Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009. Sold on CD-ROM or DVD, it was later available on the World Wide Web via an annual subscription – although many articles could be viewed free online with advertisements. By 2008, the complete English version, Encarta Premium, consisted of more than 62,000 articles, numerous photos and illustrations, music clips, interactive content, maps and homework tools. Microsoft published similar encyclopedias under the Encarta trademark in various languages, including German, Spanish, Italian and Japanese. Localized versions contained contents licensed from national sources and more or less content than the full English version. For example, the Dutch version had content from the Dutch Winkler Prins encyclopedia. In March 2009, Microsoft announced it was discontinuing both online versions; the MSN Encarta site was closed on October 31, 2009 in all countries except Japan, where it was closed on December 31, 2009.
Microsoft continued to operate the Encarta online dictionary until 2011. After the successes of Compton's Multimedia Encyclopedia and The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, Microsoft initiated Encarta, under the internal codename "Gandalf", by purchasing non-exclusive rights to the Funk & Wagnalls Encyclopedia, incorporating it into its first edition in 1993; the name Encarta was created for Microsoft by an advertising agency and launched in 1993 as a $395 product, although it soon dropped to $99, was bundled into the price of a new computer purchase. In the late 1990s, Microsoft added content from Collier's Encyclopedia and New Merit Scholar's Encyclopedia from Macmillan into Encarta after purchasing them, thus the final Microsoft Encarta can be considered the successor of the Funk and Wagnalls and New Merit Scholar encyclopedias. None of these successful encyclopedias remained in print for long after being merged into Encarta. Microsoft introduced several regional versions of Encarta translated into languages other than English.
For example, the Brazilian Portuguese version was introduced in 1999 and suspended in 2002. The Spanish version was somewhat smaller than the English one, at 42,000 articles. In 2000, the full Encarta content became available on the World Wide Web to subscribers, with a subset available for free to anyone. In July 2006, Websters Multimedia, a Bellevue, Washington subsidiary of London-based Websters International Publishers, took over maintenance of Encarta from Microsoft; the last version was Encarta Premium 2009, released in August 2008. Microsoft announced in April 2009 that it would cease to sell Microsoft Student and all editions of Encarta Premium software products worldwide by June 2009, citing changes in the way people seek information, in the traditional encyclopedia and reference material market, as the key reasons behind the termination. Updates for Encarta were offered until October 2009. Additionally, MSN Encarta web sites were discontinued around October 31, 2009, with the exception of Encarta Japan, discontinued on December 31, 2009.
Existing MSN Encarta Premium subscribers were refunded. The demise of Encarta was attributed to competition from the free and user-generated Wikipedia, from small beginnings in 2001, grew to be larger than Encarta, thanks to popularization by web search services like Google. By the time of the announcement of its closure in April 2009, Encarta had about 62,000 articles, most behind a paywall, while the English Wikipedia had over 2.8 million articles in open access. By the time of Encarta's closure in December 2009, the English Wikipedia had over 3.1 million articles. Encarta's standard edition included 50,000 articles, with additional images and sounds; the premium editions contained over 62,000 articles and other multimedia content, such as 25,000 pictures and illustrations, over 300 videos and animations, an interactive atlas with 1.8 million locations. Its articles were integrated with multimedia content and could include links to websites selected by its editors. Encarta's articles in general were less lengthy and more summarized than the printed version of Encyclopædia Britannica or the online Wikipedia.
Like most multimedia encyclopedias, Encarta's articles tended to provide an overview of the subject rather than an exhaustive coverage and can only be viewed one at a time. A sidebar could display alternative views, journals or original materials relevant to the topic. For example, when reading about computers, it featured annals since 1967 of the computer industry. Encarta supported closed captioning for the hearing impaired. A separate program, called Encarta Research Organizer was included in early versions for gathering and organizing information and constructing a Word document-based report. Versions included Encarta Researcher, a browser plugin to organize information from Encarta articles and web pages into research projects. Content copied from Encarta was appended with a copyright boilerplate message after the selection; the user interface allowed for viewing content with only images, sounds, animations, 360-degree views, virtual tours and tables or only interactives. Encarta was available for sale on 1 to 5 CD-ROMs or a DVD.
