National Museum of Art, Osaka
The National Museum of Art is a subterranean Japanese art museum located on the island of Nakanoshima, located between the Dōjima River and the Tosabori River, about 5 minutes west of Higobashi Station in central Osaka. The official Japanese title of the museum translates as the "National Museum of International Art"; the museum is known by the English acronym NMAO. Designed by architect Arata Isozaki; the museum originates from the Expo Art Gallery, built as part of Expo'70, held in Suita in the outskirts of Osaka. The site was converted into Expo Commemoration Park after the Expo, but the gallery was preserved for possible future use as a permanent art museum, it re-opened in 1977 as part of the Expo Commemoration Park. Due to the aging of the building as well as growing space limitations, the museum was temporarily closed in January 2004; the old museum was demolished and turned into a car park, while the exhibits were transferred to its more central, current location in Nakanoshima, which opened in November 2004.
Most of the artwork in the collection is from the post-war era. Pre-war exceptions include work by Paul Cézanne, Pablo Picasso, Max Ernst, Tsuguharu Foujita and Yasuo Kuniyoshi; the museum structure is itself an example of the modern architect's art. The present museum was designed by international architect César Pelli. Most of the museum facilities are located next to the Osaka Science Museum. Pelli suggested; the entrance, auditorium and the museum shop are located just beneath ground level, with exhibits and storage facilities on the next two floors beneath. Permanent exhibition space and artist-focused temporary exhibits are located in the intermediate level, various changing exhibitions are mounted in the lowest level; the Union Catalog of the Collections of the National Art Museums, Japan, is a consolidated catalog of material held by the four Japanese national art museums—the National Museum of Modern Art in Kyoto, the National Museum of Modern Art in Tokyo, the National Museum of Art in Osaka, the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo: National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto.
National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo National Museum of Art, Osaka National Museum of Western Art The online version of this union catalog is under construction, with only selected works available at this time. Keihan Electric Railway Nakanoshima Line: Watanabebashi Station, Nakanoshima Station Osaka Municipal Subway Yotsubashi Line: Higobashi Station Osaka Municipal Subway Midosuji Line and Keihan Electric Railway Keihan Line: Yodoyabashi Station Hanshin Electric Railway Main Line: Fukushima Station JR West JR Tōzai Line: Shin-Fukushima Station JR West Osaka Loop Line: Fukushima Station Osaka Municipal Bus: 10-minute ride from Ōsaka Station aboard Route 53 or 75, alight at Taminobashi. Osaka Municipal Bus: 10-minute ride from Ōsaka Station and 5-minute ride from Yodoyabashi Station aboard Route 88, alight at Tosabori Itchome. Hokko Kanko Bus: 5-minute ride from Yodoyabashi Station aboard Nakanoshima Loop Bus, alight at Osaka Science Museum / the National Museum of Art, Osaka. Hanshin Expressway: Nakanoshima-nishi Exit, Tosabori Exit or Fukushima Exit.
List of Independent Administrative Institutions National Museum of Modern Art, Osaka web site Independent Administrative Institution National Museum of Art
Tokyo National Museum
The Tokyo National Museum, or TNM, established in 1872, is the oldest Japanese national museum, the largest art museum in Japan and one of the largest art museums in the world. The museum collects and preserves a comprehensive collection of art works and archaeological objects of Asia, focusing on Japan; the museum holds over 110,000 objects, which includes 87 Japanese National Treasure holdings and 610 Important Cultural Property holdings. The museum conducts research and organizes educational events related to its collection; the museum is located inside Ueno Park in Tokyo. The facilities consist of the Honkan, Tōyōkan, Hyōkeikan, Heiseikan, Hōryū-ji Hōmotsukan, as well as Shiryōkan, other facilities. There are restaurants and shops within the museum's premises, as well as outdoor exhibitions and a garden where visitors can enjoy seasonal views; the museum's collections focus on Asian art along the Silk Road. There is a large collection of Greco-Buddhist art; the museum came into being in 1872, when the first exhibition was held by the Museum Department of the Ministry of Education at the Taiseiden Hall.
