Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France and the United Kingdom, as well as their dependent states, such as British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth: Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. After the start of the German invasion of North Europe until the Balkan Campaign, the Netherlands, Belgium and Yugoslavia joined the Allies. After first having cooperated with Germany in invading Poland whilst remaining neutral in the Allied-Axis conflict, the Soviet Union perforce joined the Allies in June 1941 after being invaded by Germany; the United States provided war materiel and money all along, joined in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
China had been in a prolonged war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, but joined the Allies in 1941. The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations, from 1 January 1942. However, the name United Nations was used to describe the Allies during the war; the leaders of the "Big Three"—the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States—controlled Allied strategy. The Big Three together with China were referred as a "trusteeship of the powerful" were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations and as the "Four Policemen" of the United Nations. After the war ended, the Allied nations became the basis of the modern United Nations. Members The origins of the Allied powers stem from the Allies of World War I and cooperation of the victorious powers at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles; the new Weimar Republic's legitimacy became shaken. However, the 1920s were peaceful. With the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression, political unrest in Europe soared including the rise in support of revanchist nationalists in Germany who blamed the severity of the economic crisis on the Treaty of Versailles.
By the early 1930s, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler became the dominant revanchist movement in Germany and Hitler and the Nazis gained power in 1933. The Nazi regime demanded the immediate cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria, German-populated territories of Czechoslovakia; the likelihood of war was high, the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement. In Asia, when Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, the League of Nations condemned it for aggression against China. Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations in March 1933. After four quiet years, the Sino-Japanese War erupted in 1937 with Japanese forces invading China; the League of Nations initiated sanctions on Japan. The United States, in particular, was sought to support China. In March 1939, Germany took over Czechoslovakia, violating the Munich Agreement signed six months before, demonstrating that the appeasement policy was a failure. Britain and France decided that Hitler had no intention to uphold diplomatic agreements and responded by preparing for war.
On 31 March 1939, Britain formed the Anglo-Polish military alliance in an effort to avert a German attack on the country. The French had a long-standing alliance with Poland since 1921; the Soviet Union sought an alliance with the western powers, but Hitler ended the risk of a war with Stalin by signing the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact in August 1939. The agreement secretly divided the independent nations of Eastern Europe between the two powers and assured adequate oil supplies for the German war machine. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. On 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. A Polish government-in-exile was set up and it continued to be one of the Allies, a model followed by other occupied countries. After a quiet winter, Germany in April 1940 invaded and defeated Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands and France. Britain and its Empire stood alone against Mussolini. In June 1941, Hitler broke the non-aggression agreement with Stalin and Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
In December, Japan attacked the Britain. The main lines of World War II had formed. During December 1941, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt devised the name "United Nations" for the Allies and proposed it to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, he referred to the Big Three and China as a "trusteeship of the powerful", later the "Four Policemen". The Declaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942 was the basis of the modern United Nations. At the Potsdam Conference of July–August 1945, Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman, proposed that the foreign ministers of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States "should draft the peace treaties and boundary settlements of Europe", which led to the creation of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the "Big Five", soon thereafter the establishment of those states as the permanent members of the UNSC. Great Britain and other members of the British Commonwealth, most known as the Dominions, declared war on Germany separately from 3 September 1939 with the UK first, all within one week of each other.
British West Africa and the British colonies in E
2nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)
The 2nd Division was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. Its tsūshōgō was Courageous Division; the 2nd Division was formed in Sendai, Miyagi, in January 1871 as the Sendai Garrison, one of six regional commands created in the fledgling Imperial Japanese Army. The Sendai Garrison had responsibility for northern Honshū, ranging from Fukushima Prefecture in the south to Aomori Prefecture in the north; the six regional commands were transformed into divisions under the army reorganization of 14 May 1888. The headquarters of the 2nd Division was located in the Ni-no-maru of Sendai Castle, where the campus of Tohoku University is now located, its original composition included the 4th Infantry Regiment, 5th Infantry Regiment, 16th Infantry Regiment and the 17th Infantry Regiment. In the reorganization prior to World War II, the 29th Infantry Regiment was added; the 2nd Division saw combat during the First Sino-Japanese War at the Battle of Weihaiwei. Following the end of the First Sino-Japanese War, elements of the 2nd Division were used to form the core of the new IJA 7th Division based in Hokkaido and the IJA 8th Division based in Hirosaki, Aomori.
