General Tadamichi Kuribayashi was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, part-time writer, haiku poet and commanding officer of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff. He is best known for being overall commander of the Japanese garrison during the Battle of Iwo Jima. Before the battle, General Kuribayashi insisted upon sharing the hardships of his men, he refused to permit banzai charges, which he regarded as an unnecessary waste of his men's lives. Although the United States Marine Corps had expected to capture Iwo Jima in five days and his men held out 36 days. While it is believed that he was killed in action in the final assault, Kuribayashi's body was never identified by the United States military. In the 2006 film Letters from Iwo Jima, which depicts the Battle of Iwo Jima from the perspective of the Japanese soldiers, Kuribayashi is portrayed by Japanese actor Ken Watanabe. Tadamichi Kuribayashi was born into a minor samurai family in Nagano prefecture. According to Kumiko Kakehashi, the Kuribayashi family had lived in the district since the 15th century.
According to Vice Admiral Kaneko, who attended Nagano High School with Kuribayashi, "He once organized a strike against the school authorities. He just escaped expulsion by a hair. In those days, he was good in poetry-writing and speech writing, he was a young literary enthusiast." Kuribayashi graduated from Nagano High School in 1911. Although he had aspired to be a journalist, Kuribayashi was persuaded by his high school instructors to instead enter the Imperial Japanese Army Academy. Kuribayashi graduated from the Army Academy's 26th class in 1914, he continued on to the Army's Cavalry School in 1918. In 1923, he graduated from the 35th class of the Army War College with splendid marks and received a military sabre from the Taisho Emperor. Kuribayashi married Yoshii Kuribayashi on 8 December of that year. Together they had two daughters. Kuribayashi was designated as deputy military attaché to Washington, D. C. in 1928. For two years, Kuribayashi traveled across the United States, conducting extensive military and industrial research.
For a short time, he studied at Harvard University. Kuribayashi recalled, "I was in the United States for three years when I was a captain. I was taught how to drive by some American officers, I bought a car. I went around the States, I knew the close connections between the military and industry. I saw the plant area of Detroit, too. By one button push, all the industries will be mobilized for military business." According to his son, Taro Kuribayashi, "From 1928 to 1930, my father stayed in the United States as an exchange officer. In those days, he gave me, a grammar school boy, printed letters, he always composed easy letters in order to let me read them without any help from others. He used to enclose some sketches with the letters. I have made a book of these picture letters. In the letters are so many scenes – while visiting Boston, he was lying sprawled on the gardens of Harvard University watching a clock tower, in another he is taking a walk in Buffalo, in another, playing with some American children and being invited to the house of Medical Doctor Furukohchi, etc.
Throughout his letters, it is clear that my father used to drive in many directions in the United States, studied hard late at night, tried to be a gentleman. He used to have many friends in foreign countries." After returning to Tokyo, Kuribayashi was promoted to the rank of major and appointed as the first Japanese military attaché to Canada. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1933. During his services in the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff in Tokyo from 1933–1937, he wrote lyrics for several martial songs. In 1940 Kuribayashi was promoted to major general. During the lead up to the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Kuribayashi is known to have told his family, "America is the last country in the world Japan should fight." In December 1941, Kuribayashi was ordered into the field as the Chief of Staff of the Japanese 23rd Army of the Japanese Empire, commanded by Takashi Sakai, in the Invasion of Hong Kong. According to a former subordinate, General Kuribayashi visited wounded enlisted men in the hospital, unheard of for an officer of the General Staff.
In 1943, he was promoted to lieutenant general, reassigned to be commander of the 2nd Imperial Guards Division, a reserve and training division. On 27 May 1944, he became commander of the IJA 109th Division. Just two weeks on 8 June 1944, he received orders signed by Prime Minister Hideki Tojo to defend the strategically located island of Iwo Jima in the Bonin Islands chain. According to Yoshii Kuribayashi, her husband said upon receiving the orders that it was unlikely for his ashes to return from Iwo Jima. According to historian Kumiko Kakehashi, it is possible that Kuribayashi was deliberately selected for what was known to be a suicide mission. General Kuribayashi was known for having expressed the belief that Japan's war against the United States was a no win situation and needed to be ended via a negotiated peace. In the eyes of the ultra-nationalists in the General Staff and in Tojo's cabinet, this had caused Kuribayashi to be seen as a defeatist, he was accorded the honor of a personal audience with Emperor Hirohito on the eve of his departure.
