Shiodome Freight Terminal
Shiodome Freight Terminal was a freight terminal of the Japanese National Railways in Minato, Japan. The freight terminal was named Shimbashi Station and served as the first railway terminal of Tokyo between 1872 and 1914. Shimbashi Station was built as the Tokyo terminal of Japan's first railway between Tokyo and Yokohama, which inaugurated on October 14, 1872. Freight service started on September 15, 1873; the station was the main terminal of Tokyo until December 20, 1914, when the new Tokyo Station began its operation and Shimbashi Station was converted to the freight terminal named Shiodome. The name of Shimbashi Station was moved to the former Karasumori Station, still now called Shimbashi Station; the service as a freight terminal continued until November 1, 1986. After the closing of the freight station, the site was transferred to JNR Settlement Corporation, but the sale of the land was not allowed for years due to political consideration of the impact to the real estate market in Tokyo.
The redevelopment of the land was started in 1995. After the excavation work which found the original platform of the passenger station and many railway-related items, the Shiodome area was opened for public as a business zone called Sio-site in 2002. In 2003, a building faithfully modeled in the original building of the Shimbashi Station was built in the original site of the station
The metric system is an internationally recognised decimalised system of measurement. It is in widespread use, where it is adopted, it is the only or most common system of weights and measures, it is now known as the International System of Units. It is used to measure everyday things such as the mass of a sack of flour, the height of a person, the speed of a car, the volume of fuel in its tank, it is used in science and trade. In its modern form, it consists of a set of base units including metre for length, kilogram for mass, second for time and ampere for electrical current, a few others, which together with their derived units, can measure any physical quantity. Metric system may refer to other systems of related base and derived units defined before the middle of the 20th century, some of which are still in limited use today; the metric system was designed to have properties that make it easy to use and applicable, including units based on the natural world, decimal ratios, prefixes for multiples and sub-multiples, a structure of base and derived units.
It is a coherent system, which means that its units do not introduce conversion factors not present in equations relating quantities. It has a property called rationalisation that eliminates certain constants of proportionality in equations of physics; the units of the metric system taken from observable features of nature, are now defined by phenomena such as the microwave frequency of a caesium atomic clock which measures seconds. One unit, the kilogram, remains defined in terms of a man-made artefact, but scientists voted to change the definition to one based on Planck's constant via a Kibble balance; the new definition is expected to be formally propagated on 20 May 2019. While there are numerous named derived units of the metric system, such as watt and lumen, other common quantities such as velocity and acceleration do not have their own unit, but are defined in terms of existing base and derived units such as metres per second for velocity. Though other or widespread systems of weights and measures continue to exist, such as the British imperial system and the US customary system of weights and measures, in those systems most or all of the units are now defined in terms of the metric system, such as the US foot, now a defined decimal fraction of a metre.
The metric system is extensible, new base and derived units are defined as needed in fields such as radiology and chemistry. The most recent derived unit, the katal, for catalytic activity, was added in 1999. Recent changes are directed toward defining base units in terms of invariant constants of physics to provide more precise realisations of units for advances in science and industry; the modern metric system consists of four electromechanical base units representing seven fundamental dimensions of measure: length, time, thermodynamic temperature, luminous intensity, quantity of substance. The units are: the metre for length kilogram for mass second for time ampere for electromagnetism kelvin for temperature candela for luminous intensity mole for quantityTogether they are sufficient for measuring any known quantity, without reference to further quantities or phenomena; the metre, ampere and mole are all defined in terms of other base units. For example, the speed of light is defined as 299,792,458 metres per second, the metre is derived from that constant and the definition of a second.
As a result, in dimensional analysis, they remain wholly separate concepts. There are 22 derived units with special names in the metric system, these are defined in terms of the base units or other named derived units. Eight of these units are electromagnetic quantities: volt, a unit of electrical potential ohm, a unit of electrical resistance tesla, a unit of magnetic flux density weber, a unit of magnetic flux farad, a unit of electrical capacitance henry, a unit of electrical inductance siemens, a unit of electrical conductance coulomb, a unit of electrical chargeFour of these units are mechanical quantities: watt, a unit of mechanical or electrical power newton, a unit of mechanical force joule, a unit of mechanical, electrical or thermodynamic energy pascal, a unit of pressureFive units represent measures of electromagnetic radiation and radioactivity: becquerel, a unit of radioactive decay sievert, a unit of absorbed ionising radiation gray, a unit of ionising radiation lux, a unit of luminous flux lumen, a unit of luminous intensityTwo units are measures of circular arcs and spherical surfaces: radian, a unit of circular arc steradian, a unit of spherical surface areaThree units are miscellaneous: degree Celsius, a unit of thermodynamic temperature katal, a unit of catalytic activity hertz, a unit of cycles per second Although SI, as published by the CGPM, should, in theory, meet all the requirements of commerce and technology, certain customary units of measure have acquired established positions within the world community.