The 2nd Division was active in most of the major battles of the Russo-Japanese War as part of General Kuroki Tamemoto's First Army, including the Battle of Liaoyang, Battle of Shaho and Battle of Mukden, gained a reputation for excellence in night operations. Some of its more noteworthy commanders included Sakuma Samata, Nogi Maresuke, Nishi Kanjiro, HIH Prince Higashikuni Naruhiko, Umezu Yoshijiro. From 1930 to 1933, the 2nd Division was under the command of Lieutenant-General Jiro Tamon. In 1931, it was transferred to the Kwantung Army in Manchuria, it took the lead in the initial operations of the invasion of Manchuria in the Jiangqiao Campaign, Chinchow Operation, in overcoming the defense of Harbin, following the Mukden Incident. After the Second Sino-Japanese War started in July 1937, 15th Mixed Brigade from the 2nd Division saw combat in the invasion of Chahar, in August 1937, in the Battle of Xuzhou where 3rd Infantry Brigade was temporarily assigned to the North China Area Army. In 1939, the 2nd Division was under 3rd Army, facing the southern half of the border of the Maritime province of the Soviet Union from Korea northward.
The Katayama Detachment from 2nd Division, fought small actions near Akiyama heights, or Heights 997 on 6–10 September 1939, in the closing stages of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol 2nd Division as part of the Japanese Sixth Army. Because the projected counterattack, canceled when a ceasefire was signed 16 September 1939, the fighting ceased; the 2nd Division, led by Masao Maruyama, was reassigned to the southern front under Field Marshal Terauchi Hisaichi's Southern Area Army, was one of the divisions which occupied the Dutch East Indies. In particular, it landed in Port of Merak on western Java 1 March 1942, proceeding to Bandung 9 March 1942. After surrender of Dutch forces, the 2nd division was transferred to Rabaul 13 September 1942; the Aoba Detachment split from division was considered for New Guinea Campaign in late August 1942, but soon rejoined division as situation at Guadalcanal deteriorated. On 1–5 October 1942, the division landed on the west coast of Matanikau River on Guadalcanal, resulting in the Actions along the Matanikau.
The 2nd division lost at least 700 troops that time. The Battle for Henderson Field which started 24 October 1942, resulted in crippling losses for the division as all Japanese attacks were repulsed; the division total loss of the disastrous Battle of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands was over 7,000 men. Afterwards, the 2nd division was assigned to garrison duties in occupied Singapore. In 1944, it was ordered to Burma to resist the British reoccupation. After performing coastal duties in Arakan the division was reassigned directly to Burma Area Army in May. Used as a strategic reserve it was annihilated in the subsequent conflict, its remnants were assigned to the Japanese 38th Army in French Indochina, disbanded at the end of World War II in Saigon. April 1931: Kwantung Army, Manchuria. Operated in the Invasion of Manchuria and the Pacification of Manchukuo. 10 February 1937: Kwantung Army, Manchukuo. Detached 15th Mixed Brigade served in Operation Chahar. 21 July 1938: 3rd Army, Kwantung Army, Manchukuo.
Detached 15th Mixed Brigade served in Nomonhan/Khalkhin Gol Campaign. 27 September 1940: Eastern Army, Japan. 6 November 1941: 16th Army,Japan. For the operation against Java. August 1942: 17th Army, Solomon Islands. Guadalcanal campaign January 1944: 18th Army, South Burma. February 1945: 38th Army, Indochina. List of Japanese Infantry Divisions Madej, W. Victor, Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937-1945, Allentown, PA: 1981. Coox, Alvin D. Nomonhan, Japan Against Russia, 1939. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA: 1985. ISBN 0-8047-1835-0 The much travelled Japanese 2nd Division Organization, 1941 Infantry Division 8 December 1941 The 2nd Division, Sendai Reenacted
The Kuomintang of China is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei, founded in 1911, is an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan. The predecessor of the Kuomintang, the Revolutionary Alliance, was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the subsequent declaration of independence in 1911 that resulted in the establishment of the Republic of China; the KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Sun was the provisional President, but he ceded the presidency to Yuan Shikai. Led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of mainland China in 1928, ending the chaos of the Warlord Era, it was the ruling party in mainland China until 1949, when it lost the Chinese Civil War to the rival Communist Party of China. The KMT fled to Taiwan; this government retained China's UN seat until 1971. Taiwan ceased to be a single-party state in 1986, political reforms beginning in the 1990s loosened the KMT's grip on power.
