QWERTY is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets. The name comes from the order of the first six keys on the top left letter row of the keyboard; the QWERTY design is based on a layout created for the Sholes and Glidden typewriter and sold to E. Remington and Sons in 1873, it became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, remains in widespread use. The QWERTY layout was devised and created in the early 1870s by Christopher Latham Sholes, a newspaper editor and printer who lived in Kenosha, Wisconsin. In October 1867, Sholes filed a patent application for his early writing machine he developed with the assistance of his friends Carlos Glidden and Samuel W. Soulé; the first model constructed by Sholes used a piano-like keyboard with two rows of characters arranged alphabetically as shown below: The construction of the "Type Writer" had two flaws that made the product susceptible to jams. Firstly, characters were mounted on metal arms or type bars, which would clash and jam if neighbouring arms were pressed at the same time or in rapid succession.
Secondly, its printing point was located beneath the paper carriage, invisible to the operator, a so-called "up-stroke" design. Jams were serious, because the typist could only discover the mishap by raising the carriage to inspect what had been typed; the solution was to place used letter-pairs so that their type bars were not neighbouring, avoiding jams. Sholes struggled for the next five years to perfect his invention, making many trial-and-error rearrangements of the original machine's alphabetical key arrangement; the study of bigram frequency by educator Amos Densmore, brother of the financial backer James Densmore, is believed to have influenced the array of letters, but the contribution was called into question. Others suggest instead. In November 1868 he changed the arrangement of the latter half of the alphabet, O to Z, right-to-left. In April 1870 he arrived at a four-row, upper case keyboard approaching the modern QWERTY standard, moving six vowel letters, A, E, I, O, U, Y, to the upper row as follows: In 1873 Sholes's backer, James Densmore sold the manufacturing rights for the Sholes & Glidden Type-Writer to E. Remington and Sons.
The keyboard layout was finalized within a few months by Remington's mechanics and was presented: After they purchased the device, Remington made several adjustments, creating a keyboard with the modern QWERTY layout. These adjustments included placing the "R" key in the place allotted to the period key. Apocryphal claims that this change was made to let salesmen impress customers by pecking out the brand name "TYPE WRITER QUOTE" from one keyboard row are not formally substantiated. Vestiges of the original alphabetical layout remained in the "home row" sequence DFGHJKL; the modern layout is: The QWERTY layout became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, the first typewriter to include both upper and lower case letters, using a shift key. The QWERTY layout depicted in Sholes's 1878 patent is different from the modern layout, most notably in the absence of the numerals 0 and 1, with each of the remaining numerals shifted one position to the left of their modern counterparts.
The letter M is located at the end of the third row to the right of the letter L rather than on the fourth row to the right of the N, the letters X and C are reversed, most punctuation marks are in different positions or are missing entirely. 0 and 1 were omitted to reduce the manufacturing and maintenance costs. Typists who learned on these machines learned the habit of using the uppercase letter I for the digit one, the uppercase O for the zero. In early designs, some characters were produced by printing two symbols with the carriage in the same position. For instance, the exclamation point, which shares a key with the numeral 1 on modern keyboards, could be reproduced by using a three-stroke combination of an apostrophe, a backspace, a period. A semicolon was produced by printing a comma over a colon; as the backspace key is slow in simple mechanical typewriters, a more professional approach was to block the carriage by pressing and holding the space bar while printing all characters that needed to be in a shared position.
