Yokosuka Naval Arsenal
Yokosuka Naval Arsenal was one of four principal naval shipyards owned and operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy, was located at Yokosuka, Kanagawa prefecture on Tokyo Bay, south of Yokohama. In 1866, the Tokugawa shogunate government established the Yokosuka Seisakusho, a military arsenal and naval base, with the help of foreign engineers, including the French naval architect Léonce Verny; the new facility was intended to produce modern, western-style warships and equipment for the Tokugawa navy. The construction of the arsenal was an important first step for the modernization of Japan's industry. Modern buildings, an aqueduct, brick factories, technical schools to train Japanese technicians were established. After the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration, the new Meiji government took over control of the facility in 1871, renaming it the Yokosuka Zosenjo; the first dry dock was opened in 1871, is still in operation today. Japan's first domestically produced warship, was completed the same year.
The Yokosuka Naval District was established at Yokosuka, Kanagawa in 1884, as the first of the naval districts responsible for the defense of the Japanese home islands, the Yokosuka Shipyards was renamed the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in 1903. Japan had purchased five submarines from the American Electric Boat Company during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905; these Holland Type VII submarines were built by Arthur Leopold Busch as he traveled to Japan during this time. Mr. Busch was a naval architect and shipbuilder who represented the newly organized company now located at the Quincy Massachusett's shipyard known as the Fore River Ship and Engine Company; these first five submarines became Japan's initial entry into the theater of underwater warfare that began nearly the same time as the outbreak of the war. Another representative of Electric Boat, Frank Cable, an electrician working for Isaac L. Rice's company trained two Japanese crews in the operation of such craft. Arthur Busch was the man responsible for building the United States Navy's first submarine some five or so years before this time for the Holland Torpedo Boat Company.
This was America's first commissioned craft type. Two additional Holland designed submarines were built for Japan by 1906 "under contract" and a licensing "agreement" with Holland's company back in 1905; these pioneering submarines progressively got larger and larger as time went on, climaxing by the end of the Cold War. In 1909, Japan's first domestically designed and produced battleship, Satsuma was launched. Yokosuka became one of the main shipyards of the Imperial Japanese Navy in the 20th century, building numerous battleships such as Yamashiro, aircraft carriers such as Hiryu and Shokaku. Naval aircraft were designed at the nearby Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal. During the Pacific War, the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal was attacked by one bomber during the Doolittle Raid on 18 April 1942 and by a large force of carrier aircraft during the Attack on Yokosuka on 18 July 1945; the facilities were seized by the Allied forces at the end of World War II, on 15 October 1945 the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal was abolished.
However, the facilities continued to be used in the post-World War II period, by the United States Navy as the Yokosuka Ship Repair Facility and its former property is now under the control of the United States Fleet Activities Yokosuka. A steam hammer from the former Yokosuka Naval Arsenal is on display at the Verny Commemorative Museum in Yokosuka. Satsuma, Satsuma-class semi-dreadnought Yamashiro, Fusō-class battleship Owari, Kii-class battleship Kurama, Ibuki-class armoured cruiser Hiei, Kongō-class battlecruiser Amagi, Amagi-class battlecruiser Fleet carrier Hiryū Shōkaku, Shōkaku-class fleet carrier Unryū, Unryū-class fleet carrier Myōkō, Myōkō-class Heavy cruiser Suzuya, Mogami-class Heavy cruiser Tenryū, Tenryū-class Light cruiser Noshiro, Agano-class Light cruiser Shōhō, Zuihō-class Light carrier Converted carrier Ryūhō Harusame-class: 4 ships Kamikaze-class: 8 ships Matsu/Tachibana-class: 26 ships Type B: 9 ships Type D: 6 ships Kaidai: 6 ships Kaichū: 5 ships Jansen, Marius B..