Some new PCs were shipped with an OEM edition of Encarta. Encarta 2000 and had "Map Treks", which were tours of geographic features and concepts. Microsoft had a separate product known as Encarta Africana, an encyclopedia of black history and culture, it was int
Heibonsha World Encyclopedia
The Heibonsha World Encyclopedia is one of Japan's two major encyclopedias, the other being the Encyclopedia Nipponica. The World Encyclopedia is held to be the most complete and up-to-date encyclopedia in the Japanese language; the Heibonsha World Encyclopedia exists in three different editions: the World Encyclopedia published in 1988 and based on the Heibonsha Encyclopedia published in 1984–1985 the World Encyclopedia on DVD the Internet-only Netto de Hyakka, started in 1999The 1984–1985 Heibonsha Encyclopedia was published in sixteen volumes, while the 1988 World Encyclopedia had thirty-five volumes. The content changed little between these two editions, but the latter version was published on heavier paper and included several additional indexes and supplementary volumes; the Heibonsha Encyclopedia is no longer being published in a print edition, is instead being produced in the above-mentioned DVD and Internet formats. A reduced version of this encyclopedia is available in numerous Japanese electronic dictionaries, modified access to Netto de Hyakka is available using Japanese cell phones.
The content differs only between the various formats. Netto de Hyakka is updated and therefore provides the most current information, but the majority of articles have not been altered from the text edition; the Internet format is text-only and does not include the images that are present in the text and DVD version. The current version of Netto de hyakka is called the Network Encyclopedia in English, is provided by Hitachi Systems and Services. Heibonsha no longer provides support for electronic versions of the World Encyclopedia. All articles in the Heibonsha Encyclopedia are signed by their authors; the encyclopedia does not include a list of reference works used in each article. Articles differ in length based on the significance of the topic; the encyclopedia covers a wide variety of topics of both general and specific interest, with particular attention to topics relating to Japan. The 1988 edition features 90,000 entries and includes an index that lists cross-references for 400,000 terms.
Beginning with the 1988 edition, the encyclopedia has included an index in Western character sets for more convenient searching of foreign words. Japanese encyclopedias
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
The Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology known as MEXT, Monka-shō, is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. The Meiji government created the first Ministry of Education in 1871. In January 2001, the former Ministry of Education, Science and Culture and the former Science and Technology Agency merged to become the present MEXT. MEXT is led by the Minister of Education, Sports and Technology, a member of the Cabinet and is chosen by the Prime Minister from the members of the Diet; the Japanese government centralises education, it is managed by a state bureaucracy that regulates every aspect of the education process. The School Education Law requires schools around the country to use textbooks that follow the curriculum guideline set by the ministry, although there are some exceptions. MEXT is one of three ministries, it offers the Monbukagakusho Scholarship known as the MEXT or Monbu-shō scholarship. The Ministry sets standards for the romanization of Japanese. MEXT provides the Children Living Abroad and Returnees Internet which provides information to Japanese families living abroad.
