Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others. The behavior is repeated and habitual. One essential prerequisite is the perception, by the bully or by others, of an imbalance of social or physical power, which distinguishes bullying from conflict. Behaviors used to assert such domination can include verbal harassment or threat, physical assault or coercion, such acts may be directed towards particular targets. Rationalizations of such behavior sometimes include differences of social class, religion, sexual orientation, behavior, body language, reputation, strength, size, or ability. If bullying is done by a group, it is called mobbing. Bullying can be defined in many different ways. In the United Kingdom, there is no legal definition of bullying, while some states in the United States have laws against it. Bullying is divided into four basic types of abuse – emotional, verbal and cyber, it involves subtle methods of coercion, such as intimidation.
Bullying ranges from one-on-one, individual bullying through to group bullying called mobbing, in which the bully may have one or more "lieutenants" who may seem to be willing to assist the primary bully in his or her bullying activities. Bullying in school and the workplace is referred to as "peer abuse". Robert W. Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism. A bullying culture can develop in any context; this may include school, the workplace and neighborhoods. The main platform for bullying is on social media websites. In a 2012 study of male adolescent American football players, "the strongest predictor was the perception of whether the most influential male in a player's life would approve of the bullying behavior". There is no universal definition of bullying, however, it is agreed upon that bullying is a subcategory of aggressive behavior characterized by the following three minimum criteria: hostile intent, imbalance of power, repetition over a period of time. Bullying may thus be defined as the activity of repeated, aggressive behavior intended to hurt another individual, mentally, or emotionally.
The Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus says bullying occurs when a person is "exposed and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons". He says negative actions occur "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through physical contact, through words or in other ways." Individual bullying is characterized by a person behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person. Individual bullying can be classified into four types. Collective bullying is known as mobbing, can include any of the individual types of bullying. Physical and relational bullying are most prevalent in primary school and could begin much earlier whilst continuing into stages in individuals lives, it is stated. Individual bullying tactics can be perpetrated by a single person against targets; this is any bullying that hurts damages their possessions. Stealing, hitting and destroying property all are types of physical bullying. Physical bullying is the first form of bullying that a target will experience.
Bullying will begin in a different form and progress to physical violence. In physical bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their body. Sometimes groups of young adults will target and alienate a peer because of some adolescent prejudice; this can lead to a situation where they are being taunted and beaten-up by their classmates. Physical bullying will escalate over time, can lead to a tragic ending, therefore must be stopped to prevent any further escalation; this is any bullying, conducted by speaking. Calling names, spreading rumors, threatening somebody, making fun of others are all forms of verbal bullying. Verbal bullying is one of the most common types of bullying. In verbal bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their voice. In many cases, verbal bullying is the province of girls. Girls are more subtle, in general, than boys. Girls use verbal bullying, as well as social exclusion techniques, to dominate and control other individuals and show their superiority and power. However, there are many boys with subtlety enough to use verbal techniques for domination, who are practiced in using words when they want to avoid the trouble that can come with physically bullying someone else.
This is any bullying, done with the intent to hurt somebody's reputation or social standing which can link in with the techniques included in physical and verbal bullying. Relational Bullying is a form of bullying common amongst youth, but upon girls. Relational bullying can be used as a tool by bullies to both improve their social standing and control others. Unlike physical bullying, obvious, relational bullying is not overt and can continue for a long time without being noticed. Cyber bullying is the use of technology to harass, embarrass, or target another person; when an adult is involved, it may meet the definition of cyber-harassment or cyberstalking, a crime that can have legal consequences and involve jail time. This includes email, instant messaging, social networking sites, text messages, cell phones. Collective bullying tactics are employed by more than one individual against targets. Trolling behavior on social media, although gener
Suicide in Japan
Suicide in Japan has become a major national social issue. Japan has a high suicide rate compared to other countries, but the number of suicides is declining and as of 2013 has been under 30,000 for three consecutive years. In 2014 on average 70 Japanese people committed suicide every day, the majority were men. Seventy-one percent of suicides in Japan were male, it is the leading cause of death in men aged 20–44. By 2016, suicide rates had reached a 22-year low of 21,764, that is, men decreased by 1,664 to 15,017 and women decreased by 597 to 6,747. Factors in suicide include unemployment, periods of economic stagnation or recession, social pressures. In 2007, the National Police Agency revised the categorization of motives for suicide into a division of 50 reasons with up to three reasons listed for each suicide. Suicides traced to losing jobs surged 65.3 percent, while those attributed to hardships in life increased 34.3 percent. Depression remained at the top of the list for the third year in a row, rising 7.1 percent from the previous year.
