 in order to relieve pressures of a growing population and Befu believed that the Japanese government had acted in a callous manner towards these immigrants. Befu believes that the emigration policies of Japan had significant influence from the country's desire to gain a prominent position in the international system. Befu categorizes into three phases the transition of Japanese immigration processes: pre-modern and post-World War II. Befu categorizes Japanese immigrants into eight groups: premodern immigrants
Issei is a Japanese-language term used by ethnic Japanese in countries in North America and South America to specify the Japanese people who were the first generation to immigrate there. Issei are born in Japan; the character and uniqueness of the Issei is recognized in its social history. The earliest organized group of Japanese emigrants settled in Mexico in 1897. In the 21st century, the four largest populations of diaspora Japanese and descendants of Japanese immigrants in the Western Hemisphere live in Brazil, the United States and Peru. Brazil is home to the largest ethnic Japanese population outside Japan, numbering an estimated more than 1.5 million. More than that of the 1.2 million in the United States. The Issei Japanese Brazilians are an important part of that ethnic minority in that South American nation; the first members of the Issei did not emigrate directly to the mainland United States, but to Hawaii. These emigrants—the first of whom arrived on board the steamship City of Tokio in February 1885—were common laborers escaping hard times in Japan to work in Hawai'i.
Their immigration was subsidized by the Hawaiian government, as cheap labor was needed for important commodity crops its sugar plantations. Numerous Japanese settled in Hawaii. Emigration of Japanese directly to the United States began in 1885, when "student-laborers" landed on the West Coast of the United States; the earliest of these emigrated to San Francisco. Their numbers continually increased in the late early 1890s, their purpose in moving to America was to gain advanced knowledge and experience in order to develop the modern society at home. Both students and laborers were attracted by the image of the United States as a country that welcomed foreigners; when they first arrived in the U. S. they had not intended to live there permanently, but rather to learn from Americans and to take that knowledge back home. While they encountered discrimination, they made opportunities, many settled in California, in Washington and Oregon as well. Within Japanese-Canadian communities across Canada, three distinct subgroups developed, each with different socio-cultural referents, generational identity, wartime experiences.
The narrative of Issei Japanese-Canadians include post-Pearl Harbor experiences of uprooting and dispersal of the pre-war Japanese-Canadian communities. Among the 80,000 Peruvians of Japanese descent, the Issei Japanese Peruvians comprise a small number. Former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori was the Nisei son of Issei immigrants from Kumamoto, Japan. Fujimori's political opponents tried unsuccessfully to prove. Persons must be native-born Peruvian citizens to qualify for the presidency. Japanese-Americans and Japanese-Canadians have special names for each of their generations in North America; these are formed by combining one of the Japanese numbers corresponding to the generation with the Japanese word for generation. The Japanese-American and Japanese-Canadian communities have themselves distinguished their members with terms like Issei and Sansei which describe the first and third generation of immigrants; the fourth generation is called Yonsei and the fifth is called Gosei. The Issei and Sansei generations reflect distinctly different attitudes to authority, involvement with non-Japanese, religious belief and practice, other matters.
The age when individuals faced the wartime evacuation and internment during World War II has been found to be the most significant factor that explains such variations in attitudes and behaviour patterns. The term Nikkei was coined by a multinational group of sociologists, it encompasses all of the world's Japanese immigrants across generations. The collective memory of the Issei and older Nisei was an image of Meiji Japan from 1870 through 1911. Newer immigrants carry much different memories of more recent Japan; these differing attitudes, social values and associations with Japan were incompatible with each other. The significant differences in post-war experiences and opportunities did nothing to mitigate the gaps which separated generational perspectives. In North America, since the redress victory in 1988, a significant evolutionary change has occurred; the Nisei, their parents and their children are changing the way they look at themselves and their pattern of accommodation to the non-Japanese majority.