In a subsequent letter to Yoshii and their children, the General made no mention of meeting the Emperor. He instead expressed regret for failing to fix the draft in the kitchen of their home, he included a detailed diagram so that his son, Taro Kuribayashi would be able to comple
Tomoyuki Yamashita was a Japanese general of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. Yamashita led Japanese forces during the invasion of Malaya and Battle of Singapore, with his accomplishment of conquering Malaya and Singapore in 70 days earning him the sobriquet The Tiger of Malaya and led to the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, calling the ignominious fall of Singapore to Japan the "worst disaster" and "largest capitulation" in British military history. Yamashita was assigned to defend the Philippines from the advancing Allied forces in the war, while unable to stop the Allied advance, he was able to hold on to part of Luzon until after the formal Surrender of Japan in August 1945. After the war, Yamashita was tried for war crimes committed by troops under his command during the Japanese defense of the occupied Philippines in 1944. In a controversial trial, Yamashita was found guilty of his troops' atrocities though there was no evidence that he approved or knew of them, indeed many of the atrocities were committed by troops not under his command.
Yamashita was sentenced to death and executed by hanging in 1946. The ruling against Yamashita – holding the commander responsible for subordinates' war crimes as long as the commander did not attempt to discover and stop them from occurring – came to be known as the Yamashita standard. Yamashita was the second son of a local doctor in Osugi, a village in what is now part of Ōtoyo, Kōchi Prefecture, Shikoku, he attended military preparatory schools in his youth. In November 1905 Yamashita graduated from the 18th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, he was ranked 16th out of 920 cadets. In December 1908 he was promoted to lieutenant and fought against the German Empire in World War I in Shandong, China in 1914. In May 1916 he was promoted to captain, he attended the 28th class of the Army War College, graduating sixth in his class in 1916. That same year, he married daughter of retired Gen. Nagayama. Yamashita became an expert on Germany, serving as assistant military attaché at Bern and Berlin from 1919–22.
In February 1922 he was promoted to major. He twice served in the Military Affairs Bureau of the War Ministry responsible for the Ugaki Army Reduction Program, aimed at reforming the Japanese army by streamlining its organisation, despite facing fierce opposition from factions within the Army itself. In 1922, upon his return to Japan, Major Yamashita served in the Imperial Headquarters and the Staff College, receiving promotion to lieutenant-colonel in August 1925. While posted to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, Yamashita unsuccessfully promoted a military reduction plan. Despite his ability, Yamashita fell into disfavor as a result of his involvement with political factions within the Japanese military; as a leading member of the "Imperial Way" group, he became a rival to Hideki Tojo and other members of the "Control Faction". In 1927 Yamashita was posted to Vienna, Austria, as a military attaché until 1930, he was promoted to the rank of Colonel. In 1930 Col. Yamashita was given command of the elite 3rd Imperial Infantry Regiment..
He was promoted to major-general in August 1934. After the February 26 Incident of 1936, he fell into disfavor with Emperor Hirohito due to his appeal for leniency toward rebel officers involved in the attempted coup, he realized that he had lost the trust of the Emperor and decided to resign from the Army—a decision that his superiors dissuaded him from carrying out. He was relegated to a post in Korea, being given command of a brigade. Akashi Yoji argued in his article "General Yamashita Tomoyuki: Commander of the Twenty-Fifth Army" that his time in Korea gave him the chance to reflect on his conduct during the 1936 coup and at the same time study Zen Buddhism, something which caused him to mellow down in character yet instilled a high level of discipline for himself. Yamashita was promoted to lieutenant-general in November 1937, he insisted that Japan should end the conflict with China and keep peaceful relations with the United States and Great Britain, but he was ignored and subsequently assigned to an unimportant post in the Kwantung Army.