This marked the inauguration of the first museum in Japan. Soon after the opening, the museum moved to Uchiyamashita-cho in 1882 moved again to the Ueno Park, where it stands today. Since its establishment, the museum has experienced major challenges such as the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923, a temporary closing in 1945, during World War II. In more than the 120 years of its history, the museum has gone under much evolution and transformation through organizational reforms and administrative change; the museum went through several name changes, being called the Imperial Museum in 1886 and the Tokyo Imperial Household Museum in 1900, until it was given its present title in 1947. The growth and development of today's museum has been an evolving process: 1872—The Ministry of Education holds the first public exhibition in Japan at the Taiseiden Hall of the former Seido at Bunkyō special ward of Tokyo. 1875—The Ministry of Interior accepts responsibility for Museum collections which are divided into eight categories: nature, agriculture & forestry, fine art, education and land & sea.
1882—The museum was moves to its present location, a site occupied by the headquarters of the Kan'ei-ji Temple in Ueno. 1889—The Imperial Household Ministry accepts control of Museum collections, the institution is renamed the "Imperial Museum". 1900—The museum is renamed "Tokyo Imperial Household Museum". 1923—The museum's main building is damaged in the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923. 1925—Objects in the Nature division are transferred to the "Tokyo Museum of the Ministry of Education", now renamed the "National Science Museum." 1938—The museum's new main building is opened. 1947—The Ministry of Education accepts responsibility for Museum collections. 1978—The Hyokeikan building is designated an "Important Cultural Property". 1999—The "Gallery of Hōryū-ji Treasures" and the "Heisei-kan" buildings are opened. 2001—The museum is renamed "Tokyo National Museum" of the "Independent Administrative Institution National Museum". 2001—The Hon-kan building is designated an "Important Cultural Property".
2005—The IAI National Museum is expanded with addition of Kyushu National Museum. 2007—The IAI National Museum is merged into the Independent Administrative Institution National Institutes for Cultural Heritage, combining the four national museums with the former National Institutes for Cultural Preservation at Tokyo and Nara The original main building was designed by the British architect Josiah Conder. It was damaged in the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923. In contrast to the original building's more Western style, the design of the present main building by Hitoshi Watanabe is the more nativist Imperial Crown style. Construction began in 1932, the building was inaugurated in 1938, it was designated an Important Cultural Property of Japan in 2001. The Japanese Gallery provides a general view of Japanese art, containing 24 exhibition rooms on two floors, it consists of exhibitions from 10,000 BC up to the late 19th century, exhibitions of different types of art such as ceramics, sculpture and others.
The 1st room – The 10th room: The title is "The flow of Japanese art". It interlaces theme exhibitions such as "Art of Buddhism", "Art of Tea ceremony", "The clothing of Samurai", "Noh and Kabuki", etc. One national treasure object is exhibited by turns every time in the 2nd room as "The national treasure room"; the 11th room – The 20th room: There are exhibition rooms according to the genres such as Sculpture, Pottery, Katana, Ethnic material, Historic material, Modern art, etc. The extra exhibition rooms: There are small exhibition rooms where planning such as "new objects exhibitions"; the extra room: This is an event meeting place for children. This building was designed by Yoshirō Taniguchi; this is a three-storied building. Because there are large floors arranged in a spiral ascending from the 1st floor along the mezzanines to the 3rd floor, many stairs, it has been made huge colonnade air space to reach from the first floor to the third floor ceiling inside, placement of an exhibition room is complicated.