The Making of Modern Japan. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00991-6. ISBN 9780674003347. Yokosuka, Base of an Empire. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-088-0. Teratani, Takeaki. Kindai Nihon no zosen to kaigun: Yokohama, Yokosuka no kaijishi. Seizando Shoten. ISBN 4-425-30131-5
A broadside is the side of a ship, the battery of cannon on one side of a warship. From the 16th century until the early decades of the steamship, vessels had rows of guns set in each side of the hull. Firing all guns on one side of the ship became known as a "broadside"; the cannons of 18th-century men of war were accurate only at short range, their penetrating power mediocre, entailing that the thick hulls of wooden ships could only be pierced at short ranges. These wooden ships sailed closer towards each other until cannon fire would be effective; each tried to be the first to fire a broadside giving one party a decisive headstart in the battle when it crippled the other ship. Since ancient times, war at sea had been fought much like on land: with melee weapons and bows and arrows, but on floating wooden platforms rather than battlefields. Though the introduction of guns was a significant change, it only changed the dynamics of ship-to-ship combat; the first guns on ships were small wrought-iron pieces mounted on the open decks and in the fighting tops requiring only one or two men to handle them.
They were designed to injure, kill or stun and frighten the enemy prior to boarding. As guns were made more durable to withstand stronger gunpowder charges, they increased their potential to inflict critical damage to the vessel rather than just its crew. Since these guns were much heavier than the earlier anti-personnel weapons, they had to be placed lower in the ships, fire from gunports, to avoid ships becoming unstable. In Northern Europe the technique of building ships with clinker planking made it difficult to cut ports in the hull; the solution was the gradual adoption of carvel-built ships that relied on an internal skeleton structure to bear the weight of the ship. The development of propulsion during the 15th century from single-masted, square-rigged cogs to three-masted carracks with a mix of square and lateen sails made ships nimbler and easier to maneuver. Gunports cut in the hull of ships had been introduced as early as 1501. According to tradition the inventor was a Breton shipwright called Descharges, but it is just as to have been a gradual adaptation of loading ports in the stern of merchant vessels, in use for centuries.
The gunports were used to mount heavy so-called stern chasers pointing aft, but soon gun ports migrated to the sides of ships. This made possible coordinated volleys from all the guns on one side of a ship for the first time in history, at least in theory. Guns in the 16th century were considered to be in fixed positions and were intended to be fired independently rather than in concerted volleys, it was not until the 1590s that the word "broadside" in English was used to refer to gunfire from the side of a ship rather than the ship's side itself. The main batteries in 20th century battleships tended to be powered gun turrets which could swivel 180 degrees or more to establish wider firing arcs around the entire vessel. Although this could allow at least some of the main guns to be focused directly forward or aft, most or all battleships still relied on broadsides for maximum firepower. Structures such as the bridge tower in the middle of a battleship would prevent guns in the aft portion of the ship from firing forward, vice versa.
Additionally, directing the guns to the port or starboard projected the massive muzzle blast out over the ocean, while firing the guns too close to the deck could cause damage to the ship. Additionally, the term broadside is a measurement of a vessel's maximum simultaneous firepower which can be delivered upon a single target, because this concentration is obtained by firing a broadside; this is calculated by multiplying the shell weight of the ship's main armament shells times the number of barrels that can be brought to bear. If some turrets are incapable of firing to either side of the vessel, only the maximum number of barrels which can fire to one side or the other are counted. For example, the American Iowa-class battleships carried a main armament of nine 16-inch main guns in turrets which could all be trained to a single broadside; each 16-inch shell weighed 2,700 pounds, which when multiplied by nine equals a total of 24,300 pounds. Thus, an Iowa-class battleship had a broadside of 12 short tons, the weight of shells that she could theoretically land on a target in a single firing.
See list of broadsides of major World War II ships for a comparison. Barrage Salvo Fusillade Volley fire Sailing ship tactics#Early history Marsden, Sealed by Time: The Loss and Recovery of the Mary Rose; the Archaeology of the Mary Rose, Volume 1. The Mary Rose Trust, Portsmouth. 2003. ISBN 0-9544029-0-1 Platt, Richard,Man-of-war. Dorling Kindersley, New York. 1993. ISBN 978-1-56458-321-5. Rodger, Nicholas A. M; the Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain 660–1649. W. W. Norton & Company, New York. 1997. ISBN 0-393-04579-X Rodger, N. A. M.. The Command of the Ocean: a naval history of Great Britain 1649 - 1815. Penguin History. ISBN 0-14-102690-1. George Dorsey, "When a U. S. Battleship Fires a Broadside," The New York Times Magazine, 30 December 1917
QF 12-pounder 12 cwt naval gun
The QF 12-pounder 12-cwt gun was a common, versatile 3-inch calibre naval gun introduced in 1894 and used until the middle of the 20th century. It was produced by Armstrong Whitworth and used on Royal Navy warships, exported to allied countries, used for land service. In British service "12-pounder" was the rounded value of the projectile weight, "12 cwt" was the weight of the barrel and breech, to differentiate it from other "12-pounder" guns; as the Type 41 3-inch /40 it was used on most early battleships and cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy, though it was referred to by its UK designation as a "12-pounder" gun. Mk I and II guns, of "built up" construction of multiple steel layers, served on many Royal Navy destroyers up to and after World War I as primary and as secondary armament against submarines and torpedo boats, they were fitted as deck guns on D and E-class submarines. It was estimated that out of the 4,737 Mk I and Mk II guns produced there were still 3,494 on hand for the RN in 1939.