MEXT sends teachers around the world to serve in nihonjin gakkō, full-time Japanese international schools in foreign countries. The Japanese government sends full-time teachers to hoshū jugyō kō supplementary schools that offer lessons that are similar to those of nihonjin gakkō or those which each have student bodies of 100 students or greater. In addition, MEXT subsidizes weekend schools. National Spiritual Mobilization Movement Education in Japan Fundamental Law of Education History of education in Japan Japanese history textbook controversies Monbukagakusho Scholarship Reischauer, Edwin O. and Marius Jansen. The Japanese Today. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing. Official website Official website Ministry of Education, Science and Culture website Ministry of Education, Science and Culture website Press release on Legislation of "the National University Corporation Law"
The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in k
Minamoto no Shitagō
Minamoto no Shitagō was a mid Heian waka poet and nobleman. He was the original compiler of the Wamyō Ruijushō, the first Japanese dictionary organized into semantic headings, he was designated as one of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals for his distinguished poetic accomplishments. In addition to the Wamyō Ruijushō, his remaining works include a poetry collection known as the Minamoto no Shitagōshū; some scholars claim. Ziro Uraki posits him as a possible author of Utsuho Monogatari in the foreword to his English translation of that work; as one of the Five Men of the Pear Chamber he assisted in the compilation of the Gosen Wakashū. He compiled kun'yomi readings for texts from the Man'yōshū. E-text of his poems in Japanese Online text of the Wamyō Ruijushō
Classical Chinese known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese. Classical Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese that evolved from the classical language, making it different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. Literary Chinese was used for all formal writing in China until the early 20th century, during various periods, in Japan and Vietnam. Among Chinese speakers, Literary Chinese has been replaced by written vernacular Chinese, a style of writing, similar to modern spoken Mandarin Chinese, while speakers of non-Chinese languages have abandoned Literary Chinese in favor of local vernaculars. Literary Chinese is known as kanbun in Japanese, hanmun in Korean, cổ văn or văn ngôn in Vietnamese. Speaking, Classical Chinese refers to the written language of the classical period of Chinese literature, from the end of the Spring and Autumn period to the end of the Han dynasty, while Literary Chinese is the form of written Chinese used from the end of the Han Dynasty to the early 20th century, when it was replaced by vernacular written Chinese.
It is also referred to as "Classical Chinese", but sinologists distinguish it from the language of the early period. During this period the dialects of China became more and more disparate and thus the Classical written language became less and less representative of the varieties of Chinese. Although authors sought to write in the style of the Classics, the similarity decreased over the centuries due to their imperfect understanding of the older language, the influence of their own speech, the addition of new words; this situation, the use of Literary Chinese throughout the Chinese cultural sphere despite the existence of disparate regional vernaculars, is called diglossia. It can be compared to the position of Classical Arabic relative to the various regional vernaculars in Arab lands, or of Latin in medieval Europe; the Romance languages continued to evolve, influencing Latin texts of the same period, so that by the Middle Ages, Medieval Latin included many usages that would have baffled the Romans.
The coexistence of Classical Chinese and the native languages of Japan and Vietnam can be compared to the use of Latin in nations that natively speak non-Latin-derived Germanic languages or Slavic languages, to the position of Arabic in Persia or the position of the Indic language, Sanskrit, in South India and Southeast Asia. However, the non-phonetic Chinese writing system causes a unique situation where the modern pronunciation of the classical language is far more divergent than in analogous cases, complicating understanding and study of Classical Chinese further compared to other classical languages. Christian missionaries coined the term Wen-li for Literary Chinese. Though composed from Chinese roots, this term was never used in that sense in Chinese, was rejected by non-missionary sinologues. Chinese characters are not alphabetic and only reflect sound changes; the tentative reconstruction of Old Chinese is an endeavor only a few centuries old. As a result, Classical Chinese is not read with a reconstruction of Old Chinese pronunciation.
With the progress of time, every dynasty has modified the official Phonology Dictionary. By the time of the Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, the Phonology Dictionary was based on early Mandarin, but since the Imperial Examination required the composition of Shi genre, in non-Mandarin speaking parts of China such as Zhejiang and Fujian, pronunciation is either based on everyday speech as in Cantonese. In practice, all varieties of Chinese combine these two extremes. Mandarin and Cantonese, for example have words that are pronounced one way in colloquial usage and another way when used in Classical Chinese or in specialized terms coming from Classical Chinese, though the system is not as extensive as that of Southern Min or Wu. Japanese, Hokkien-Taiwanese, Cantonese or Vietnamese readers of Classical Chinese use systems of pronunciation specific to their own languages. For example, Japanese speakers use On'yomi pronunciation when reading the kanji of words of Chinese origin such as 銀行 or the name for the city of Tōkyō, but use Kun'yomi when the kanji represents a native word such as the reading of 行 in 行く or the reading of both characters in the name for the city of Ōsaka, a system that aids Japanese speakers with Classical Chinese word order.