In order that such units are used around the world, the CGPM catalogued such units in Tables 6 to 9 of the SI brochure. These categories are: Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units; this list includes the hour and minute, the angular measures, the historic metric units, the litre and hectare Non-SI units whose values in SI units must be obtained experimentally. This list includes various units of measure used in atomic and nuclear physics and in astronomy such as the dalton, the electron mass, the electron volt, the astronomical unit
Shinagawa Station is a major railway station in the Takanawa and Konan districts of Minato, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, the private railway operator Keikyu. The Tokaido Shinkansen and other trains to the Miura Peninsula, Izu Peninsula, the Tōkai region pass through here. Though a major station in Tokyo, Shinagawa is not served by the Tokyo subway network. However, it is connected to the Toei Asakusa Line via Keikyu through services. Despite its name, the station is not located in Shinagawa ward. Shinagawa is commonly used to refer to the business district around the station, in Takanawa and Konan neighborhoods of Minato, directly north of Shinagawa ward; this station is just south of a large yard complex consisting of Shinagawa Carriage Sidings, Shinagawa Locomotive Depot, Tamachi Depot. Shinagawa is served by the following lines: Tokaido Shinkansen Keihin-Tohoku Line Tokaido Main Line Yamanote Line Yokosuka Line Keikyu Main LineJR Central announced in 2011 that Shinagawa will be the terminal for the Chuo Shinkansen, a maglev line under construction and scheduled to begin service to Nagoya in 2027.
The main JR station concourse is situated above the platforms running east-west across the breadth of the station. A traversable walkway divides the station into two sections; the southerly section contains a number of shops and market-style stalls which form the "e-cute" station complex. Cross-platform interchange between the Yamanote and Keihin-Tohoku lines is only available from the next station, Tamachi; the Keikyu platforms are on the western side of the station at a higher level than the JR platforms. Some Keikyu trains terminate at Shinagawa while others continue on to join the Toei Asakusa Line at Sengakuji; the Shinkansen platforms were opened on October 2003, to relieve congestion at Tokyo Station. Platforms are on the east side of the station. Shinagawa is one of Japan's oldest stations, opened on June 12, 1872, when the service between Shinagawa and Yokohama provisionally started, four months before the inauguration of "Japan's first railway" between Shimbashi and Yokohama through Shinagawa on October 14, 1872.
This line is a part of the Tōkaidō Main Line. Nothing remains of the original structure. On March 1, 1885, the Yamanote Line started operation. Takanawa station of the Keikyu Line opened on March 11, 1924 across the street from Shinagawa station. Takanawa station was renamed Shinagawa station and moved to the current site on April 1, 1933; the station concourse on the eastern side of the station was extensively redeveloped in 2003 in connection with the construction of the Shinkansen platforms and to improve access to the new commercial development "Shinagawa Intercity". In fiscal 2013, the JR East station was used by an average of 335,661 passengers daily, making it the sixth-busiest station operated by JR East; the passenger figures for previous years are as shown below. Takanawa Keikyu Hotel Takanawa Tobu Hotel Grand Prince Hotel Takanawa Shinagawa Prince Hotel Epson Aqua Stadium National Route 15 Shinagawa Inter City Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology Services are provided by Toei Bus, Tokyu Bus, Keikyu Bus, Airport Transport Service, others.
List of railway stations in Japan Transport in Greater Tokyo Shinagawa Station information Shinagawa Station information Shinagawa Station information
Japan Railways Group
The Japan Railways Group, more known as JR Group, consists of seven for-profit companies that took over most of the assets and operations of the government-owned Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987. Most of the liability of the JNR was assumed by the JNR Settlement Corporation; the JR Group lies at the heart of Japan's railway network, operating a large proportion of intercity rail service and commuter rail service. Despite JR East, JR Central, JR West and JR Kyushu now having full private ownership, Japanese people talk about "private railways" as if none of the JR Group companies is part of them, since they are successors of Japanese National Railways Maps always denoted JR and private railways differently, as does JR itself; the group consists of seven operating companies and two other companies that do not provide rail service. The operating companies are organized into six passenger operators and a nationwide freight operator. Unlike some other groups of companies, the JR Group is made up of independent companies, it does not have group headquarters or a holding company to set the overall business policy.