To make this possible, the carriage was designed to advance forward only after releasing the space bar. The 0 key was added and standardized in its modern position early in the history of the typewriter, but the 1 and exclamation point were left off some typewriter keyboards into the 1970s. There were no particular technological requirements for the QWERTY layout, since at the time there were ways to make a typewriter without the "up-stroke" typebar mechanism that had required it to be devised. Not only were there rival machines with "down-stroke" and "frontstroke" positions that gave a visible printing point, the problem of typebar clashes could be circumvented completely: examples include Thomas Edison's 1872 electric print-wheel device which became the basis for Teletype machines; the early Blickensderfer's "Ideal" keyboard was non-QWERTY, instead having the sequence "DHIATENSOR" in the home row
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in
Japanese mobile phone culture
In Japan, mobile phones have become ubiquitous. In Japanese, mobile phones are called keitai denwa "portable telephones," and are known as keitai. Much of the Japanese population own cellular phones, most of which are equipped with enhancements such as video and camera capabilities; as of May 2008, 31.3% of elementary school students, 57.6% of middle school students own a cell phone, with many of them accessing the Internet through them. This pervasiveness and the particularities of their usage has led to the development of a mobile phone culture, or "keitai culture." Japan was a leader in mobile phone technology. The first camera phone J-Phone was released in November 2000, not only included a camera but the function to send photographs via messaging or E-mail, which made the phone popular at the time. Technologies like 3G Mobile Broadband were common in Japan before any other country; some of the main features of a mobile in Japan include: In recent years, some cellular phones have been updated to be used as debit or credit cards and can be swiped through most tills to buy products as varied as mascara and jet planes, as more and more companies offer catalogs for cell phones.
These functionalities include: E-money service and various certification functions through Untouched IC card Various services with NTT DoCoMo’s ‘Osaifu-Keitai ’ E-money service e.g. ‘Edy’ ‘Mobile Suica,’ allows the phone to be used as a rail ticket Cmode: vending machines which can be used with QR Codes ‘Osaifu-Keitai’ NTT DoCoMo's service by GPSSome newer models allow the user to watch movies and/or television. Most phones can be connected to the Internet through services such as i-mode. Japan was the first to launch 3G services on a large scale. Users can browse text-only Internet sites, many Japanese sites have sub-sites designed for cellular phone users. One of the most popular services allows users to check train schedules and plan trips on public transit; the wide variety of features, many original to or limited to Japan, lead to the term "Galápagos syndrome", as these resulting phones were dominant in the island nation of Japan, but unsuccessful abroad. This has since led to the term Gala-phone to refer to Japanese feature phones, by contrast with newer smart phones.
As of 2013, the Japanese mobile phone market is broadly divided into a high-end, consisting of smart phones, mid-range, consisting of feature phones, a low-end, consisting of Personal Handy-phone System. There is some overlap of market segments between low-end smart phones and high-end feature phones, many shared features. PHS, developed as a cheaper alternative to 2G networks such as CDMA and GSM, was deployed in 1995, but is now only offered by one carrier, Y! Mobile; as elsewhere in the world, smart phones have been growing quickly. The use of mobile phones to make calls on public transport is frowned upon, messages asking passengers not to make calls and to switch their phones to silent mode are played frequently. This, combined with the low per-message price and ample allowed length per message, has increased the use of text messaging as an alternative to calls. Abbreviations are widespread.'\' may be attached at the end of a sentence to show that they are not happy about the event described.
A sentence like "I have a test today\" might mean that he or she didn't study enough, or that the test itself is depressing. Some of these usages disappeared as suitable icons were made but these newly made icons acquired a usage not intended. One example deals with the astrological symbol for Libra, it resembles a cooked and puffed mochi, is sometimes used in a happy new year's message as mochi are eaten then. The symbol for Aquarius resembles waves, so this would be used to mean'sea'; the number of icons increased and they are now coloured on most cell phones, to make them more distinct. ASCII art is used and many of them are faces with expression. One distinct form of writing is called'gyaru-moji. For example, lt wouldn't correspond to the Latin characters'L' and't' but instead it would correspond to the hiragana, け. Notice that it looks similar when written. Many hiragana and kanji are taken apart and reassembled using different characters including alphabet characters, it is unclear. Some believe that this started as a way of making secret messages that a quick peek wouldn't reveal, while others claim that it was just for fun.