In Japanese culture, there is a long history of considering certain types of suicides honorable during military service. For example, seppuku was the use of a short sword for self-disembowelment practiced by samurai to avoid dishonor, such as after defeat in battle or as an act of protest against the government. Kamikaze was the method of flying a plane into the enemy used during World War II. Banzai charges were human wave attacks used during the Pacific War. There has been a rapid increase in suicides since the 1990s. For example, 1998 saw a 34.7% increase over the previous year. This has prompted the Japanese government to react by increasing funding to treat the causes of suicide and those recovering from attempted suicides. Most suicides are men. In 2009, the number of suicides among men rose 641 to 23,472. Suicide was the leading cause of death among men aged 20–44. Males are two times more to cause their own deaths after a divorce than females are. Suicide is still the leading cause of death for women age 15–34 in Japan.
In 2009, the number of suicides rose 2 percent to 32,845, exceeding 30,000 for the twelfth straight year and equating to nearly 26 suicides per 100,000 people. A frequent location for suicides is in a forested area at the base of Mount Fuji. In the period leading up to 1988, around 30 suicides occurred there every year. In 1999, 74 suicides occurred, the most on record in a given year until 2002, when 78 suicides were found; the following year, a total of 105 bodies were found, making 2003 the deadliest year on record in Aokigahara. The area is patrolled by police looking for suicides. Police records show. Railroad tracks are a common place for suicide, the Chūō Rapid Line is known for a high number. Japanese railroad companies have installed chest-high track barriers, as well as blue-tinted lights which are intended to calm people's mood, in attempts to decrease suicide attempts in stations; the prefecture which ranks highest by suicides as of 2010 is Akita Prefecture, with 31.86 suicide victims per 100,000 inhabitants, 28% above the national average of 22.94 victims per 100,000 people.
The opposite is Nara Prefecture, with 17.28 suicide victims per 100,000 inhabitants. Nearly 2,000 high school students have committed suicide as a result of bullying; the statistics for the year 2014 showed for the first time that suicide was the most common cause of death among those aged 10 to 19. The Japanese term shidōshi is used in cases that students commit suicide as a result of strict discipline from teachers. Japan has been a male-dominated society with strong family ties and correlating social expectations. Japan's economy, the world's third-largest, experienced its worst recession since World War II in early 2009, propelling the nation's jobless rate to a record high of 5.7 percent in July 2009. The unemployed accounted for 57 percent of the highest rate of any occupation group; as a result of job losses, social inequality has increased, shown in studies to have affected the suicide rates in Japan proportionately more than in other OECD countries. A contributing factor to the suicide statistics among those who were employed was the increasing pressure of retaining jobs by putting in more hours of overtime and taking fewer holidays and sick days.