From 1938-40 he was assigned to command the IJA 4th Division which saw some action in northern China against insurgents fighting the occupying Japanese armies. In December 1940 Yamashita was sent on a six-month clandestine military mission to Germany and Italy, where he met with Adolf Hitler on 16 June 1941 in Berlin as well as Benito Mussolini. Throughout his time in the military he had urged the implementation of his proposals, which included "streamlining the air arm, to mechanise the Army, to integrate control of the armed forces in a defence ministry coordinated by a chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff, to create a paratroop corps and to employ effective propaganda"; such strategies caused much friction between himself and Gen. Hideki Tojo, the War Minister, not keen on implementing these proposals. On 6 November 1941 Lt. Gen. Yamashita was put in command of the Twenty-Fifth Army, it was his belief that victory in Malaya would be successful only if his troops could make an amphibious landing—something, dependent on whether he would have enough air and naval support to provide a good landing site.
On 8 December he launched an invasion of Malaya from bases in French Indochina. Yamashita remarked; this is because the Japanese force was about one-third of what the British had in Malaya and Singapore. The plan was to conquer Malaya and Singapore in the shortest time possible in order to overcome any numerical disadvantage, as well as to minimize any poten
Baron Hiroshi Ōshima was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Japanese ambassador to Germany before and during World War II — and unwittingly a major source of communications intelligence for the Allies. His role was best summed up by General George C. Marshall, who identified Ōshima as "our main basis of information regarding Hitler's intentions in Europe". After World War II, he was sentenced to life imprisonment. Ōshima was the son of a prominent Japanese samurai family from Gifu Prefecture, his father Ōshima Ken'ichi having served as Minister of War from 1916 to 1918. Ōshima graduated from the 18th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in June 1905 and was promoted to second lieutenant in June 1906 and to lieutenant in June 1908. He graduated from the 27th class of the Army War College in May 1915, was promoted to captain the following year. From 1918 to 1919, he served in Siberia with the expeditionary forces, was appointed assistant military attaché in the Japanese embassy to the Weimar Republic.
Promoted to major in January 1922, he served as a military attaché to Budapest and Vienna from 1923 to 1924. After his return to Japan, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel in August 1926. In 1934, Colonel Ōshima became Japanese military attaché in Berlin, he spoke perfect German, was soon befriended by Joachim von Ribbentrop, Adolf Hitler's favorite foreign policy advisor at that time. Although Hitler ostensibly used the Foreign Ministry for his foreign relations, he was in fact more dependent on the Dienststelle Ribbentrop, a competing foreign office operated by the ex-champagne salesman. Ōshima's importance for Hitler during that period can be seen in the fact that following the conclusion of the Anti-Comintern Pact, the US Ambassador in Japan, Joseph Grew estimated that the agreement was the result of Ōshima's work, without the participation of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Ōshima was promoted to major general in March 1935. Under Ribbentrop's guidance, Ōshima met with Hitler that fall.
With the support of the Nazi leadership and the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, Ōshima progressed while in Berlin. He attained the rank of lieutenant general and was appointed ambassador to Germany in October 1938. During his early months as ambassador, according to evidence presented at the Nürnberg Trial of Major War Criminals, he plotted the assassination of Joseph Stalin through Russian agents who were sympathetic to his cause. In a conversation Ōshima had with Heinrich Himmler on 31 January 1939, he expressed the hope that German-Japanese cooperation in the field of intelligence would lead to the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Ōshima was instrumental in the forging and signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact on 25 November 1936 and the Tripartite Pact on 27 September 1940. Relations between Germany and Japan became strained after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in August 1939. In September 1939, Ōshima was recalled to Japan. At the insistence of the Nazi government, he returned to Berlin as ambassador in February 1941, remained in that position until the German surrender in May 1945.
He dedicated his efforts to closer relations between the two countries. This including military cooperation in the Indian Ocean area (in the form of anti-merchant submarine warfare; such was his fanatical belief in Nazi ideology that American journalist William L. Shirer, in The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, wrote that Ōshima "is more Nazi than the Nazis." Ōshima's close relationship with Hitler and Ribbentrop gave him unparalleled access for a foreigner to German war plans and national policy, comparable to that of Winston Churchill with the American war leadership. In turn, Hitler made Ōshima a personal confidante. Ōshima made visits to the Eastern Front and the Atlantic Wall, he met periodically with Hitler and other Nazi leaders. Being a meticulous military officer in training, he wrote detailed reports of the information provided to him by the Nazis; these reports were sent by radio to Tokyo in the Purple diplomatic cipher. Unknown to the Japanese, the PURPLE cipher was broken by American codebreakers in 1940.