This can be related to the way the English language hacking culture uses 1337 language to hide the meaning of the words typed. It is possibly due to different character limits when different languages are used, e.g. 160 Latin characters and 70 Unicode. By splitting the characters into alpha-numeric characters, it extends the possible over-all length of the message. Mobile phone novels are popular with the same audience. In the early 2000s, mobile games gained mainstream popularity in Japan, years before the United States and Europe. By 2003, a wide variety of mobile games were available on Japanese phones, ranging from puzzle games and virtual pet titles that utilize cam
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
Graphical user interface
The graphical user interface is a form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces, which require commands to be typed on a computer keyboard; the actions in a GUI are performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements. Beyond computers, GUIs are used in many handheld mobile devices such as MP3 players, portable media players, gaming devices and smaller household and industrial controls; the term GUI tends not to be applied to other lower-display resolution types of interfaces, such as video games, or not including flat screens, like volumetric displays because the term is restricted to the scope of two-dimensional display screens able to describe generic information, in the tradition of the computer science research at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.
Designing the visual composition and temporal behavior of a GUI is an important part of software application programming in the area of human–computer interaction. Its goal is to enhance the efficiency and ease of use for the underlying logical design of a stored program, a design discipline named usability. Methods of user-centered design are used to ensure that the visual language introduced in the design is well-tailored to the tasks; the visible graphical interface features of an application are sometimes referred to as chrome or GUI. Users interact with information by manipulating visual widgets that allow for interactions appropriate to the kind of data they hold; the widgets of a well-designed interface are selected to support the actions necessary to achieve the goals of users. A model–view–controller allows flexible structures in which the interface is independent from and indirectly linked to application functions, so the GUI can be customized easily; this allows users to select or design a different skin at will, eases the designer's work to change the interface as user needs evolve.
Good user interface design relates to users more, to system architecture less. Large widgets, such as windows provide a frame or container for the main presentation content such as a web page, email message or drawing. Smaller ones act as a user-input tool. A GUI may be designed for the requirements of a vertical market as application-specific graphical user interfaces. Examples include automated teller machines, point of sale touchscreens at restaurants, self-service checkouts used in a retail store, airline self-ticketing and check-in, information kiosks in a public space, like a train station or a museum, monitors or control screens in an embedded industrial application which employ a real-time operating system. By the 1980s, cell phones and handheld game systems employed application specific touchscreen GUIs. Newer automobiles use GUIs in their navigation systems and multimedia centers, or navigation multimedia center combinations. Sample graphical desktop environments A GUI uses a combination of technologies and devices to provide a platform that users can interact with, for the tasks of gathering and producing information.
A series of elements conforming a visual language have evolved to represent information stored in computers. This makes it easier for people with few computer skills to use computer software; the most common combination of such elements in GUIs is the windows, menus, pointer paradigm in personal computers. The WIMP style of interaction uses a virtual input device to represent the position of a pointing device, most a mouse, presents information organized in windows and represented with icons. Available commands are compiled together in menus, actions are performed making gestures with the pointing device. A window manager facilitates the interactions between windows and the windowing system; the windowing system handles hardware devices such as pointing devices, graphics hardware, positioning of the pointer. In personal computers, all these elements are modeled through a desktop metaphor to produce a simulation called a desktop environment in which the display represents a desktop, on which documents and folders of documents can be placed.
Window managers and other software combine to simulate the desktop environment with varying degrees of realism. Smaller mobile devices such as personal digital assistants and smartphones use the WIMP elements with different unifying metaphors, due to constraints in space and available input devices. Applications for which WIMP is not well suited may use newer interaction techniques, collectively termed post-WIMP user interfaces; as of 2011, some touchscreen-based operating systems such as Apple's iOS and Android use the class of GUIs named post-WIMP. These support styles of interaction using more than one finger in contact with a display, which allows actions such as pinching and rotating, which are unsupported by one pointer and mouse. Human interface devices, for the efficient interaction with a GUI include a computer keyboard used together with keyboard shortcuts, pointing devices for the cursor control: mouse, pointing stick, trackball, virtual keyboards, head-up displays. There are actions performed by programs that affect the GUI.