According to government figures, "fatigue from work" and health problems, including work-related depression, were prime motives for suicides, adversely affecting the social wellbeing of salarymen and accounting for 47 percent of the suicides in 2008. Out of 2,207 work-related suicides in 2007, the most common reason was overwork, a death known as karōshi. Furthermore, the void experienced after being forced to retire from the workplace is said to be responsible for the large number of elderly suicides every year. In response to these deaths, many companies and local governments have begun to offer activities and classes for retired senior citizens who are at risk of feeling isolated and without purpose or identity. Consumer loan companies have much to do with the suicide rate; the National Police Agency states. Many deaths every year are de
Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotional and mental states, from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure. An example of this range of meanings is that the love of a mother differs from the love of a spouse, which differs from the love of food. Most love refers to a feeling of strong attraction and emotional attachment. Love is considered to be a virtue representing human kindness and affection, as "the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another", it may describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals. Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts. Love has been postulated to be a function to keep human beings together against menaces and to facilitate the continuation of the species. Ancient Greek philosophers identified five forms of love: familial love, friendly love or platonic love, romantic love, guest love and divine love.
Modern authors have distinguished further varieties of love: unrequited love, infatuated love, self-love, courtly love. Asian cultures have distinguished Ren, Bhakti, Mettā, Ishq and other variants or symbioses of these states. Love has additional spiritual meaning; this diversity of uses and meanings combined with the complexity of the feelings involved makes love unusually difficult to define, compared to other emotional states. The word "love" can have a variety of distinct meanings in different contexts. Many other languages use multiple words to express some of the different concepts that in English are denoted as "love". Cultural differences in conceptualizing love thus doubly impede the establishment of a universal definition. Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, different aspects of the word can be clarified by determining what isn't love. Love as a general expression of positive sentiment is contrasted with hate; as a less-sexual and more-emotionally intimate form of romantic attachment, love is contrasted with lust.
As an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, love is sometimes contrasted with friendship, although the word love is applied to close friendships or platonic love.. Abstractly discussed, love refers to an experience one person feels for another. Love involves caring for, or identifying with, a person or thing, including oneself. In addition to cross-cultural differences in understanding love, ideas about love have changed over time; some historians date modern conceptions of romantic love to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages, although the prior existence of romantic attachments is attested by ancient love poetry. The complex and abstract nature of love reduces discourse of love to a thought-terminating cliché. Several common proverbs regard love, from Virgil's "Love conquers all" to The Beatles' "All You Need Is Love". St. Thomas Aquinas, following Aristotle, defines love as "to will the good of another." Bertrand Russell describes love as a condition of "absolute value,".
Philosopher Gottfried Leibniz said that love is "to be delighted by the happiness of another." Meher Baba stated that in love there is a "feeling of unity" and an "active appreciation of the intrinsic worth of the object of love." Biologist Jeremy Griffith defines love as "unconditional selflessness". People can be said to love an object, principle, or goal to which they are committed and value. For example, compassionate outreach and volunteer workers' "love" of their cause may sometimes be born not of interpersonal love but impersonal love and strong spiritual or political convictions. People can "love" material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise identifying with those things. If sexual passion is involved this feeling is called paraphilia. A common principle that people say they love is life itself. Interpersonal love refers to love between human beings, it is a much more potent sentiment than a simple liking for a person. Unrequited love refers to those feelings of love.
Interpersonal love is most associated with interpersonal relationships. Such love might exist between family members and couples. There are a number of psychological disorders related to love, such as erotomania. Throughout history and religion have done the most speculation on the phenomenon of love. In the 20th century, the science of psychology has written a great deal on the subject. In recent years, the sciences of psychology, anthropology and biology have added to the understanding the concept of love. Biological models of sex tend to view love as a mammalian drive, much like thirst. Helen Fisher, an anthropologist and human behavior researcher, divides the experience of love into three overlapping stages: lust and attachment. Lust is the feeling of sexual desire. Three distinct
In traditional Japanese aesthetics, wabi-sabi is a world view centered on the acceptance of transience and imperfection. The aesthetic is sometimes described as one of beauty, "imperfect and incomplete", it is a concept derived from the Buddhist teaching of the three marks of existence impermanence and emptiness or absence of self-nature. Characteristics of the wabi-sabi aesthetic include asymmetry, simplicity, austerity, modesty and appreciation of the ingenuous integrity of natural objects and processes. According to Leonard Koren, wabi-sabi can be defined as "the most conspicuous and characteristic feature of traditional Japanese beauty and it occupies the same position in the Japanese pantheon of aesthetic values as do the Greek ideals of beauty and perfection in the far West." Whereas Andrew Juniper notes that "If an object or expression can bring about, within us, a sense of serene melancholy and a spiritual longing that object could be said to be wabi-sabi." For Richard Powell, "Wabi-sabi nurtures all, authentic by acknowledging three simple realities: nothing lasts, nothing is finished, nothing is perfect."The words wabi and sabi do not translate easily.