Thus Oshima's reports were read simultaneously by his superiors in Japan and by Allied leaders and analysts as "Magic" intelligence. Sometimes the Allies read the reports before the Japanese did, as transmission problems between Germany and Japan held up the reports for hours. On 13 February 1941, Ōshima discussed with Ribbentrop the possibility of a joint German-Japanese initiative for war against the British Empire and the United States, agreeing with him the time was ripe to strike at the British Empire in Asia. On 23 February 1941, Ribbentrop urged him to press the Japanese government to attack British possessions in East Asia. On 28 November 1941, in a conversation with Ribbentrop, the German Foreign Minister, he was given an assurance that the Third Reich would join the Japanese government in case of war against the United States; such was Hitler's high esteem that Ōshima was one of only fifteen recipients of the Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle in Gold. Hitler awarded the medal following the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.
The award ceremony was attended by Reich Foreign Minister Ribbentrop and the secret notes of the conference were revealed at the Nuremberg trials in 1945. In addressing Ōshima, Hitler said: You gave the right declaration of war; this met
Kanji Ishiwara was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. He and Itagaki Seishirō were the men responsible for the Mukden Incident that took place in Manchuria in 1931. Ishiwara was born in Yamagata Prefecture, into a samurai class family, his father was a police officer, but as his clan had supported the Tokugawa bakufu and the Northern Alliance during the Boshin War of the Meiji Restoration, its members were shut out of higher government positions. At 13, Ishiwara was enrolled in a military preparatory school, he was subsequently accepted at the 21st class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and graduated in 1909. He served in the IJA 65th Infantry Regiment in Korea after its annexation by Japan in 1910, in 1915, he passed the exams for admittance to the 30th class of the Army Staff College, he graduated second in his class in 1918. Ishiwara spent several years in various staff assignments and was selected to study in Germany as a military attaché, he stayed in Berlin and in Munich from 1922 to 1925, focusing on military history and military strategy.
He hired several former officers from the German General Staff to tutor him, by the time that he returned to Japan, he had formed a considerable background on military theory and doctrine. Prior to leaving for Germany, Ishiwara had converted to Nichiren Buddhism. Nichiren had taught that a period of massive conflict would precede a golden era of human culture in which the truth of Buddhism would prevail. Japan would be the center and main promulgator of the faith. Ishiwara felt that the period of world conflict was fast approaching, Japan, relying upon its vision of the kokutai and its sacred mission to "liberate" China, would lead a unified East Asia to defeat the West. Ishiwara was the leader of a semi-religious and Pan-Asianist organization, the East-Asia League Movement. Ishiwara was assigned to the Army Staff College as an instructor, followed by a staff position within the Kwantung Army in Manchuria, he arrived there at the end of some months after the assassination of Zhang Zuolin. Ishiwara realized that the confused political situation in northern China, along with Japan's significant economic investments in the area, provided the Kwantung Army with a unique opportunity.
He and Colonel Seishiro Itagaki began formulating a plan to take advantage of the situation. On 18 September 1931, a bomb was secretly planted on the tracks of the Japanese-controlled Southern Manchuria Railway by Kwantung Army elements. Charging that Chinese soldiers had attacked the rail line, Ishiwara ordered Japanese troops to seize the Chinese military barracks in the nearby city of Liutiaokou, he ordered Kwantung Army units to seize control of all other Manchurian cities without informing the new commander-in-chief of the Kwantung Army, General Shigeru Honjo, or the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff in Tokyo. The sudden invasion of Manchuria alarmed political leaders in Japan, brought condemnation down on the country from the international community. Ishiwara thought it most that he would be executed or at least dishonorably discharged for his insubordination. However, the success of the operation brought just the opposite. Ishiwara was admired by right-wing younger officers and ultranationalist societies for his daring and initiative.
He was given command of the IJA 4th Infantry Regiment in Sendai. Ishiwara was appointed to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff in 1935 as Chief of Operations, which gave him primary responsibility for articulating his vision for Japan's future, he was a strong proponent of pan-Asianism and the hokushin-ron philosophy, as opposed to the nanshin-ron philosophy espoused by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The strike north view held that Japan should join with Manchukuo and China to form an "East Asian League", which would prepare for and fight a war with the Soviet Union. After the Soviet Union was defeated, Japan could move to the south to free Southeast Asia from European colonial rule. Following this victory, Japan would be ready to tackle the United States. However, in order to implement these plans, Japan would need to build up its military. Ishiwara envisioned a one-party "national defense state" with a command economy in which political parties were abolished and venal politicians and greedy businessmen removed from power.