There is a restaurant and museum shop on the
1923 Great Kantō earthquake
The Great Kantō earthquake struck the Kantō Plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 11:58:44 JST on Saturday, September 1, 1923. Varied accounts indicate the duration of the earthquake was between ten minutes; the earthquake had a magnitude of 7.9 on the moment magnitude scale, with its focus deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay. The cause was a rupture of part of the convergent boundary where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Okhotsk Plate along the line of the Sagami Trough; this earthquake devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, the surrounding prefectures of Chiba and Shizuoka, caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region. The earthquake's force was so great that in Kamakura, over 60 km from the epicenter, it moved the Great Buddha statue, which weighs about 93 short tons two feet. Estimated casualties totaled about 142,800 deaths, including about 40,000 who went missing and were presumed dead. According to the Japanese construction company Kajima Kobori Research's conclusive report of September 2004, 105,385 deaths were confirmed in the 1923 quake.
The damage from this natural disaster was the greatest sustained by prewar Japan. In 1960, the government declared September 1, the anniversary of the quake, as an annual "Disaster Prevention Day"; because the earthquake struck at lunchtime when many people were cooking meals over fire, many people died as a result of the many large fires that broke out. Some fires developed into firestorms. Many people died; the single greatest loss of life was caused by a fire tornado that engulfed the Rikugun Honjo Hifukusho in downtown Tokyo, where about 38,000 people were incinerated after taking shelter there following the earthquake. The earthquake broke water mains all over the city, putting out the fires took nearly two full days until late in the morning of September 3. A strong typhoon centered off the coast of the Noto Peninsula in Ishikawa Prefecture brought high winds to Tokyo Bay at about the same time as the earthquake; these winds caused fires to spread rapidly. The Emperor and Empress were staying at Nikko when the earthquake struck Tokyo, were never in any danger.
Many homes were buried or swept away by landslides in the mountainous and hilly coastal areas in western Kanagawa Prefecture. A collapsing mountainside in the village of Nebukawa, west of Odawara, pushed the entire village and a passenger train carrying over 100 passengers, along with the railway station, into the sea. A tsunami with waves up to 10 m high struck the coast of Sagami Bay, Bōsō Peninsula, Izu Islands, the east coast of Izu Peninsula within minutes; the tsunami caused many deaths, including about 100 people along Yui-ga-hama Beach in Kamakura and an estimated 50 people on the Enoshima causeway. Over 570,000 homes were destroyed. Evacuees were transported by ship from Kantō to as far as Kobe in Kansai; the damage is estimated to have exceeded US$1 billion. There were 57 aftershocks. Ethnic Koreans were massacred after the earthquake; the Home Ministry declared martial law and ordered all sectional police chiefs to make maintenance of order and security a top priority. A false rumor was spread that Koreans were taking advantage of the disaster, committing arson and robbery, were in possession of bombs.
Anti-Korean sentiment was heightened by fear of the Korean independence movement. In the confusion after the quake, mass murder of Koreans by mobs occurred in urban Tokyo and Yokohama, fueled by rumors of rebellion and sabotage; the government reported 231 Koreans were killed by mobs in Tokyo and Yokohama in the first week of September. Independent reports said the number of dead was far higher, ranging from 6,000 to 10,000; some newspapers reported the rumors as fact, including the allegation that Koreans were poisoning wells. The numerous fires and cloudy well water, a little-known effect of a large quake, all seemed to confirm the rumors of the panic-stricken survivors who were living amidst the rubble. Vigilante groups set up roadblocks in cities, tested residents with a shibboleth for Korean-accented Japanese: deporting, beating, or killing those who failed. Army and police personnel colluded in the vigilante killings in some areas. Of the 3,000 Koreans taken into custody at the Army Cavalry Regiment base in Narashino, Chiba Prefecture, 10% were killed at the base, or after being released into nearby villages.