Wabi referred to the loneliness of living in nature, remote from society. Around the 14th century these meanings began taking on more positive connotations. Wabi now connotes rustic simplicity, freshness or quietness, can be applied to both natural and human-made objects, or understated elegance, it can refer to quirks and anomalies arising from the process of construction, which add uniqueness and elegance to the object. Sabi is beauty or serenity that comes with age, when the life of the object and its impermanence are evidenced in its patina and wear, or in any visible repairs. After centuries of incorporating artistic and Buddhist influences from China, wabi-sabi evolved into a distinctly Japanese ideal. Over time, the meanings of wabi and sabi shifted to become more hopeful. Around 700 years ago among the Japanese nobility, understanding emptiness and imperfection was honored as tantamount to the first step to satori, or enlightenment. In today's Japan, the meaning of wabi-sabi is condensed to "wisdom in natural simplicity".
In art books, it is defined as "flawed beauty". From an engineering or design point of view, wabi may be interpreted as the imperfect quality of any object, due to inevitable limitations in design and construction/manufacture with respect to unpredictable or changing usage conditions. Although the kanji characters for "rust" is not the same sabi in wabi-sabi, the original spoken word is believed to be one and the same. A good example of this embodiment may be seen in certain styles of Japanese pottery. In the Japanese tea ceremony, the pottery items used are rustic and simple-looking, e.g. Hagi ware, with shapes that are not quite symmetrical, colors or textures that appear to emphasize an unrefined or simple style. In fact, it is up to the knowledge and observational ability of the participant to notice and discern the hidden signs of a excellent design or glaze; this may be interpreted as a kind of wabi-sabi aesthetic, further confirmed by the way the colour of glazed items is known to change over time as hot water is poured into them and the fact that tea bowls are deliberately chipped or nicked at the bottom, which serves as a kind of signature of the Hagi-yaki style.
Wabi and sabi both suggest sentiments of solitude. In the Mahayana Buddhist view of the universe, these may be viewed as positive characteristics, representing liberation from a material world and transcendence to a simpler life. Mahayana philosophy itself, warns that genuine understanding cannot be achieved through words or language, so accepting wabi-sabi on nonverbal terms may be the most appropriate approach. Simon Brown notes that wabi-sabi describes a means whereby students can learn to live life through the senses and better engage in life as it happens, rather than be caught up in unnecessary thoughts. In this sense wabi-sabi is the material representation of Zen Buddhism; the idea is that being surrounded by natural, unique objects helps us connect to our real world and escape stressful distractions. In one sense wabi-sabi is a training whereby the student of wabi-sabi learns to find the most basic, natural objects interesting and beautiful. Fading autumn leaves would be an example. Wabi-sabi can change our perception of the world to the extent that a chip or crack in a vase makes it more interesting and gives the object greater meditative value.