There are just over one hundred thousand British Japanese in London. Unlike other Nikkei communities in the world, these Britons do not identify themselves in such generational terms as Issei, Nisei, or Sansei; the first generation of immigrants, born in Japan before moving to Canada or the United States, is called Issei. In the 1930s, the term Issei came into common use, replacing the term "immigrant"; this new term illustrated a changed way of looking at themselves. The term Issei represented the idea of beginning, a psychological transformation relating to being settled, having a distinctive community, the idea of belonging to the new country. Issei settled in close ethnic communities, therefore did not learn English, they endured great economic and social losses during the early years of World War II, they were not able to rebuild their lost businesses and savings. The external circumstances tended to reinforce the pattern of Issei being predominantly friends with other Issei. Unlike their children, they tend to rely on Japanese-language media (newsp
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is an agency that operates public transportation in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It was formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission, it is chartered under state law as a regional transportation planning agency. Metro directly operates light rail, heavy rail and bus rapid transit services, it directs planning for rail and freeway projects within Los Angeles County. It funds 27 local transit agencies as well as access paratransit services; the agency develops and oversees transportation plans, funding programs, both short-term and long-range solutions to mobility and environmental needs in the county. The agency is the primary transit provider for the City of Los Angeles, providing the bulk of such services, while the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation operates a much smaller system of its own: Commuter Express bus service to outlying suburbs in the city of Los Angeles and the popular DASH mini-bus service in downtown and other neighborhoods.
Metro's headquarters are in a high-rise building adjacent to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates the third-largest public transportation system in the United States by ridership with a 1,433 mi² operating area and 2,000 peak hour buses on the street any given business day. Metro operates 105 miles of urban rail service; the authority has 9,892 employees, making it one of the region's largest employers. The authority partially funds sixteen municipal bus operators and an array of transportation projects including bikeways and pedestrian facilities, local roads and highway improvements, goods movement, Metrolink regional commuter rail, Freeway Service Patrol and freeway call boxes within the greater metropolitan Los Angeles region. Security and law enforcement services on Metro property are provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Transit Services Bureau via contract, in conjunction with Metro Transit Enforcement Department, Los Angeles Police Department and Long Beach Police Department.
In 2006, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was named Outstanding Transportation System for 2006 by the American Public Transportation Association. Most buses and trains have "America's Best" decals affixed. Metro Rail is a rail mass transit system with four light rail lines; as of November 2016, the system runs a total of 105 miles, with 93 stations and over 316,000 daily weekday boardings. Starting in 2019, lines will be renamed with lettered designations, citing a lack of distinct colors available for future services; the Blue Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Long Beach. The Red Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los North Hollywood; the Green Line is a light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk in the median of the 105 Freeway. It provides indirect access to Los Angeles International Airport via a shuttle bus; the Purple Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and the Mid-Wilshire district of Los Angeles.
Most of its route is shared with the Red Line. The Gold Line is a light rail line running between East Los Angeles and Azusa via Downtown Los Angeles; the Expo Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Santa Monica. Metro Busway is an express bus system with characteristics of bus rapid transit with two lines operating on dedicated or shared-use busways; the system runs a total of 60 miles, with 28 stations and over 42,000 daily weekday boardings as of May 2016. The Metro Busway system is meant to mimic the Metro Rail system, both in the vehicle's design and in the operation of the line. Vehicles stop at dedicated stations, vehicles receive priority at intersections and are painted in a silver livery similar to Metro Rail vehicles; the Metro Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line running between North Chatsworth. The Metro Silver Line is a limited-stop bus line running between El Monte, Downtown Los Angeles, Harbor Gateway, with some buses serving San Pedro. Metro is the primary bus operator in the Los Angeles Basin, the San Fernando Valley, the western San Gabriel Valley.
Other transit providers operate more frequent service in the rest of the county. Regions in Los Angeles County that Metro Bus does not serve at all include rural regions, the Pomona Valley, the Santa Clarita Valley, the Antelope Valley. Metro operates two types of bus services. However, when mechanical problems or availability equipment occurs, a bus of any color may be substituted to continue service on the route. Metro Local buses are painted in an off-orange color which the agency has dubbed “California Poppy”; this type of service makes frequent stops along major thoroughfares. There are 18,500 stops on 189 bus lines; some Metro Local routes make limited stops along part of their trip but do not participate in the Rapid program. Some Metro Local bus lines are operated by contractors MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their bright red color which the agency has dubbed “Rapid Red”; this bus rapid transit service offers limited stops on many of the county's more heavi
Michael Kenji Shinoda is an American musician, songwriter, record producer, graphic designer. He co-founded Linkin Park in 1996 and is the band's rhythm guitarist, primary songwriter, producer, co-lead vocalist. Shinoda created a hip-hop-driven side project, Fort Minor, in 2004, he has served as a producer for tracks and albums by Lupe Fiasco, Styles of Beyond and the X-Ecutioners. Born in Panorama City and raised in Agoura Hills, Shinoda formed Xero, which became Linkin Park, with two of his high school friends: Brad Delson and Rob Bourdon in 1996 joined by Joe Hahn, Dave Farrell and Mark Wakefield. Chester Bennington replaced Wakefield as the lead vocalist; the band signed a record deal with Warner Bros Records. Shinoda is the co-founder of Machine Shop Records, a California-based record label. Outside of music, Shinoda is graphic designer, he has painted several pieces of artwork, some of which have been featured in the Japanese American National Museum. On January 25, 2018, Shinoda released the Post Traumatic EP, which contained three songs about his own feelings at the aftermath of Chester Bennington's death on July 20, 2017.