For example, there are components like inotify or D-Bus to facilitate communication between computer programs. Ivan Sutherland developed Sketchpad in 1963 held as the first graphical co
In the Japanese language, the gojūon is a traditional system ordering kana by their component phonemes analogous to alphabetical order. The "fifty" in its name refers to the 5 × 10 grid; each kana, which may be a hiragana or katakana character, corresponds to one sound in Japanese. As depicted at the right using hiragana characters, the sequence begins with あ, い, う, え, お continues with か, き, く, け, こ, so on and so forth for a total of ten rows of five columns. Although nominally containing 50 characters, the grid is not filled, further, there is an extra character added outside the grid at the end: with 5 gaps and 1 extra character, the current number of distinct kana in a syllabic chart in modern Japanese is therefore 46; some of these gaps have always existed as gaps in sound: there was no yi or wu in Old Japanese, ye disappeared in Early Middle Japanese, predating the kana. With the spelling reforms after World War II, the kana for wi and we were replaced with i and e, the sounds they had developed into.
The kana for syllabic n is not part of the grid, as it was introduced long after gojūon ordering was devised. The gojūon contains all the basic kana, but it does not include: versions of kana with a dakuten such as が or だ, or kana with handakuten such as ぱ or ぷ, smaller kana, such as the sokuon or yōon; the gojūon order is the prevalent system for collating Japanese in Japan. For example, dictionaries are ordered using this method. Other systems used are the iroha ordering, for kanji, the radical ordering; the gojūon arrangement is thought to have been influenced by both the Siddham script used for writing Sanskrit and the Chinese fanqie system. The monk Kūkai introduced the Siddhaṃ script to Japan in 806 on his return from China. Belonging to the Brahmic script, the Sanskrit ordering of letters was used for it. Buddhist monks who invented katakana chose to use the word order of Sanskrit and Siddham, since important Buddhist writings were written with those alphabets. In an unusual set of events, although it uses Sanskrit organization, it uses the Chinese order of writing.
The order of consonants and vowels, the grid layout, originates in Sanskrit shiksha, Brāhmī script, as reflected throughout the Brahmic family of scripts. The Sanskrit was written left-to-right, with vowels changing in rows, not columns. There are three ways in which the grid does not accord with Sanskrit ordering of Modern Japanese. What is now s/さ was pronounced, hence its location corresponding to Sanskrit /t͡ʃ/. Kana starting with h, b and p are placed where p/b are in Sanskrit and the diacritics do not follow the usual pattern: p/b is the usual unvoiced/voiced pattern, has different articulation; this is because /h/ was and pronouncing /h/ as is recent. Syllable-final n was not present in Old Japanese, does not fit with other characters due to having no vowel, thus is attached at the end of the grid, as in Sanskrit treatment of miscellaneous characters; the earliest example of a gojūon-style layout dates from a manuscript known as Kujakukyō Ongi dated c. 1004–1028. In contrast, the earliest example of the alternative iroha ordering is from the 1079 text Konkōmyō Saishōōkyō Ongi.
Gojūon ordering was first used for a dictionary in the 1484 Onkochishinsho. Today the gojūon system forms the basis of input methods for Japanese mobile phones – each key corresponds to a column in the gojūon, while the number of presses determines the row. For example, the'2' button corresponds to the ka-column, the button is pressed to get the intended kana; this table uses the vertical system of Japanese writing, should be read from the top down, starting from the rightmost column to the left. In each entry, the top entry is the hiragana, the second entry is the corresponding katakana, the third entry is the Hepburn romanization of the kana, the fourth entry is the pronunciation written in the International Phonetic Alphabet. Please see Japanese phonology for more details on the individual sounds; the rows are referred to as dan, the columns as gyō. They are named for their first entry, thus the rows are あ段 い段 う段 え段 お段 while the columns are わ行 ら行 や行 ま行 は行 な行 た行 さ行 か行 あ行; these are sometimes written in katakana, such as ア行, conspicuously used when referring to Japanese verb conjugation – for example, the verb yomu is of ma-gyō go-d
Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul. It comprises numerous affiliated businesses, most of them united under the Samsung brand, is the largest South Korean chaebol. Samsung was founded by Lee Byung-chul in 1938 as a trading company. Over the next three decades, the group diversified into areas including food processing, insurance and retail. Samsung entered the electronics industry in the late 1960s and the construction and shipbuilding industries in the mid-1970s. Following Lee's death in 1987, Samsung was separated into four business groups – Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and Hansol Group. Since 1990, Samsung has globalised its activities and electronics; as of 2017, Samsung has the 6th highest global brand value. Notable Samsung industrial affiliates include Samsung Electronics, Samsung Heavy Industries, Samsung Engineering and Samsung C&T. Other notable subsidiaries include Samsung Everland and Cheil Worldwide. Samsung has a powerful influence on South Korea's economic development, politics and culture and has been a major driving force behind the "Miracle on the Han River".