Materials that age such as bare wood and fabric become more interesting as they exhibit changes that can be observed over time. The wabi and sabi concepts are religious in origin, but actual usage of the words in Japanese is quite casual because of the syncretic nature of Japanese belief. Many Japanese arts over the past thousand years have been influenced by Zen and Mahayana philosophy acceptance and contemplation of the imperfection, constant flux and impermanence of all things; such arts can exemplify a wabi-sabi aesthetic. Examples include: Honkyoku Ikebana Bonsai design features such
Miai or omiai is a Japanese traditional custom in which a woman and a man are introduced to each other to consider the possibility of marriage. "Omiai" is sometimes mistranslated as an "arranged marriage" but it can be described as a meeting opportunity with more serious considerations for the future as a process of courtship. According to the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, in 2005 it was estimated that around 6.2% of marriages in Japan are arranged via omiai. The practice of miai emerged in 16th century Japan among the samurai class to form and protect strong military alliances among warlords to ensure mutual support. During the Tokugawa period the practice of miai spread to other urban classes trying to emulate samurai customs. Miai was a solemn practice and involved considerations that aren't given as much weight by most modern Japanese people, such as family bloodlines and class; this type of miai is seen portrayed in films and television dramas. After the Pacific War, the trend was to abandon the restrictive arranged-meetings system.
Modern forms of miai are still practiced in Japan today, although they are no longer as prevalent as they were in the pre-Meiji era. The participants in a miai process include the candidates who are to be married and the families of these candidates. However, miai can take place without any involvement of the prospective couple's families. A nakōdo serves the role of a go-between for families in the miai process. A nakōdo is not necessary for all miai; the nakōdo can be friend, or matchmaking company. Professional organizations have begun to provide go-between services for inquiring candidates; these professional nakōdo are known as puro nakōdo. The general purpose of the nakōdo the traditional way of miai, is to provide introductions for people entering a new arrangement and to assist shy candidates; the nakōdo is expected to play a variety of roles throughout the miai process. The first is the bridging role, hashikake, in which the nakōdo introduces potential candidates and families to each other.
The second role is as a liaison for the families to avoid direct confrontation and differences in opinions between them by serving as an intermediary for working out the details of the marriage. Though miai marriages are not as common as they once were, they still hold a place in popular media. One example is Wedding Bells, a game show that substitutes for the role of the nakōdo in which contestants are introduced and screened for marriage possibility; the initiative for the miai introductions comes from the parents who may feel that their son or daughter is of a marriageable age in the range of 22 to 30, but has shown little or no sign of seeking a partner on their own. Other times, the individual may ask friends or acquaintances to introduce potential mates in a similar way. Parents subtly interject the phrase “onegai shimasu” into casual conversation, which implies that both parents have consented for their daughter to meet eligible men; the daughter may be unaware that her parents have suggested her availability though the use of "onegai shimasu."
Moreover, some parents send a candidacy picture to a future husband or go-between without their daughter's knowledge or consent. Parents may enlist the aid of a nakōdo or ask a third party with a wide range of social contacts to act as a go-between; the word "miai" describes both the entire process as well as the first meeting between the couple and the nakōdo. Miai signifies that the parties were brought together expressly for the purpose of marriage on the initiative of the parents, a friend of the family or a go-between, it means that the initial criteria of selection were objective ones. The potential mate and their family examine all eligible persons; the nakōdo has photographs of candidates and a “rirekisho”, a small personal history. The rirekisho includes the name, health, education and marital status of all members of the candidate's family; the families sit down with the nakōdo and screen the portfolios to eliminate any inappropriate candidates. The photographs and rirekisho may be brought to the home of the potential mate's family for the son or daughter to scrutinize.
The participant and their family examine the photos and short personal histories based on an investigation of social consideration. The education level and occupations of the potential candidate's family are the first aspects taken into consideration at this meeting; the potential mate and their mother create a list of primary choices and ask the nakōdo to investigate the first choice. In more selective miai, the candidates and their families are judged on a large set of criteria aimed at determining the suitability and the balance of the marriage; this criteria is formally known in Japan as iegara. It includes level of education, occupation, physical attractiveness, social standing, hobbies. Many modern women are stereotyped as looking for three attributes: height, high salary, high education; this is known as the "Three Hs.” The participant's bloodline plays a large role. Many fear that a candidate's blood is contaminated with diseases such as epilepsy, neurosis, or mental illness; the fear is so prevalent that the Eugenic Protection Law of 1948 was passed to legalize sterilization and abortion for people with a history of mental defects and other hereditary diseases.