Moreover, anyone mistakenly identified as Korean, such as Chinese and Japanese speakers of some regional dialects, suffered the same fate. About 700 Chinese from Wenzhou, were killed. A monument commemorating this was built in 1993 in Wenzhou. In response, the government called upon the police to protect Koreans; the chief of police of Tsurumi is reported to have publicly drunk the well water to disprove the rumor that Koreans had been poisoning wells. In some towns police stations into which Korean people had escaped were attacked by mobs, whereas in other neighbourhoods, residents took steps to protect them; the Army distributed flyers denying the rumor and warning civilians against attacking Koreans, but in many cases vigilante activity only ceased as a result of Army operations against it. In several documented cases and policemen participated in the killings, in other cases authorities handed groups of Koreans over to local vigilantes, who proceeded to kill them. Amidst the mob violence against Korea
Keisuke Ito was a Japanese physician and biologist. He was born in Nagoya; as a doctor, Ito developed a vaccination against smallpox. He widely studied the Japanese flora and fauna with Philipp Franz von Siebold, the author of Fauna Japonica and Flora Japonica. Rhododendron keiskei has been named after him, he wrote Taisei honzou meiso published in 1829. Ito became a professor at the University of Tokyo in 1881, he died in 1901, he was ennobled with the title of baron. Media related to Itō Keisuke at Wikimedia Commons KUL Digital version of Taisei honzou meiso
1873 Vienna World's Fair
Weltausstellung 1873 Wien was the large world exposition, held in 1873 in the Austria-Hungarian capital of Vienna. Its motto was Kultur und Erziehung. There were 26,000 exhibitors housed in different buildings that were erected for this exposition, including the Rotunde, a large circular building in the great park of Prater designed by the Scottish engineer John Scott Russell; the Rotunde was destroyed by fire on 17 September 1937. The Russian pavilion had a naval section designed by Viktor Hartmann. Exhibits included models of the Illés Relief model of Jerusalem. Osman Hamdi Bey, an archaeologist and painter, was chosen by the Ottoman government as commissary of the empire's exhibits in Vienna, he organized the Ottoman pavilion with Victor Marie de Launay, a French-born Ottoman official and archivist, who had written the catalogue for the Ottoman Empire's exhibition at the 1867 Paris World's Fair. The Ottoman pavilion, located near the Egyptian pavilion, in the park outside the Rotunde, included small replicas of notable Ottoman buildings and models of vernacular architecture: a replica of the Sultan Ahmed Fountain in the Topkapı Palace, a model Istanbul residence, a representative Turkish bath, a cafe, a bazaar.
The 1873 Ottoman pavilion was more prominent than its pavilion in 1867. The Vienna exhibition set off Western nations' pavilions against Eastern pavilions, with the host, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, setting itself at the juncture between East and West. A report by the Ottoman commission for the exhibition expressed a goal of inspiring with their display "a serious interest on the part of the industrialists, traders and scholars of other nations...."The Ottoman pavilion included a gallery of mannequins wearing the traditional costumes of many of the varied ethnic groups of the Ottoman Empire. To supplement the cases of costumes, Osman Hamdi and de Launay created a photographic book of Ottoman costumes, the Elbise-i'Osmaniyye, with photographs by Pascal Sébah; the photographic plates of the Elbise depicted traditional Ottoman costumes, commissioned from artisans working in the administrative divisions of the Empire, worn by men and children who resembled the various ethnic and religious types of the empire, though the models were all found in Istanbul.
The photographs are accompanied by texts describing the costumes in detail and commenting on the rituals and habits of the regions and ethnic groups in question. The exhibition led to an intensive building activity in the years before; the new train station to Germany Nordwestbahnhof was completed just for example. Official website of the BIE Media related to Expo 1873 at Wikimedia Commons The Rotunda of the 1873 Vienna International Exhibition Images from the exhibition
The Nara period of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794. Empress Genmei established the capital of Heijō-kyō. Except for a five-year period, when the capital was moved again, it remained the capital of Japanese civilization until Emperor Kanmu established a new capital, Nagaoka-kyō, in 784, before moving to Heian-kyō, modern Kyoto, a decade in 794. Most of Japanese society during this period was centered on villages. Most of the villagers followed a religion based on the worship of natural and ancestral spirits called kami; the capital at Nara was modeled after Chang the capital city of Tang dynasty. In many other ways, the Japanese upper classes patterned themselves after the Chinese, including adopting Chinese written system and the religion of Buddhism. Concentrated efforts by the imperial court to record and document its history produced the first works of Japanese literature during the Nara period. Works such as the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki were political in nature, used to record and therefore justify and establish the supremacy of the rule of the emperors within Japan.