However, Ishiwara stopped short of calling for a Shōwa Restoration and violent overthrow of the government. When the February 26 Incident erupted in 1936, rebels assassinated a number of major politicians and government leaders and demanded a change in government in line with Ishiwara's philosophies. However, Ishiwara dashed their hopes by speaking out against the rebellion and demanding proclamation of martial law. After Vice Chief of Staff Hajime Sugiyama pulled troops in from garrisons around Tokyo, Ishiwara was named Operations Officer of the Martial Law Headquarters. In March 1937 Ishiwara was promoted to major general and transferred back to Manchukuo as Vice Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army, he discovered to his dismay that his Army colleagues had no intention of creating a new pan-Asian paradise, were quite content to play the role of colonial occupiers. Ishiwara denounced the Kwantung Army leadership, proposed that all officers take a pay cut, he confronted the Kwantung Army commander-in-chief, General Hideki Tojo, over his allocation of funds to an officers' wives club.
After becoming an embarrassment to his seniors, he was relieved of command and reassigned to a local army base at Maizuru, on the seaco
Count Hisaichi Terauchi was a Gensui in the Imperial Japanese Army and Commander of the Southern Expeditionary Army Group during World War II. He was ordered to lead the occupation over Southeast Asia. Terauchi was born in Yamaguchi prefecture, was the eldest son of Gensui Count Terauchi Masatake, the first Governor-General of Korea and the 9th Prime Minister of Japan, he graduated from the 11th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1900, served as a junior officer in the Russo-Japanese War. After the war, Terauchi returned to the Army Staff College and graduated from the 21st class in 1909, he worked as a lecturer at the Military Academy. In early November 1919, he succeeded to the hereditary title of hakushaku under the kazoku peerage system, upon the death of his father, was raised in military rank to colonel, he became a major general in 1924. In September 1926, the Sanyō Main Line train he was riding on derailed in an accident that killed 34 people, but Terauchi was not injured. Count Terauchi became Chief of Staff of the Chosen Army in Korea in 1927.
After his promotion to lieutenant general in 1929, he was assigned command of the IJA 5th Division and transferred to the IJA 4th Division in 1932. In 1934, he became commander of the Taiwan Army of Japan. In October 1935 Terauchi was promoted to full general and became involved with the Kodoha faction in military politics. After the February 26 Incident in 1936 he was the army's choice as War Minister, which further intensified the conflict between the military and the civilian political parties in the Japanese Diet; the 2nd Count Terauchi returned to combat duty when he was given command of the North China Area Army after the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War. He was awarded the 1st class Order of the Rising Sun in 1938, transferred to command of the Southern Expeditionary Army Group on 6 November 1941 and soon afterwards began devising war plans with Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku for the Pacific War. After leading the conquest of Southeast Asia, Terauchi established his headquarters in Singapore.
Promoted to Gensui on 6 June 1943, he moved to the Philippines in May 1944. When this area came under threat, he retreated to Saigon in French Indochina. Upon hearing of the loss of Burma by Japan, he suffered a stroke on 10 May 1945. A British Intelligence Liaison Officer, Major Richard Holbrook McGregor, was sent by Mountbatten to Saigon to verify that Count Terauchi was indeed in a hospital and unable to make the flight to RAF Mingaladon Airfield to discuss terms of a cease-fire. 680,000 Japanese soldiers, in Southeast Asia were surrendered on his behalf in Singapore on 12 September 1945 by General Itagaki Seishiro. Terauchi surrendered to Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten on 30 November 1945 in Saigon and died of another stroke while in a prisoner of war camp in Malaya after the end of the war; the 2nd Count Terauchi surrendered his family heirloom wakizashi short sword to the Lord Louis Mountbatten in Saigon in 1945. The sword dates from 1413, is now kept at Windsor Castle, it was the subject of a diplomatic incident in the mid-1980s, when Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother wanted to place it on prominent display during a dinner held for Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan.