Social status plays a large role in selecting a candidate. Ideally, paired candidates and their families should be of equal social status. A candidate has a hard time finding a mate if hi
Culture of Japan
The culture of Japan has changed over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia and North America. Strong 9,000 year old ancient Han Chinese cultural influences, including the 8,000 year old ancient Han Chinese writing script, are still evident in traditional Japanese culture as China had been a global superpower, which has resulted in Japan absorbing many elements of ancient Han Chinese culture first through what as the Imperial Chinese tributary vassal state of Korea later through direct cultural exchanges during China's Sui and Tang dynasties; the inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of relative isolation from the outside world during the Tokugawa shogunate after Japanese missions to Imperial China, until the arrival of the "Black Ships" and the Meiji period. Today, the culture of Japan stands as one of the leading and most prominent cultures around the world due to the global reach of its popular culture.
Japanese is the primary language of Japan. Japanese has a lexically distinct pitch-accent system. Early Japanese is known on the basis of its state in the 8th century, when the three major works of Old Japanese were compiled; the earliest attestation of the Japanese language is in a Chinese document from 252 AD. Japanese is written with a combination of three scripts: hiragana, derived from the Chinese cursive script, derived as a shorthand from Chinese characters, kanji, imported from China; the Latin alphabet, rōmaji, is often used in modern Japanese for company names and logos and when inputting Japanese into a computer. The Hindu-Arabic numerals are used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are very common. Shintoism and Buddhism are the primary religions of Japan, though a secular Christmas is widespread, minority Christian and Islamic communities exist. Shintoism is an ethnic religion that focuses on rituals. In Shintoism, followers believe that kami, a Shinto deity or spirit, are present throughout nature, including rocks and mountains.
Humans can be considered to possess a kami. One of the goals of Shintoism is to maintain a connection between humans and kami; the religion developed in Japan prior to the sixth century CE, after which point followers built shrines to worship kami. Buddhism developed in India around the 6th and 4th centuries BCE and spread through China and Korea, it arrived in Japan during the 6th century CE, where it was unpopular. Most Japanese people were unable to understand the difficult philosophical messages present in Buddhism, however they did have an appreciation for the religion's art, believed to have led to the religion growing more popular. Buddhism is concerned with the life after dying. In the religion a person's status was unimportant, as every person would get sick, die, be reincarnated into a new life, a cycle called saṃsāra; the suffering people experienced during life was one way for people to gain a better future. The ultimate goal was to escape the cycle of rebirth by attaining true insight.
The Japanese "national character" has been written about under the term Nihonjinron meaning "theories/discussions about the Japanese people" and referring to texts on matters that are the concerns of sociology, history and philosophy, but emphasizing the authors' assumptions or perceptions of Japanese exceptionalism. Early works of Japanese literature were influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature written in Classical Chinese. Japanese literature developed into a separate style in its own right as Japanese writers began writing their own works about Japan. Since Japan reopened its ports to Western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century and Eastern literature have affected each other and continue to do so; the flowing, brush-drawn Japanese rendering of text itself is seen as a traditional art form as well as a means of conveying written information. The written work can consist of phrases, stories, or single characters; the style and format of the writing can mimic the subject matter to the point of texture and stroke speed.
In some cases, it can take over one hundred attempts to produce the desired effect of a single character but the process of creating the work is considered as much an art as the end product itself. This calligraphy form is known as'shodō' which means'the way of writing or calligraphy' or more known as'shūji"learning how to write characters'. Confused with calligraphy is the art form known as'sumi-e' meaning'ink painting', the art of painting a scene or object. Painting has been an art in Japan for a long time: the brush is a traditional writing and painting tool, the extension of that to its use as an artist's tool was natural. Japanese painters are categorized by what they painted, as most of them constrained themselves to subjects such as animals, landscapes, or figures. Chinese papermaking was introduced to Japan around the 7th century. Washi was developed from it. Native Japanese painting techniques are still in use today, as well as techniques adopted from continental Asia and from the West.