Many Mk V guns, which had a "monobloc" barrel made of a single casting, served on smaller escort ships such as destroyers and on armed merchant ships, on dual-purpose high-low angle mountings which allowed it to be used as an anti-aircraft gun. The gun was a high-velocity naval gun, with its heavy recoil suiting it to static mountings, hence it was considered unsuitable for use as a mobile field gun. An exception was made when the British army were outgunned by the Boer artillery in South Africa and the Royal Navy was called on for help. Among other guns, 16 QF 12-pounder 12 cwt were landed from warships and were mounted on improvised field carriages designed by Captain Percy Scott RN, with solid wooden trails and utilizing small-diameter Cape wagon wheels, their 10,000-yard range provided valuable long-range fire support for the army throughout the war. They were known as "long twelves" to distinguish them from the BL 12-pounder 6 cwt and QF 12-pounder 8 cwt which had much shorter barrels and ranges.
Lieutenant Burne reported that the original electric firing system, while working well under ideal conditions, required support of an armourer and the maintenance and transport of charged batteries in the field, not possible. He reported switching to percussion tubes for firing and recommended percussion for future field operations. Another six guns were diverted from a Japanese battleship being built at Newcastle in January 1900, bought by Lady Meux, were equipped with proper field carriages by the Elswick Ordnance Company in Newcastle and sent to South Africa. Uniquely, the guns were donated directly to Lord Roberts, the British commander in South Africa and became his personal property, they were known as the "Elswick Battery" and were manned by men from Elswick, recruited by 1st Northumberland Royal Garrison Artillery. The Elswick guns served throughout the war. Many guns were mounted on "pedestals" secured to the ground to defend harbours around the UK, at many ports around the Empire, against possible attack by small fast vessels such as torpedo boats, until the 1950s.
There were 103 of these guns employed in coast defence around the UK as at April 1918. Many of these were still in service in World War II although they had by been superseded by more modern types such as twin QF 6 pounder 10 cwt mounts. Guns were traversed manually by the gunlayer as he stood on the left side with his arm hooked over a shoulder piece as he aimed, while he operated the elevating handwheel with his left hand and grasped the pistol grip with trigger in his right hand. In World War I a number of coast defence guns were modified and mounted on special wheeled traveling carriages to create a marginally effective mobile anti-aircraft gun. UK shells weighed 12.5 lb fuzed. The cordite propellant charge was ignited by an electrically-activated primer, with power provided by a battery; the electric primer in the cartridge could be replaced by an adaptor which allowed the use of electric or percussion tube to be inserted to provide ignition. The Italian Cannon 76/40 Model 1916 was a licensed derivative of the QF 12-pounder used in a number of roles during World War I and World War II.
The Japanese Type 41 3-inch naval gun was a direct copy of the QF 12-pounder. The first guns were bought from the UK firms as "Elswick Pattern N" and "Vickers Mark Z" guns; the gun was designated as "Type 41" from the 41st year of the reign of Emperor Meiji on 25 December 1908. Thereafter production was in Japan under license, it was further re-designated in centimeters on 5 October 1917 as part of the standardization process for the Imperial Japanese Navy to the metric system. Although classified as an "8cm" gun the bore was unchanged at 7.62 cm. The Type 41 3-inch naval gun fired a 12.5-pound high-explosive shell. It was the standard secondary or tertiary armament on most Japanese warships built between 1890 and 1920, was still in service as late as the Pacific War; the Type 41 was widely used as a coastal defense gun to defend Japanese island bases during World War II. Guns with both English and Japanese marking were found on Kiska, Kolombangara and Tinian. Japanese Artillery Weapons CINPAC-CINPOA Bulletin 152-45 calls the guns 8cm Coast Defense Gun 13th Year Type but it isn't clear how they came up with that designation?