Since the pronunciation of all modern varieties of Chinese is different from Old Chinese or other forms of historical Chinese, characters that once rhymed in poetry may not rhyme any longer, or vice versa, which may still rhyme in Min or Cantonese. Poetry and other rhyme-based writing thus becomes less coherent than the original reading must have been. However, some modern Chinese varieties have ce
An encyclopedia or encyclopædia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge from either all branches or from a particular field or discipline. Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries that are arranged alphabetically by article name and sometimes by thematic categories. Encyclopedia entries are more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Speaking, unlike dictionary entries—which focus on linguistic information about words, such as their etymology, pronunciation and grammatical forms—encyclopedia articles focus on factual information concerning the subject named in the article's title. Encyclopedias have existed for around 2,000 years and have evolved during that time as regards language, intent, cultural perceptions, authorship and the technologies available for their production and distribution; as a valued source of reliable information compiled by experts, printed versions found a prominent place in libraries and other educational institutions. The appearance of digital and open-source versions in the 20th century has vastly expanded the accessibility, authorship and variety of encyclopedia entries and called into question the idea of what an encyclopedia is and the relevance of applying to such dynamic productions the traditional criteria for assembling and evaluating print encyclopedias.
The word encyclopedia comes from the Koine Greek ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία, transliterated enkyklios paideia, meaning "general education" from enkyklios, meaning "circular, required general" and paideia, meaning "education, rearing of a child". However, the two separate words were reduced to a single word due to a scribal error by copyists of a Latin manuscript edition of Quintillian in 1470; the copyists took this phrase to be a single Greek word, with the same meaning, this spurious Greek word became the New Latin word "encyclopaedia", which in turn came into English. Because of this compounded word, fifteenth century readers and since have and incorrectly, thought that the Roman authors Quintillian and Pliny described an ancient genre. In the sixteenth century there was a level of ambiguity as to; as several titles illustrate, there was not a settled notion about its spelling nor its status as a noun. For example: Jacobus Philomusus's Margarita philosophica encyclopaediam exhibens, it is only with Pavao Skalić and his Encyclopediae seu orbis disciplinarum tam sacrarum quam profanarum epistemon that the term became first recognized as a noun.
There have been two examples of the oldest vernacular use of the compounded word. In 1490, Franciscus Puccius wrote a letter to Politianus thanking him for his Miscellanea, calling it an encyclopedia. More François Rabelais is cited for his use of the term in Pantagruel. Several encyclopedias have names that include the suffix -pedia, to mark the text as belonging to the genre of encyclopedias. For example, Banglapedia. Today in English, the word is most spelled encyclopedia, though encyclopaedia is used in Britain; the modern encyclopedia was developed from the dictionary in the 18th century. Both encyclopedias and dictionaries have been researched and written by well-educated, well-informed content experts, but they are different in structure. A dictionary is a linguistic work which focuses on alphabetical listing of words and their definitions. Synonymous words and those related by the subject matter are to be found scattered around the dictionary, giving no obvious place for in-depth treatment.
Thus, a dictionary provides limited information, analysis or background for the word defined. While it may offer a definition, it may leave the reader lacking in understanding the meaning, significance or limitations of a term, how the term relates to a broader field of knowledge. An encyclopedia is, not written in order to convince, although one of its goals is indeed to convince its reader of its own veracity. To address those needs, an encyclopedia article is not limited to simple definitions, is not limited to defining an individual word, but provides a more extensive meaning for a subject or discipline. In addition to defining and listing synonymous terms for the topic, the article is able to treat the topic's more extensive meaning in more depth and convey the most relevant accumulated knowledge on that subject. An encyclopedia article often includes many maps and illustrations, as well as bibliography and statistics. Four major elements define an encyclopedia: its subject matter, its scope, its method of organization, its method of production: Encyclopedias can be general, containing articles on topics in every field