Schools of painting such as the Kano school of the 16th century became known for their bold brush strokes and contrast between light and dark after Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu
Ichi-go ichi-e is a Japanese four-character idiom that describes a cultural concept of treasuring the unrepeatable nature of a moment. The term has been translated as "for this time only," and "once in a lifetime." The term reminds people to cherish any gathering that they may take part in, citing the fact that any moment in life cannot be repeated. The concept is most associated with Japanese tea ceremonies tea masters Sen no Rikyū and Ii Naosuke; the term can be traced back to the 16th century to an expression by tea master Sen no Rikyū: "one chance in a lifetime". Rikyū's apprentice Yamanoue Sōji instructs in Yamanoue Sōji Ki to give respect to your host "as though it were a meeting that could occur only once in the lifetime". Ichigo is a Buddhist term meaning "from one's birth to i.e. one's lifetime. In the mid-19th century, Ii Naosuke, Tairō of the Tokugawa shogunate, elaborated on the concept in Chanoyu Ichie Shū: Great attention should be given to a tea gathering, which we can speak of as "one time, one meeting".
Though the host and guests may see each other socially, one day's gathering can never be repeated exactly. Viewed this way, the meeting is indeed a once-in-a-lifetime occasion; the host, must in true sincerity take the greatest care with every aspect of the gathering and devote himself to ensuring that nothing is rough. The guests, for their part, must understand that the gathering cannot occur again and, appreciating how the host has flawlessly planned it, must participate with true sincerity; this is what is meant by "one time, one meeting." This passage established the yojijukugo form ichi-go ichi-e known today. Ichi-go ichi-e is linked with concepts of transience; the term is associated with the Japanese tea ceremony, is brushed onto scrolls which are hung in the tea room. The term is much repeated in budō, it is sometimes used to admonish students who become careless or stop techniques midway to "try again," rather than moving on with the technique despite the mistake. In a life-or-death struggle, there is no chance to "try again."
Though techniques may be attempted many times in the dojo, each should be seen as a singular and decisive event. In noh theater, performances are only rehearsed together once, a few days before the show, rather than the many times that are typical in the West, this corresponding to the transience of a given show. Romanian conductor Sergiu Celibidache's focus was on creating, during each concert, the optimal conditions for a what he called a "transcendent experience". Aspects of Zen Buddhism, such as ichi-go ichi-e, were influential on him; the 1994 movie Forrest Gump was released in Japan with this term in the subtitle as Forrest Gump/Ichi-go Ichi-e, reflecting the events that happen in the movie. The term is Hiro Nakamura's favorite phrase in the NBC series Heroes; the term is used in an episode of the anime Azumanga Daioh. It is a song title in the soundtrack of Kareshi Kanojo no Jijo; the term is used in the manga Boys Over Flowers and several episodes of its 2005 adaptation. One of the series' main characters, Sojiro Nishikado, the son of a Grand Master, uses the term to pick up girls.
He realizes its true meaning when he misses the chance to be with his first love. It is referenced in the title of the Kishi Bashi album 151a, which read in Japanese is pronounced "ichi-go-ichi ē." Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi used the term to describe meetings between India and Japan during his state visit to the country on 11 November 2016. The term is the title in Mozart in the Jungle season 4 episode 8 and the episode revolves around a tea ceremony with the kanji characters of Ichi-go Ichi-e displayed in the room; the term mentioned in Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown season 8 episode 6, "Japan with Masa". Ichigo Ichie is a Michelin-starred Japanese restaurant in Cork, Ireland