A gun of the Elswick Battery that served in the Second Boer War is displayed in the Royal Artillery Museum, London Another Elswick gun is with 203 Battery RA Mk V naval gun at Royal Artillery Museum, Lon
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force was formed after the dissolution of the IJN; the Imperial Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920, behind the Royal Navy and the United States Navy. It was supported by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for aircraft and airstrike operation from the fleet, it was the primary opponent of the Western Allies in the Pacific War. The origins of the Imperial Japanese Navy go back to early interactions with nations on the Asian continent, beginning in the early medieval period and reaching a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th centuries at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Age of Discovery. After two centuries of stagnation during the country's ensuing seclusion policy under the shōgun of the Edo period, Japan's navy was comparatively backward when the country was forced open to trade by American intervention in 1854.
This led to the Meiji Restoration. Accompanying the re-ascendance of the Emperor came a period of frantic modernization and industrialization; the navy had several successes, sometimes against much more powerful enemies such as in the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, before being destroyed in World War II. Japan has a long history of naval interaction with the Asian continent, involving transportation of troops between Korea and Japan, starting at least with the beginning of the Kofun period in the 3rd century. Following the attempts at Mongol invasions of Japan by Kubilai Khan in 1274 and 1281, Japanese wakō became active in plundering the coast of China. Japan undertook major naval building efforts in the 16th century, during the Warring States period, when feudal rulers vying for supremacy built vast coastal navies of several hundred ships. Around that time Japan may have developed one of the first ironclad warships when Oda Nobunaga, a daimyō, had six iron-covered Oatakebune made in 1576.
In 1588 Toyotomi Hideyoshi issued a ban on Wakō piracy. Japan built her first large ocean-going warships in the beginning of the 17th century, following contacts with the Western nations during the Nanban trade period. In 1613, the daimyō of Sendai, in agreement with the Tokugawa Bakufu, built Date Maru, a 500-ton galleon-type ship that transported the Japanese embassy of Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas, which continued to Europe. From 1604 the Bakufu commissioned about 350 Red seal ships armed and incorporating some Western technologies for Southeast Asian trade. For more than 200 years, beginning in the 1640s, the Japanese policy of seclusion forbade contacts with the outside world and prohibited the construction of ocean-going ships on pain of death. Contacts were maintained, with the Dutch through the port of Nagasaki, the Chinese through Nagasaki and the Ryukyus and Korea through intermediaries with Tsushima; the study of Western sciences, called "rangaku" through the Dutch enclave of Dejima in Nagasaki led to the transfer of knowledge related to the Western technological and scientific revolution which allowed Japan to remain aware of naval sciences, such as cartography and mechanical sciences.
Seclusion, led to loss of any naval and maritime traditions the nation possessed. Apart from Dutch trade ships no other Western vessels were allowed to enter Japanese ports. A notable exception was during the Napoleonic wars. Frictions with foreign ships, started from the beginning of the 19th century; the Nagasaki Harbour Incident involving HMS Phaeton in 1808, other subsequent incidents in the following decades, led the shogunate to enact an Edict to Repel Foreign Vessels. Western ships, which were increasing their presence around Japan due to whaling and the trade with China, began to challenge the seclusion policy; the Morrison Incident in 1837 and news of China's defeat during the Opium War led the shogunate to repeal the law to execute foreigners, instead to adopt the Order for the Provision of Firewood and Water. The shogunate began to strengthen the nation's coastal defenses. Many Japanese realized that traditional ways would not be sufficient to repel further intrusions, western knowledge was utilized through the Dutch at Dejima to reinforce Japan's capability to repel the foreigners.