Its affiliate companies produce around a fifth of South Korea's total exports. Samsung's revenue was equal to 17% of South Korea's $1,082 billion GDP. According to Samsung's founder, the meaning of the Korean hanja word Samsung is "tri-star" or "three stars"; the word "three" represents something "big and powerful". In 1938, Lee Byung-chul of a large landowning family in the Uiryeong county moved to nearby Daegu city and founded Samsung Sanghoe. Samsung started out as a small trading company with forty employees located in Su-dong, it dealt in locally-grown groceries and noodles. The company prospered and Lee moved its head office to Seoul in 1947; when the Korean War broke out, he was forced to leave Seoul. He started a sugar refinery in Busan named Cheil Jedang. In 1954, Lee built the plant in Chimsan-dong, Daegu, it was the largest woollen mill in the country. Samsung diversified into many different areas. Lee sought to establish Samsung as leader in a wide range of industries. Samsung moved into lines of business such as insurance and retail.
In 1947, Cho Hong-jai, the Hyosung group's founder, jointly invested in a new company called Samsung Mulsan Gongsa, or the Samsung Trading Corporation, with the Samsung's founder Lee Byung-chull. The trading firm grew to become the present-day Samsung C&T Corporation. After a few years and Lee separated due to differences in management style. Cho wanted a 30 equity share. Samsung Group was separated into Hyosung Group, Hankook Tire and other businesses. In the late 1960s, Samsung Group entered the electronics industry, it formed several electronics-related divisions, such as Samsung Electronics Devices, Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Samsung Corning and Samsung Semiconductor & Telecommunications, made the facility in Suwon. Its first product was a black-and-white television set. In 1980, Samsung acquired the Gumi-based Hanguk Jeonja Tongsin and entered telecommunications hardware, its early products were switchboards. The facility was developed into the telephone and fax manufacturing systems and became the center of Samsung's mobile phone manufacturing.
They have produced over 800 million mobile phones to date. The company grouped them together under Samsung Electronics in the 1980s. After Lee, the founder's death in 1987, Samsung Group was separated into four business groups—Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and the Hansol Group. Shinsegae was part of Samsung Group, separated in the 1990s from the Samsung Group along with CJ Group, the Hansol Group. Today these separated groups are independent and they are not part of or connected to the Samsung Group. One Hansol Group representative said, "Only people ignorant of the laws governing the business world could believe something so absurd", adding, "When Hansol separated from the Samsung Group in 1991, it severed all payment guarantees and share-holding ties with Samsung affiliates." One Hansol Group source asserted, "Hansol, CJ have been under independent management since their respective separations from the Samsung Group". One Shinsegae department store executive director said, "Shinsegae has no payment guarantees associated with the Samsung Group".
In 1980s, Samsung Electronics began to invest in research and development, investments that were pivotal in pushing the company to the forefront of the global electronics industry. In 1982, it built a television assembly plant in Portugal; as of 2012, Samsung has invested more than US$13,000,000,000 in the Austin facility, which operates under the name Samsung Austin Semiconductor. This makes the Austin location the largest foreign investment in Texas and