The six passenger railways of the JR Group are separated by region. Nearly all their services are within the prescribed geographic area. However, some long-distance operations extend beyond the boundaries; the Shirasagi train service between Nagoya and Toyama, for instance, uses JR West rolling stock but the segment of track between Nagoya and Maibara is owned by JR Central, whose crew manage the train on that section. Japan Freight Railway Company operates all freight service on the network owned by JNR. In addition, the group includes two non-operating companies; these are Railway Information Systems Co. Ltd.. To cover various non-railway business areas, each regional operator in the JR Group has its own group of subsidiary companies with names like "JR East Group" and "JR Shikoku Group." JR maintains a nationwide railway network as well as common ticketing rules that it inherited from JNR. Passengers may travel across several JR companies without changing trains and without purchasing separate tickets.
However, trains running across the boundaries of JR companies have been reduced. JR maintains the same ticketing rules based on the JNR rules and has an integrated reservation system known as MARS; some types of tickets, such as Japan Rail Pass and Seishun 18 Ticket, are issued as "valid for all JR lines" and accepted by all passenger JR companies. In 1987, the government of Japan took steps to divide and privatize JNR. While division of operations began in April of that year, privatization was not immediate: the government retained ownership of the companies. Privatization of some of the companies began in the early 1990s. By 2006, all of the shares of JR East, JR Central and JR West had been offered to the market and they are now publicly traded. On the other hand, all of the shares of JR Hokkaido, JR Shikoku, JR Kyushu and JR Freight are still owned by Japan Railway Construction and Technology Agency, an independent administrative institution of the state; the demise of the government-owned system came after charges of serious management inefficiencies, profit losses, fraud.
By the early 1980s, passenger and freight business had declined, fare increases had failed to keep up with higher labor costs. What remained of the debt-ridden Japanese National Railways after its 1987 breakup was named the Japanese National Railways Settlement Corporation, its purpose was to dispose of assets and debts not absorbed by the successor companies and to execute other activities relating to the breakup, such as outplacement of former personnel. The new companies introduced competition, cut their staffing, made reform efforts. Initial public reaction to these moves was good: the combined passenger travel on the Japan Railways Group passenger companies in 1987 was 204.7 billion passenger-kilometers, up 3.2% from 1986, while the passenger sector had been stagnant since 1975. The growth in passenger transport of private railways in 1987 was 2.6%, which meant that the Japan Railways Group's rate of increase was above that of the private-sector railways for the first time since 1974. Demand for rail transport improved, although it still accounted for only 28% of passenger transportation and only 5% of cargo transportation in 1990.
Rail passenger transportation was superior to automobiles in terms of energy efficiency and of speed in long distance transportation. The six companies had 18,800 km of routes in use in the late 1980s. About 25% of the routes were in double-track and multitrack sections, the rest were single-track. In 1988 about 51% of the six companies' 1,000 locomotives were diesel, the rest were electric. Japan Freight Railway Company owns its locomotives, rolling stock and stations, but hires track from the six passenger companies, it runs fewer trains on less track than Japanese National Railways freight service did before its demise, but at increased revenues and higher productivity. The Shinkansen Property Corporation leased Shinkansen railway facilities, including 2,100 km of 1,435 mm gauge high-speed track, to the passenger companies on Honshū. In 1991, the SPC was reorganized into the Railway Development Fund and the three operators bought their lines on 60-year loans; some of the Shinkansen electric-powered
Shikoku is one of the four main islands of Japan. Shikoku is the smallest and least populous of the main islands, located south of Honshu and east of Kyushu. Shikoku's ancient names include Iyo-no-futana-shima, Iyo-shima, Futana-shima, its current name refers to the four former provinces that made up the island: Awa, Tosa and Iyo. Shikoku island, comprising Shikoku and its surrounding islets, covers about 18,800 square kilometres and consists of four prefectures: Ehime, Kagawa, Kōchi, Tokushima. Across the Inland Sea lie Wakayama, Osaka, Hyōgo, Okayama and Yamaguchi Prefectures on Honshu. To the west lie Ōita and Miyazaki Prefectures on Kyushu; the 50th largest island by area in the world, Shikoku is smaller than Sardinia and Bananal, but larger than Halmahera and Seram. By population, it ranks 23rd, having fewer inhabitants than Sicily or Singapore, but more than Puerto Rico or Negros. Mountains running east and west divide Shikoku into a narrow northern subregion, fronting on the Inland Sea, a southern part facing the Pacific Ocean.