The KMT remains one of Taiwan's main political parties, with Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, being the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. However, in the 2016 general and presidential election the Democratic Progressive Party gained control of both the Legislative Yuan and the presidency, Tsai Ing-wen being elected President; the party's guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union. Together with the People First Party and New Party, the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese Pan-Blue Coalition, which supports eventual unification with the mainland. However, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan, as political realities make the reunification of China unlikely; the KMT holds to a "One China Principle": it considers that there is only one China, but that the Republic of China rather than the People's Republic of China is its legitimate government under the 1992 Consensus.
In order to ease tensions with the PRC, the KMT has since 2008 endorsed the "Three Noes" policy as defined by Ma Ying-jeou: no unification, no independence and no use of force. The KMT traces its ideological and organizational roots to the work of Sun Yat-sen, a proponent of Chinese nationalism and democracy, who founded Revive China Society at the capital of the Republic of Hawaii, Honolulu, on 24 November 1894. In 1905, Sun joined forces with other anti-monarchist societies in Tokyo, Empire of Japan to form the Tongmenghui on 20 August 1905, a group committed to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of a republic style government; the group planned and supported the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the founding of the Republic of China on 1 January 1912. However, Sun did not have military power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to Yuan Shikai, who arranged for the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor, on 12 February. On 25 August 1912, the Nationalist Party was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Peking, where Tongmenghui and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections.
Sun was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing as his deputy. The most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaoren, who mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the Nationalists to advocate a constitutional parliamentary democracy; the party sought to check the power of Yuan. The Nationalists won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly election in December 1912. However, Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions. Song Jiaoren was assassinated in Shanghai in 1913. Members of the Nationalists led by Sun Yat-sen suspected that Yuan was behind the plot and thus staged the Second Revolution in July 1913, a poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, failed. Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the KMT from the parliament. Yuan dissolved the Nationalists in November and dismissed the parliament early in 1914. Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in December 1915.
While exiled in Japan in 1914, Sun established the Chinese Revolutionary Party on 8 July 1914, but many of his old revolutionary comrades, including Huang Xing, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming, refused to join him or support his efforts in inciting armed uprising against Yuan. In order to join the Revolutionary Party, members had to take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which many old revolutionaries regarded as undemocratic and contrary to the spirit of the revolution; as a result, he became sidelined within the Republican movement during this period. Sun returned to China in 1917 to establish a military junta at Canton, in order to oppose the Beiyang government, but was soon forced out of office and exiled to Shanghai. There, with renewed support, he resurrected the KMT on 10 October 1919, under the name Kuomintang of China and established its headquarters in Canton in 1920. In 1923, the KMT and its Canton government accepted aid from the Soviet Union after being denied recognition by the western powers.
Soviet advisers - the most prominent of whom was Mikhail Borodin, an agent of the Comintern – arrived in China in 1923 to aid in the reorgan
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Heitarō Kimura was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army. He was sentenced to death by hanging. Kimura was born in Saitama prefecture, north of Tokyo, but was raised in Hiroshima prefecture, which he considered to be his home, he attended military schooling from an early age, graduated from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1908. He was commissioned into the artillery, he served during the Japanese Siberian Intervention of 1918–1919 in support of White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army. He was subsequently sent as a military attaché to Germany. From the late 1920s Kimura was attached to the Inspectorate of Artillery and an instructor at the Field Artillery School, he was selected as a member of the Japanese delegation to the London Disarmament Conference from 1929 to 1931. On his return to Japan, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and assigned command of the IJA 22nd Artillery Regiment. From 1932 to 1934, he returned to the Field Artillery School, followed by the Coastal Artillery School as an instructor.
In 1935, Kimura first served in an influential role close to the centre of Japanese policy when he was appointed Chief of the Control Section in the Economic Mobilisation Bureau at the Ministry of War. The next year, he was appointed Head of the Ordnance Bureau, he was promoted to the rank of major general in 1936. He became a lieutenant general in 1939, was assigned a combat command with the IJA 32nd Division in China from 1939 to 1940. From 1940 to 1941, Kimura served as Chief of Staff of the Kwangtung Army in Manchukuo. Kimura returned to the Ministry of War in 1941 as Vice Minister of War, assisting War Minister Hideki Tōjō in planning strategies for campaigns in the Second Sino-Japanese War as well as the Pacific War. From 1943 to 1944, he was a member of the Supreme War Council, where he continued to exert a major influence on strategy and policy. Late in 1944, as the course of the war went against Japan after the disastrous Battle of Imphal, Kimura was again assigned to the field, this time as commander in chief of the Burma Area Army, defending Burma against the Allied South East Asia Command.