In March 2018, Shinoda announced through social media that he was working on a new solo album under the same name. Shinoda was born on February 11, 1977, in Panorama City and raised in Agoura Hills, California, his father is Japanese-American. He has a younger brother named Jason, he was raised as a liberal Protestant. Shinoda's mother encouraged him to take classical piano lessons. By 13, he expressed the desire to move toward playing jazz and hip-hop, he added the guitar and rap-style vocals to his repertoire during his middle school and high school years. Shinoda attended Agoura High School with Linkin Park bandmates Rob Bourdon; the three formed the band Xero, began to make a more serious attempt to pursue a career in the music industry. After graduating high school, Shinoda enrolled in the Art Center College of Design of Pasadena to study graphic design and illustration, he attended classes with turntablist Joseph Hahn. While studying at the Art Center College of Design, he experienced a form of identity crisis.
Years he told an interviewer: I think it was in college that I realized that there was a difference between Japanese and Japanese-American. That's important to realize. It's not the same thing and eventually with Linkin Park, I toured in Japan. I've been there now I think four times. I remember the first time I went, how familiar it seemed, just getting out of the plane, it smelled like my aunt's house, in the airport, it smelled like Japan. I don't know if anybody else noticed it but I walked out of the plane and thought this is familiar to me, didn't see anything yet, and going to Tokyo, Kyoto, you just recognize things about the way people act, the small things that people do such as how you'll grab a piece of paper. There are things. You don't do that in the States; when I saw somebody do that I went, "Oh yeah, my uncle always does that," you know. There are little things that culturally come from Japan but they exist in Japanese American culture and it made me feel like the connection was there and I kind of hadn't realized how much of it was there.
Shinoda graduated in 1998 with a Bachelor of Arts in Illustration and obtained a job as a graphic designer. Shinoda founded Linkin Park with Rob Bourdon and Brad Delson in 1996, they brought in turntablist Joe Hahn, bassist Dave Farrell, vocalist Mark Wakefield. The earliest incarnation of the band was called Xero; the band was limited in resources and produced and recorded music in Shinoda's bedroom in 1996, resulting in a four-track demo tape, entitled Xero. When the band was unable to find a record deal and Farrell left the band to pursue other musical interests, though Farrell's departure turned out to be temporary; the band recruited Chester Bennington and landed a record deal with Warner Bros Records. Linkin Park's first studio album, Hybrid Theory went on to become a breakthrough success and helped the band attain international success. Shinoda is involved in the technical aspects of the band's recordings, over the subsequent releases that role continued to expand. Shinoda, with guitarist Brad Delson and produced the band's Hybrid Theory EP, performed similar roles in the recording of Hybrid Theory.
He has contributed to the lyrical composition on most of Linkin Park's songs. Though Bennington served as Linkin Park's lead vocalist, he shared the role with Shinoda. Bennington had a higher pitched and emotional style of singing, whereas Shinoda has a baritone hip-hop style delivery. Shinoda organized and oversaw the band's first remix album Reanimation in 2002, contributing his own production of remixes that he made in his home studio for "Crawling" and "Pushing Me Away". Shinoda collaborated with graffiti artist DELTA, graphic designer Frank Maddocks, bandmate Joe Hahn to prepare Reanimation's artwork. Mike collaborated with the Flem, James R. Minchin III, Nick Spanos, Joe Hahn for the artwork of the band's second studio album Meteora. Shinoda produced the album, with his bandmates and Don Gilmore, his first production experience. By the release of the Jay-Z and Linkin Park collaborative mashup EP, entitled Collision Course in 2004, Shinoda's involvement in the creation of the albums continued to grow.