With the spread of written language, the writing of Japanese poetry, known in Japanese as waka, began. The largest and longest-surviving collection of Japanese poetry, the Man'yōshū, was compiled from poems composed between 600 and 759 CE. This, other Nara texts, used Chinese characters to express the sounds of Japanese, known as man'yōgana. Before the Taihō Code was established, the capital was customarily moved after the death of an emperor because of the ancient belief that a place of death was polluted. Reforms and bureaucratization of government led to the establishment of a permanent imperial capital at Heijō-kyō, or Nara, in AD 710, it is to be noted that the capital was moved shortly to Kuni-kyō in 740–744, to Naniwa-kyō in 744–745, to Shigarakinomiya in 745, moved back to Nara in 745. Nara was Japan's first urban center, it soon had some 10,000 people worked in government jobs. Economic and administrative activity increased during the Nara period. Roads linked Nara to provincial capitals, taxes were collected more efficiently and routinely.
Coins were minted, if not used. Outside the Nara area, there was little commercial activity, in the provinces the old Shōtoku land reform systems declined. By the mid-eighth century, shōen, one of the most important economic institutions in prehistoric Japan, began to rise as a result of the search for a more manageable form of landholding. Local administration became more self-sufficient, while the breakdown of the old land distribution system and the rise of taxes led to the loss or abandonment of land by many people who became the "wave people"; some of these "public people" were employed by large landholders, "public lands" reverted to the shōen. Factional fighting at the imperial court continued throughout the Nara period. Imperial family members, leading court families, such as the Fujiwara, Buddhist priests all contended for influence. Earlier this period, Prince Nagaya seized power at the court after the death of Fujiwara no Fuhito. Fuhito was succeeded by four sons, Umakai and Maro, they put the prince by Fuhito's daughter, on the throne.
In 729, they regained control. However, as a major outbreak of smallpox spread from Kyūshū in 735, all four brothers died two years resulting in temporary shrinking of Fujiwara's dominance. In 740, a member of the Fujiwara clan, Hirotsugu launched a rebellion from his base in Fukuoka, Kyushu. Although defeated, it is without doubt that the Emperor was shocked about these events, he moved the palace three times in only five years from 740, until he returned to Nara. In the late Nara period, financial burdens on the state increased, the court began dismissing nonessential officials. In 792 universal conscription was abandoned, district heads were allowed to establish private militia forces for local police work. Decentralization of authority became the rule despite the reforms of the Nara period. To return control to imperial hands, the capital was moved in 784 to Nagaoka-kyō and in 794 to Heian-kyō, about twenty-six kilometers north of Nara. By the late eleventh century, the city was popularly called Kyoto, the name it has had since.