However, her daughter, Queen Elizabeth II, vetoed the idea. His grave is at the Japanese Cemetery Park in Singapore. Dupuy, Trevor N.. Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography. New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc. ISBN 0-7858-0437-4. Fuller, Richard. Shokan: Hirohito's Samurai. London: Arms and Armor. ISBN 1-85409-151-4. Hayashi, Saburo. Kogun: The Japanese Army in the Pacific War. Marine Corps. Association. ASIN B000ID3YRK. Ammenthorp, Steen. "Terauchi, Hisaichi". The Generals of World War II. Budge, Kent. "Terauchi, Hisaichi". Pacific War Online Encyclopedia. Newspaper clippings about Hisaichi Terauchi in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Torashirō Kawabe was a general and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff during World War II. He was the younger brother of General Masakazu Kawabe. Born in Toyama prefecture, Kawabe graduated from the 24th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1912, with a specialty in field artillery. After completing his studies at the Artillery and Engineers School in 1915, the 33rd class of the Army War College in 1921, he served in the Operations Division of the Army General Staff from 1922 to 1925. Assigned as resident staff officer in Riga, Latvia in 1926, Kawabe studied Soviet affairs for two years before his return to Japan. Kawabe a major, became an instructor in tactics at the Army War College between 1928 and 1929, before being reassigned to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff. After three years, Kawabe was stationed in Moscow as a military attaché until 1934, when he was sent to the Kwantung Army as a staff officer and chief of its intelligence section.
He was promoted to colonel in 1935. While serving with the Kwantung Army, Kawabe became involved in the Japanese government's efforts, through local Chinese warlord Li Shou-hsin, to gain control of Chahar Province in northeast Inner Mongolia. After serving as commander of a field artillery regiment in the Imperial Guards Division, Kawabe was appointed to the General Staff as a member of the War Leadership Council and, following the Marco Polo Bridge incident, was one of the few senior officers who supported General Kanji Ishihara in opposing Japan's further involvement in China. After promotion to major general in 1938, Kawabe was again posted overseas as a military attaché, this time to Berlin, Germany and to Budapest, Hungary for two years, he was recalled to Japan shortly before Japan's entry into World War II. In early 1941, he was assigned to the General Defense Command, he was promoted to head of the Inspectorate General of Aviation. In 1943, he was given command of the IJA 2nd Air Force, but returned to staff assignments in 1944.
Kawabe was appointed Vice Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff in April 1945, in which capacity he headed the Japanese delegation to Manila for negotiations with General Douglas MacArthur regarding Japan's surrender. Dupuy, Trevor N.. Encyclopedia of Military Biography. I B Tauris & Co Ltd. ISBN 1-85043-569-3. Frank, Richard B.. Downfall: the End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. Penguin, non-classics. ISBN 0-14-100146-1. Hayashi, Saburo. Quantico, VA: The Marine Corps Association. Ammenthorp, Steen. "Kawabe, Torashiro". The Generals of World War II. Budge, Kent. "Kawabe, Torashiro". Pacific War Online Encyclopedia. Works by or about Torashirō Kawabe at Internet Archive
Keisuke Fujie was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. Fujie’s wife was the daughter of Prime Minister Kantarō Suzuki. Fujie was born in Hyōgo prefecture and graduated from the 18th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1905, with a specialty in artillery, he went on to graduate from the 26th class of the Army Staff College in 1914. After serving on the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, Fujie was dispatched as a military attaché to Europe to the Japanese embassy at Paris, to Bucharest and Sophia, Bulgaria. After his return to Japan, he served as instructor at the Army Staff College and was appointed commander of the IJA 5th Field Artillery Regiment. Fujie was on the staff of the IJA 16th Division, accompanied the Japanese delegation to the Geneva Disarmament Conference, he was promoted to major general in August 1934, was head of the Kempetai in 1936–1937 under the Kwantung Army, promoted to lieutenant general in November 1937. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Fujie was commander of the IJA 16th Division.
Recalled to Japan, he served as Commandant of the Army Staff College and was appointed commander of the Eastern District Army in February 1943. Subsequently commander of the IJA 12th Area Army, he retired in March 1945, but was recalled in June the same year to command the IJA 11th Area Army for the final defense of the Tohoku region of Japan against the projected American invasion. Ammenthorp, Steen. "Fujie, Keisuke". The Generals of World War II. Wendel, Marcus. "Eastern District Army Commanders". Axis History Database. Wendel, Marcus. "Northeastern District Army Commanders". Axis History Database