He produced and mixed the album, which won a Grammy Award for "
The Lordsburg killings refers to the shooting of two elderly men named Toshiro Kobata and Hirota Isomura at an internment camp outside Lordsburg, New Mexico, on July 27, 1942. The shooter, Private First Class Clarence Burleson, was charged with murder, but he was acquitted after testifying that he was following military protocol. Camp Lordsburg was an enemy alien camp managed by the Department of Justice. Construction began shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the site chosen for the facility was just outside the small desert town of Lordsburg, in New Mexico's southwestern corner; the camp consisted of three compounds, each with a barracks, so forth. The first group of internees, all men from California, arrived in the first week of June 1942, others followed after them, they were considered to be "potentially dangerous" by the FBI which said that their "incarceration essential for national security."The incident on July 27 was not the first shooting to occur at Camp Lordsburg.
Although the Department of Justice managed the camp, the United States Army was responsible for delivering the internees via the Southern Pacific Railroad. In order to keep from frightening the local civilian population, the army would offload the internees at a railroad station, known as Ulmoris Siding, about two miles from the camp, march the internees through the desert late at night or early in the morning. A 1978 dispatch from New Mexico's Office of the State Historian describes one of these night marches: "One elderly internee broke into a run across the fields, although his friends were cautioning him in Japanese and the guards were calling "Halt!," he kept running in apparent panic until he was shot and killed." On the night of July 27, 1942, a group of 147 Japanese men were being transported to Camp Lordsburg from another camp at Fort Lincoln, North Dakota. After getting off the train at Ulmoris Siding, Toshiro Kobata and Hirota Isomura were walking down the road together and behind all the others.
Both could not keep up with the pace. Kobata had suffered from tuberculosis for 16 years according to Hiroshi Aisawa. Fukujiro Hoshiya, a good friend of Isomura, reported that "he hurt his spine... years ago, falling off a boat... At the Bismarck Camp, he walked with a much stoop." It was said that Hoshiya's "whole body would tremble" when he stood, that he could not run. The shooting occurred sometime during the two-mile trek through the Chihuahuan Desert. Clarence Burleson saw. According to the official report, Burleson shouted "Halt!" Twice before shooting both of the men with a shotgun at about 30 yards away. The coroner found nine pellets each in the middle left portion of their backs, since the shot pattern was not wide, it was an indication that the shooting occurred at close range, it was revealed that the two men had asked the guards to use a restroom, but the guards denied them permission to do so. This suggested. A portion of the official government response follows: After Hirota Isomura and Toshiro Kobata entered the reservation but before they were within the camp enclosure, they made a break and started running toward the boundary of the reservation.
The guard shouted to them twice to halt and when his order was not obeyed he fired in accordance with his standing instructions. Hirota Isomura died and Toshiro Kobata a few hours later. An inquiry into the circumstances was conducted at once; the court-martial of the guard was vigorously prosecuted and all the facts were developed. An acquittal of the guard resulted. At first, Burleson was treated as a hero for stopping an "escape attempt." An officer at the facility collected the shotgun shells used in the killing as souvenirs and said that Burleson "deserved a medal." Army headquarters, on the other hand, did not take the incident so and launched an investigation of the affair. As a result, Burleson was arrested, charged with "willfully and lawfully" committing murder, sent to the Eighth Army's headquarters at Fort Bliss, for a court martial; the court could not prosecute Burleson for "willfully and lawfully" committing murder, according to him, the prisoners were trying to run away and he was following standing orders.
The murder charges were reduced to manslaughter and he was acquitted. The result of the court martial was not accepted by everyone. A memo from the Department of State says: "Examination of the Army's reports on the shootings gives the impression that the Army's shooting rule comes close to making death, rather than up to 30 days arrest as provided in Article 54 of the Geneva Convention, the penalty for attempted escape." The Government of Japan under Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō protested the killing, after hearing about it from internees, expatriated, lodged a formal complaint. The Japanese said that "it is inconceivable that aged invalids hardly able to walk should while under military escort have attempted to escape."A Japanese internee, Sematsu Ishizaki, claimed that the camp's commandant, Colonel Clyde Lundy, ordered the deaths of Kobata and Isomura. The two men had been involved in a protest against the working conditions at the camp and Lundy wanted to make an example out of them for challenging his authority.
Ishizaki said: "I don't think they were trying to run away because they were striking here and had the internees shut up in the barracks for more than ten days, it was done just for an example." It was noted that on the day after the shooting, Lu