The Hydrangea hirta species can be found in these mountain ranges. Most of the 3.8 million inhabitants live in the north, all but one of the island's few larger cities are located there. Mount Ishizuchi in Ehime at 1,982 m is the highest mountain on the island. Industry is moderately well developed and includes the processing of ores from the important Besshi copper mine. Land is used intensively. Wide alluvial areas in the eastern part of the zone, are planted with rice and subsequently are double cropped with winter wheat and barley. Fruit is grown throughout the northern area in great variety, including citrus fruits, persimmons and grapes; because of wheat production Sanuki udon became an important part of the diet in Kagawa Prefecture in the Edo period. The larger southern area of Shikoku is sparsely populated; the only significant lowland is a small alluvial plain at the prefectural capital. The area's mild winters stimulated some truck farming, specializing in growing out-of-season vegetables under plastic covering.
Two crops of rice can be cultivated annually in the southern area. The pulp and paper industry took advantage of hydroelectric power; the major river in Shikoku is the Yoshino River. It runs 196 km from its source close to Mount Ishizuchi, flowing west to east across the northern boundaries of Kōchi and Tokushima Prefectures, reaching the sea at the city of Tokushima; the Yoshino is famous for Japan's best white-water rafting, with trips going along the Oboke Koboke sections of the river. Shikoku has four important capes. Gamōda in Anan, Tokushima is the easternmost point on the island, Sada in Ikata, Ehime the westernmost. Muroto in Muroto, Kōchi and Ashizuri, the southern extreme of Shikoku, in Tosashimizu, Kōchi, jut into the Pacific Ocean; the island's northernmost point is in Kagawa. Unlike the other three major islands of Japan, Shikoku has no volcanoes. Shikoku is connected to Honshu by three expressways, which together form the Honshū–Shikoku Bridge Project. Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway Seto-Chūō Expressway Nishiseto Expressway The eastern gateway to Shikoku, Naruto in Tokushima Prefecture has been linked to the Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway since 1998.
This line connects Shikoku to the Kansai area which has a large population, including the large conurbations of Osaka and Kobe. Therefore, the Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway carries a large traffic volume. Many highway buses are operated between Tokushima Prefecture; the central part of Shikoku is connected to Honshu by ferry, – since 1988 – by the Great Seto Bridge network. Until completion of the bridges, the region was isolated from the rest of Japan; the freer movement between Honshuū and Shikoku was expected to promote economic development on both sides of the bridges, which has not materialized yet. Within the island, a web of national highways connects the major population centers; these include Routes 11, 32, 33, 55, 56. The Shikoku Railway Company connects to Honshu via the Great Seto Bridge. JR lines include: Yosan Line Dosan Line Kōtoku Line Tokushima Line Mugi Line Naruto Line Uchiko Line Yodo Line Honshi Bisan Line Seto Ōhashi LinePrivate railway lines operate in each of the four prefectures on Shikoku.
Shikoku has four regional/domestic airports. All of these airports have flights to Tokyo and other major Japanese cities such as Osaka, Nagoya and Fukuoka. International flights to Seoul, South Korea are serviced by Asiana Airlines from Matsuyama and Takamatsu. There are periodic international charter flights as well. Ferries link Shikoku to destinations including Honshu, Kyūshu, islands around Shikoku. Pioneering natural farmer Masanobu Fukuoka, author of The One-Straw Revolution, developed his methods here on his family's farm. Shikoku is famous for its 88-temple pilgrimage of temples associated with the priest Kūkai. Most modern-day pilgrims travel by bus choosing the old-fashioned method of going by foot, they are seen wearing white jackets emblazoned with the characters reading dōgyō ninin meaning "two traveling together". Tokushima Prefecture has its annual Awa Odori running in August at the time of the Obon festival, which attracts thousands of tourists each year from all over Japan and from abroad.