Numerous attempts to open Japan ended in failure, in part to Japanese resistance, until the early 1850s. During 1853 and 1854, American warships under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry entered Edo Bay and made demonstrations of force requesting trade negotiations. After two hundred years of seclusion, the 1854 Convention of Kanagawa led to the opening of Japan to international trade and interaction; this was soon followed by treaties with other powers. As soon as Japan opened up to foreign influences, the Tokugawa shogunate recognized the vulnerability of the country from the sea and initiated an active policy of assimilation and adoption of Western naval technologies. In 1855, with Dutch assistance, the shogunate acquired its first steam warship, Kankō Maru, began using it for training, establishing a Naval Training Center at Nagasaki. Samurai such as the future Admiral Enomoto Takeaki were sent by the shogunate to study in the Netherlands for several years. In 1859 the
Siege of Tsingtao
The Siege of Tsingtao, sometimes Siege of Tsingtau, was the attack on the German port of Tsingtao in China during World War I by Japan and the United Kingdom. The siege took place between 7 November 1914 against Imperial Germany; the siege was the first encounter between Japanese and German forces and the first Anglo-Japanese operation of the war. Throughout the late 19th century, Imperial Germany joined other European powers in an imperialist scramble for colonial possessions; as with the other world powers, Germany began to interfere in Chinese local affairs. After two German missionaries were killed in the Juye Incident in 1897, China was forced to agree to the Kiautschou Bay concession in Shantung to Germany in 1898 on a 99-year lease. Germany began to assert its influence across the rest of the province and built the city and port of Tsingtao, which became the base of the German East Asiatic Squadron of the Kaiserliche Marine, which operated in support of the German colonies in the Pacific.
Britain viewed the German presence in China as a threat and leased Weihaiwei in Shantung, as a naval port and coaling station. Russia leased its own station at Port France at Kwang-Chou-Wan. Britain began to forge close ties with Japan, whose developments in the late 19th century mirrored that of the European imperialist powers as Japan acquired colonial footholds on the Asian mainland. Japanese and British diplomatic relations became closer and the Anglo-Japanese Alliance was signed on 30 January 1902. Japan saw the alliance as a necessary deterrent to Russia. Japan demonstrated its potential by its victory in the 1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War, the alliance continued into World War I; when the war in Europe began in August 1914, Britain promptly requested Japanese assistance. On 15 August, Japan issued an ultimatum, stating that Germany must withdraw her warships from Chinese and Japanese waters and transfer control of its port of Tsingtao to Japan; the next day, Major-General Mitsuomi Kamio, General Officer Commanding, 18th Infantry Division, was ordered to prepare to take Tsingtao by force.
The ultimatum expired on 23 August, Japan declared war on Germany. At the beginning of hostilities, the ships of the East Asia Squadron under Vice Admiral Maximilian von Spee were dispersed at various Pacific colonies on routine missions. Spee's ships rendezvoused in the Northern Mariana Islands for coaling. SMS Emden headed for the Indian Ocean, while the rest of the squadron made their way to the west coast of South America; the squadron engaged and destroyed a Royal Navy squadron at the Battle of Coronel, before being destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic. The Boxer Rebellion at the beginning of the century had led Germany to consider the defense of Tsingtao; the port and town were divided from the rest of the peninsula by steep hills. The natural line of defense lay from the Kaiserstuhl to Litsuner Heights. A second 17 km line of defense was set up along a closer line of steep hills; the final line of defense was along hills 200 m above the town. A network of trenches and other fortifications had been built in preparation for the coming siege.
Germany had strengthened the defenses from the sea, laying mines in the approaches to the harbour and building four batteries and five redoubts. The fortifications were well manned. On 27 August, the Imperial Japanese Navy sent ships under Vice-Admiral Sadakichi Kato, flying his flag in the pre-dreadnought Suwo, to blockade the coast of Kiaochow; the British Royal Navy strengthened the Japanese fleet by sending the China Station's pre-dreadnought HMS Triumph and the destroyer HMS Usk. According to a German press report after the siege, the Triumph was damaged by the German shore batteries; the blockading fleet consisted of nearly obsolete warships, though it did at times include a few modern vessels. These included the dreadnoughts Kawachi, the battlecruiser Kongō, her sister Hiei, the seaplane carrier Wakamiya, whose aircraft became the first of its kind in the world to attack land and sea targets; these Japanese aircraft would take part in another military first, a night-time bombing raid. The 18th Infantry Division was the primary Japanese Army formation that took part in the initial landings, numbering some 23,000 soldiers with support from 142 artillery pieces.