Some of Japan's literary monuments were written during the Nara period, including the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, the first national histories, compiled in 712 and 720 respectively. Another major cultural development of the era was the permanent establishment of Buddhism. Buddhism was introduced by Baekje in the sixth century but had a mixed reception until the Nara period, when it was heartily embraced by Emperor Shōmu. Shōmu and his Fujiwara consort were fervent Buddhists and promoted the spread of Buddhism, making it the "guardian of the state" and a way of strengthening Japanese institutions. During Shōmu's reign, the Tōdai-ji was built. Within it was placed the Great Buddha Daibutsu: a 16-metre-high, gilt-bronze statue; this Buddha was identified with the Sun Goddess, a gradual syncretism of Buddhism and Shinto ensued. Shōmu declared himself the "Servant of the Three Treasures" of Buddhism: the Buddha, the law or teachings of B
The Meiji Restoration known as the Meiji Renovation, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were ruling emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the emperor of Japan; the goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji period; the Japanese knew that they were behind the Western world when American Commodore Matthew C. Perry came to Japan in 1853 in large warships with armament and technology that far outclassed those of Japan with the intent to conclude a treaty that would open up Japanese ports to trade. Figures like Shimazu Nariakira concluded. Observing Japan's response to the Western powers, Chinese general Li Hongzhang considered Japan to be China's "principal security threat" as early as 1863, five years before the Meiji Restoration.
The leaders of the Meiji Restoration, as this revolution came to be known, acted in the name of restoring imperial rule to strengthen Japan against the threat represented by the colonial powers of the day, bringing to an end the era known as sakoku. The word "Meiji" means "enlightened rule" and the goal was to combine "modern advances" with traditional "eastern" values; the main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, Yamaguchi Naoyoshi. The foundation of the Meiji Restoration was the 1866 Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance between Saigō Takamori and Kido Takayoshi, leaders of the reformist elements in the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain; these two leaders supported the Emperor Kōmei and were brought together by Sakamoto Ryōma for the purpose of challenging the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and restoring the Emperor to power. After Kōmei's death on January 30, 1867, Meiji ascended the throne on February 3; this period saw Japan change from being a feudal society to having a market economy and left the Japanese with a lingering influence of Modernity.
The Tokugawa government had been founded in the 17th century and focused on reestablishing order in social and international affairs after a century of warfare. The political structure, established by Ieyasu and solidified under his two immediate successors, his son Hidetada and grandson Iemitsu, bound all daimyōs to the shogunate and limited any individual daimyō from acquiring too much land or power; the Tokugawa shogunate came to its official end on November 9, 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the 15th Tokugawa shōgun, "put his prerogatives at the Emperor's disposal" and resigned 10 days later. This was the "restoration" of imperial rule – although Yoshinobu still had significant influence and it was not until January 3, the following year, with the young Emperor's edict, that the restoration occurred. Shortly thereafter in January 1868, the Boshin War started with the Battle of Toba–Fushimi in which Chōshū and Satsuma's forces defeated the ex-shōgun's army; this forced the Emperor to strip Yoshinobu of all power.
On January 3, 1868, the Emperor made a formal declaration of the restoration of his power: The Emperor of Japan announces to the sovereigns of all foreign countries and to their subjects that permission has been granted to the Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu to return the governing power in accordance with his own request. We shall henceforward exercise supreme authority in all the internal and external affairs of the country; the title of Emperor must be substituted for that of Taikun, in which the treaties have been made. Officers are being appointed by us to the conduct of foreign affairs, it is desirable. All Tokugawa lands were seized and placed under "imperial control", thus placing them under the prerogative of the new Meiji government. With Fuhanken sanchisei, the areas were split into three types: urban prefectures, rural prefectures and the existing domains. In 1869, the daimyōs of the Tosa, Satsuma and Chōshū Domains, who were pushing most fiercely against the shogunate, were persuaded to "return their domains to the Emperor".
Other daimyō were subsequently persuaded to do so, thus creating, arguably for the first time, a central government in Japan which exercised direct power through the entire "realm". Some shogunate forces escaped to Hokkaidō, where they attempted to set up a breakaway Republic of Ezo; the defeat of the armies of the former shōgun marked the final end of the Tokugawa shogunate, with the Emperor's power restored. By 1872, the daimyōs, past and present, were summoned before the Emperor, where it was declared that all domains were now to be returned to the Emperor; the 280 domains were turned into 72 prefectures, each under the control of a state-appointed governor. If the daimyōs peacefully complied, they were given a prominent voice in the new Meiji