Kōchi Prefecture is home to the
Taiwan Railways Administration
Taiwan Railways Administration, abbreviated as TRA, is a railway operator in Taiwan. It is an agency of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications, responsible for managing and running passenger and freight rail services on 1097 km of track in Taiwan.. Since Taiwan is urbanised with a high population density, railways have played an important part in domestic transportation since the late 19th century. Most of the main lines are electrified and service is efficient and reliable. In 2011, the system carried 563,915 passengers per day; the agency's headquarters are in Taipei. Railway services between Keelung and Hsinchu began in 1891 under China's Qing Dynasty. Rebuilt and expanded under the Taiwan Governor-General Railways operated by Formosa's Japanese colonial government, the network's Japanese influence and heritage persists. Similarities between the TRA and the Japan Railways companies can be noted in signal aspects, track layout, fare controls, station architecture, operating procedures.
As Japan's southern base during WWII, Taiwan's railways suffered significant damage by Allied air raids. The Taiwan Railways Administration was established on 5 March 1948 to reconstruct and operate railway infrastructure, with Lang Chung-hsiung as its first Director-General. With around 13,500 employees, TRA is a government organisation under Taiwan's Ministry of Transportation and Communication that directly operates 682 route miles of 3’6” gauge railways. Three mainlines form a complete circle around the island. TRA's West Coast line and Badu-Hualien section features double-track, modern colour light and cab signalling, overrun protection, centralized traffic control. South-link line, east coast Taitung, three “tourist” branches are non-electrified single-track with passing sidings. Since the early 1980s, conventional railway capital improvements are nationally funded and managed by the MOTC's Railway Reconstruction Bureau turned over to TRA for operations. Taiwan's challenging terrain meant all lines feature extensive long bridges.
Double-tracking requires construction of parallel single-track railroads or bypass tunnels on new alignments. The US$14.5 billion standard gauge high-speed rail line was built and operated by a separate public-private partnership under a 35-year concession, but TRA provides feeder services to HSR terminals. Although TRA operates all commuter rail, other quasi-private organizations operate subways in Taipei and Kaohsiung. Local and intercity passenger services operate at 95.3% on-time performance. 2008 annual passenger ridership was 179 million, generating US$434 million in revenue. Commuter trains carry 76% of riders. WCML carries >90% of ridership. TRA's loose-car and unit-train bulk freight services haul aggregates and coal. In 2008, 9.5 million tons of freight generated US$28.6 million in revenue. Limited container services operate between the port of Hualien and suburban Taipei, but loading gauge restrictions preclude piggyback operations. During typhoon season, small trucks are carried on flatcars when highways are closed by flooding or mudslides.
In years past, an extensive shipper-owned light railway network handled freight services throughout Taiwan and once boasted 1,800 route miles. Abandoned today, it served important industries including sugar, coal and minerals. Unlike JR East and Hong Kong's Mass Transit Railway, revenues from ancillary businesses accounts for only 17.8% of TRA's revenues. TRA's estimated farebox recovery ratio is ~40%. Staffing costs, pension benefits, capital debt, changing demographics, highway competition, low fare policies resulted in accumulated deficits nearing US$3.3 billion. Locally considered large and problematic, TRA's deficits pale in comparison to those incurred by European and U. S. transit agencies, Japan National Railways prior to its 1987 privatization. Like JNR and U. S. transit authorities, interest payments on long-term debt represents a significant burden for TRA. Planning for TRA's restructuring had been underway since 2000. Recent growth in the highway system and increased competition from bus companies and airlines has led to a decline in long-distance rail travel, though short and intermediate distance travel is still utilized by commuters and students.
The high-speed rail line is not run by TRA, is a major source of competition. To offset this TRA has begun placing an emphasis on tourism and short-distance commuter service; this has led to several special tourist trains running to scenic areas and hot springs, the addition of dining cars, converting several smaller branch lines to attract tourists. Additionally, several new stations have been added in major metropolitan areas, local commuter service increased, its boxed lunches remain the company's most popular product with sales totaling NT$320 million in 2010. On December 31, 2010, the TRA signed a NT$10.6 billion contract with Sumitomo Group and Nippon Sharyo to supply 17 tilting train sets capable of traveling 15
The Janney Coupler is a semi-automatic railway coupler. The earliest commercially successful version of the knuckle coupler, it was patented by Eli H. Janney in 1873. In the United Kingdom, where it is fitted to some rolling stock for passenger trains, it is known as a Buckeye Coupler originating from the coupler's manufacture as early as 1890 by the Buckeye Steel Castings firm in Columbus, Ohio, US; the AAR/APTA Type E, Type F, Type H tightlock couplers are all compatible knuckle couplers, but are employed on specific rail car types. Prior to the formation of the AAR these were known as MCB Couplers. In 1934 the MCB reconstituted itself into the AAR. Early knuckle couplers using a variety of proprietary head designs, but all using the most up-to-date MCB contour when cast, were the MCB, Tower, Climax, Burns, as many as 100 others. In 1913 the American Steel Foundries had developed the new Type "D" coupler, accepted as the standard coupler for the United States, no new equipment could be built using any other coupler.
This standard design ended the market for couplers with a proprietary head design, which were common in the MCB days, to all but those exported from the US to other countries not governed by the AAR standards. The Alliance coupler, named after the ASF-owned foundry in Alliance, was developed as a lighter build than the AAR Type "D" coupler, was marketed by the Amsted Corporation, the parent corporation of ASF, as the "Standard Coupler for the World", it is still the most used knuckle coupler in the world. The modern Alliance coupler still uses the modern AAR-10 and/or -10A contour, as well as others, but cannot be used in the US for "interchange" rolling stock Brand names of the now standard AAR Type "E", "F" and "Tightlock" couplers are ASF, McConway & Torley; the Interlocking contour of knuckle couplers was the first aspect to be standardized. In the MCB years, prior to about 1910, as early as the first Janney in 1873, there were many proprietary "head" designs, many MCB standard contours, which were evolving and changing every few years.
In about 1910 the producers were all using the standardized MCB-10 contour, soon to become the AAR-10. In the 1930s the AAR Type "D" was improved and became the Type "E". A few years the 10 contour was modified into a optional standard called the 10A contour; the most modern contour, for a plain Type "E" knuckle coupler, is still the AAR-10 and -10A, which are indistinguishable from the 1910 era MCB-10 contour. The same MCB-10 contour has been an approved standard for interchange service for over 100 years, with only the slightest dimensional changes; the Type "H" "Tightlock" couplers, which are used on passenger-carrying rolling stock use slight revisions to the old 10A contour. The purpose of couplers is to join rail cars and/or locomotives to each other so they all are securely linked together. Major Eli Janney, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War, invented the semi-automatic knuckle coupler in 1868, it automatically locks the couplers on cars or locomotives together without a rail worker having to get between the cars, replaced the "link and pin" coupler, a major cause of injuries to railroad workers.
The locking pin that ensures Janney couplers remain fastened together is withdrawn manually by a worker using the "cut lever", operated from either side of the railroad car and does not require the person to go between the cars. The only time the worker has to go between cars is after they have been securely coupled, to hook up the air lines for the pneumatic brakes, the head-end power cables in the case of passenger cars. Janney couplers are attached to draw gear, but sometimes, in the case of locomotives, the Type "E" is bolted directly on the headstock; the Janney coupler is used in Canada, the United States, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Chile, China and North Korea, elsewhere. Among its features: Maximum tonnage as high as 32,000 metric tons such as on the Fortescue Railway. Minimum ultimate tensile strength: Grade E knuckles: 650,000 pounds-force Grade C or Grade E knuckles are required for interchange service. Grade E coupler bodies: 900,000 pounds-force Several Janney coupler types exist to accommodate various cars, but all are required to have certain common dimensions allowing for compatibility.
Lighter weight railways, notably narrow gauge lines with no need for interchange, sometimes use smaller versions of the Janney MCB coupler. Such as Victorian narrow gauge lines. Janney couplers are always right-handed, i.e. their shape resembles the human right hand with fingers curled, as viewed from above. Required coupler heights, in North AmericaEmpty cars: 33.5 inches ± 1-inch Loaded cars: 32.5 inches in ± 1-inch Janney couplers are uncoupled by lifting the pin with a lever at the corner of the car. This pin is locked when the coupler is under tension, so the usual uncoupling steps are to compress the coupling with a locomotive and hold up the pin pull the cars apart. Side operated. Janney couplers are Bottom-Operated on Wagons and Top-Operated on Locomotives per AAR standards. Trains fitted with Janney couplers can accommodate heavier loads than any other type of coupler. Thus, the heaviest