They began to land on 2 September at Lungkow, experiencing heavy floods at the time and at Lau Schan Bay on 18 September, about 29 km east of Tsingtao. China protested against the Japanese violation of her neutrality but did not interfere in the operations; the British Government and the other European great powers were concerned about Japanese intentions in the region and decided to send a small symbolic British contingent from Tientsin in an effort to allay their fears. The 1,500-man contingent was commanded by Brigadier-General Nathaniel Walter Barnardiston and consisted of 1,000 soldiers of the 2nd Battalion, The South Wales Borderers. Following a friendly fire incident, British troops were given Japanese kimonos to wear so they would be more identifiable to the Japanese; the Germans responded to the threat against Tsingtao by concentrating all of their available East Asian troops in the city. Kaiser Wilhelm II made the defense of Tsingtao a top priority, saying that "... it would shame me more to surrender Tsingtao to the Japanese than Berlin to the Russians".
The German garrison, commanded by naval Captain and Governor Alfred Meyer-Waldeck, consisted of the marines of III Seebataillon, naval personnel
15 cm/45 41st Year Type
The 15 cm/45 41st Year Type was a British naval gun designed by the Elswick Ordnance Company for export in the years before World War I that armed warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy. These guns served aboard Japanese ships during World War I and as coastal artillery during World War II; the 15 cm/45 41st Year began life as a design produced by the parent company of Elswick, Armstrong Whitworth for export customers and called the Pattern GG. These guns did not serve aboard ships of the Royal Navy. On 5 October 1917 the Japanese designation system for artillery changed from inches 6 in/45 41st Year Type to centimeters 15 cm/45 41st Year Type. Whether the guns originated in Britain or were built in Japan they still shared the same 41st Year designation; the 15 cm/45 41st Year was constructed of an A wire wound with a protective outer jacket. Ships built in British shipyards for Japan were armed with Pattern GG guns and Japan produced their own versions under license at the Kure Naval Arsenal.
Four different models were produced at Kure. Although sometimes referred to as QF guns, they were BL guns which used separate loading bagged charges and projectiles. 15 cm/45 41st Year guns equipped armored cruisers, predreadnought battleships and protected cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Armored cruisers: Tsukuba-class cruisers - The two ships of this class had a secondary armament of twelve EOC Pattern GG guns in single casemated mounts amidships. Japanese cruiser Aso - This ship was the former Bayan of the Imperial Russian Navy sunk and captured at Port Arthur in 1905; the ship was recommissioned into the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1908 as the Aso. The Bayan's secondary armament of eight single casemated 152 mm 45 caliber Pattern 1892 guns were replaced with eight EOC Pattern GG guns. Predreadnought battleships: Kawachi-class battleships - The two ships of this class had a secondary armament of ten 15 cm/45 41st Year guns in single casemated mounts amidships. Japanese battleship Aki - This ship had a secondary armament of eight 15 cm/45 41st Year guns in single casemated mounts amidships.
Japanese battleship Kashima - This ship had a secondary armament of ten EOC Pattern GG guns in single casemated mounts amidships. Japanese battleship Mikasa - This ship had a secondary armament of fourteen 15 cm/45 41st Year guns in single casemated mounts amidships after a 1908 refit. Protected cruisers: Chikuma-class cruisers - The three ships of this class had a primary armament of six 15 cm/45 41st Year guns. There was one single shielded mount fore and aft, three shielded mounts per side in sponsons amidships. Japanese cruiser Tsugaru - This ship was the former Pallada of the Imperial Russian Navy sunk and captured at Port Arthur in 1905; the ship was recommissioned into the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1908 as the Tsugaru. The Pallada's primary armament of eight 152 mm 45 caliber Pattern 1892 guns were replaced with eight 15 cm/45 41st Year guns. Ammunition was of separate loading bagged projectile; the bagged charges weighed 22 kg. The gun was able to fire: Norman. Naval Weapons of World War One.
Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. Http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNJAP_6-45_EOC.php http://navalhistory.flixco.info/H/125881x54503/8330/a0.htm
The waterline is the line where the hull of a ship meets the surface of the water. It is the name of a special marking known as an international load line, Plimsoll line and water line, that indicates the draft of the ship and the legal limit to which a ship may be loaded for specific water types and temperatures in order to safely maintain buoyancy with regard to the hazard of waves that may arise. Varying water temperatures will affect a ship's draft. In the same way, fresh water is less dense than salinated or seawater with the same lessening effect upon buoyancy. For vessels with displacement hulls, the hull speed is determined by, among other things, the waterline length. In a sailing boat, the waterline length can change as the boat heels, can dynamically affect the speed of the boat; the waterline can refer to any line on a ship's hull, parallel to the water's surface when the ship is afloat in a normal position. Hence, all waterlines are one class of "ships lines" used to denote the shape of a hull in naval architecture plans.
In aircraft design, the term "waterline" refers to the vertical location of items on the aircraft. This is the "Z" axis of an XYZ coordinate system, the other two axes being the fuselage station and buttock line; the purpose of a load line is to ensure that a ship has sufficient freeboard and thus sufficient reserve buoyancy. The freeboard of commercial vessels is measured between the lowest point of the uppermost continuous deck at side and the waterline and this must not be less than the freeboard marked on the load line certificate issued to that ship. All commercial ships, other than in exceptional circumstances, have a load line symbol painted amidships on each side of the ship; this symbol is permanently marked, so that if the paint wears off it remains visible. The load line makes it easy for anyone to determine; the exact location of the load line is calculated and verified by a classification society and that society issues the relevant certificates. This marking was invented in 1876 by Samuel Plimsoll.
The first official loading regulations are thought to date back to maritime legislation originating with the Kingdom of Crete in 2500 BC when vessels were required to pass loading and maintenance inspections. Roman sea regulations contained similar regulations. In the Middle Ages the Venetian Republic, the city of Genoa and the Hanseatic League required ships to show a load line. In the case of Venice this was a cross marked on the side of the ship, of Genoa three horizontal lines; the first 19th-century loading recommendations were introduced by Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping in 1835, following discussions among shipowners and underwriters. Lloyds recommended freeboards as a function of the depth of the hold; these recommendations, used extensively until 1880, became known as "Lloyd's Rule". In the 1860s, after increased loss of ships due to overloading, a British MP, Samuel Plimsoll, took up the load line cause. A Royal Commission on unseaworthy ships was established in 1872, in 1876 the United Kingdom Merchant Shipping Act made the load line mark compulsory, although the positioning of the mark was not fixed by law until 1894.
In 1906, laws were passed requiring foreign ships visiting British ports to be marked with a load line. It was not until 1930 that there was international agreement for universal application of load line regulations. In 1966 the International Convention on Load Lines was concluded in London which re-examined and amended the 1930 rules; the 1966 convention has since seen amendments in 1971, 1975, 1979, 1983, 1995 and 2003, none of which have entered into force. The original "Plimsoll mark" was a circle with a horizontal line through it to show the maximum draft of a ship. Additional marks have been added over the years, allowing for different water densities and expected sea conditions. Letters may appear to the sides of the mark indicating the classification society that has surveyed the vessel's load line; the initials used include AB for the American Bureau of Shipping, BV for Bureau Veritas, CN for Conarina, GL for Germanischer Lloyd, IR for the Indian Register of Shipping, KI for Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia, LR for Lloyd's Register, NK for Nippon Kaiji Kyokai, NV for Det Norske Veritas and RI for the Registro Italiano Navale.
These letters are 115 millimetres in height and 75 millimetres in width. The load line length is referred to during; the letters on the load line marks have the following meanings: TF – tropical fresh water F – fresh water T – tropical seawater S – summer temperate seawater W – winter temperate seawater WNA – winter North AtlanticFor the purposes of loadline marks, fresh water is considered to have a density of 1,000 kg/m3 and typical sea water 1,025 kg/m3. Fresh water marks make allowance for the fact that the ship will float deeper in fresh water than salt water. A ship loaded to her fresh water mark in fresh water will float at her summer mark once she has passed into seawater at the same displacement. If loaded to her tropical fresh water mark she will float at her tropical seawater mark once she passes into seawater; the summer load line is the primary load line and it is from this mark that all other marks are derived. The position of the summer load line is calculated from the load line rules and depends on many factors such as length of ship, type of ship and number of superstructures, amount of sheer, bow height.