The situation was not promising as Japanese forces were under severe pressure on every front, the Allies had complete air superiority. Reinforcements and munitions were short, Imperial General Headquarters entertained the unsupported hope that Kimura would be able make his command logistically self-sufficient. Unable to defend all of Burma, Kimura fell back behind the Irrawaddy River to attack the Allies when their supply lines were stretched thin - a move which dislocated the Allied plans; such was Allied material superiority that the main weight of the offensive was switched, the vital positions of Meiktila and Mandalay were captured at the Battle of Meiktila and Mandalay. From that point, Kimura was only capable of delaying actions, he opted to preserve his forces rather than defend the capital, Rangoon to the last man. Promoted to the rank of general in 1945, he was still reorganising his forces at the surrender of Japan in mid-1945. After the end of World War II, Kimura was arrested by the Allied occupation powers and tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for war crimes.
The tribunal cited his role in planning the strategy for the war in China and Southeast Asia, condemned him for laxity in preventing atrocities against prisoners of war in Burma. Although the Death Railway was built from 1942 to 1943, Kimura did not arrive in Burma until late 1944, Kimura was charged with the abuse and deaths of the military and civilian prisoners used to construct the railroad. Found guilty in 1948 on Counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32, 54 and 55 of the indictment he was condemned to death by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and hanged as a war criminal. Burma Campaign Fuller, Richard. Shokan: Hirohito's Samurai. London: Arms and Armor. ISBN 1-85409-151-4. Latimer, Jon. Burma: The Forgotten War. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-7195-6576-2. Minear, Richard H.. Victors' Justice: the Tokyo War Crimes Trial. Princeton University Press. ISBN. Ammenthorp, Steen. "Heitaro Kimura". The Generals of World War II. Budge, Kent. "Kimura, Heitaro". Pacific War Online Encyclopedia. Clancy, Patrick.
"IMTFE Judgement". HyperWar Foundation. Myanmar at www.worldstatesmen.org
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry and tank forces. Known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress; the first military forces in history were infantry. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. With the development of gunpowder, infantry began converting to firearms. By the time of Napoleonic warfare, infantry and artillery formed a basic triad of ground forces, though infantry remained the most numerous. With armoured warfare, armoured fighting vehicles have replaced the horses of cavalry, airpower has added a new dimension to ground combat, but infantry remains pivotal to all modern combined arms operations.
Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield. Infantry can more recognise and respond to local conditions and changing enemy weapons or tactics, they can operate in a wide range of terrain inaccessible to military vehicles, can operate with a lower logistical burden. Infantry are the most delivered forces to ground combat areas, by simple and reliable marching, or by trucks, sea or air transport, they can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles. In English, use of the term infantry began about the 1570s, describing soldiers who march and fight on foot; the word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian infanteria, from Latin īnfāns, from which English gets infant. The individual-soldier term infantryman was not coined until 1837. In modern usage, foot soldiers of any era are now considered infantrymen. From the mid-18th century until 1881 the British Army named its infantry as numbered regiments "of Foot" to distinguish them from cavalry and dragoon regiments.
Infantry equipped with special weapons were named after that weapon, such as grenadiers for their grenades, or fusiliers for their fusils. These names can persist long after the weapon speciality. More in modern times, infantry with special tactics are named for their roles, such as commandos, snipers and militia. Dragoons were created. However, if light cavalry was lacking in an army, any available dragoons might be assigned their duties. Conversely, starting about the mid-19th century, regular cavalry have been forced to spend more of their time dismounted in combat due to the ever-increasing effectiveness of enemy infantry firearms, thus most cavalry transitioned to mounted infantry. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, King's Royal Hussars. Motorised infantry have trucks and other unarmed vehicles for non-combat movement, but are still infantry since they leave their vehicles for any combat.
Most modern infantry have vehicle transport, to the point where infantry being motorised is assumed, the few exceptions might be identified as modern light infantry, or "leg infantry" colloquially. Mechanised infantry go beyond motorised, having transport vehicles with combat abilities, armoured personnel carriers, providing at least some options for combat without leaving their vehicles. In modern infantry, some APCs have evolved to be infantry fighting vehicles, which are transport vehicles with more substantial combat abilities, approaching those of light tanks; some well-equipped mechanised infantry can be designated as armoured infantry. Given that infantry forces also have some tanks, given that most armoured forces have more mechanised infantry units than tank units in their organisation, the distinction between mechanised infantry and armour forces has blurred; the terms "infantry", "armour", "cavalry" used in the official names for military units like divisions, brigades, or regiments might be better understood as a description of their expected balance of defensive and mobility roles, rather than just use of vehicles.
Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry though they never had horses, to e
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal