The Tokugawa Shogunate known as the Tokugawa Bakufu and the Edo Bakufu, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1603 and 1867. The head of government was the shōgun, each was a member of the Tokugawa clan; the Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern. Following the Sengoku period, the central government had been re-established by Oda Nobunaga during the Azuchi–Momoyama period. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu. Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike in previous shogunates, was based on the strict class hierarchy established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi; the daimyō were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers and traders ranking below. In some parts of the country smaller regions, daimyō and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyō might be trained as samurai, samurai might act as local rulers.
Otherwise, the inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value; as a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much larger rebellions. None, proved compelling enough to challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers. A 2017 study found that peasant rebellions and collective desertion lowered tax rates and inhibited state growth in the Tokugawa shogunate. In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyō, along with the titular Emperor, succeeded in overthrowing the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration; the Tokugawa shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" of imperial rule.
Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 260 years. The bakuhan taisei was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government"—that is, the shogunate; the han were the domains headed by daimyō. Vassals provided military service and homage to their lords; the bakuhan taisei split feudal power between the shogunate in Edo and provincial domains throughout Japan. Provinces had a degree of sovereignty and were allowed an independent administration of the han in exchange for loyalty to the shōgun, responsible for foreign relations and national security; the shōgun and lords were all daimyōs: feudal lords with their own bureaucracies and territories. The shōgun administered the most powerful han, the hereditary fief of the House of Tokugawa.
Each level of government administered its own system of taxation. The emperor, nominally a religious leader, held no real power; the shogunate had the power to discard and transform domains. The sankin-kōtai system of alternative residence required each daimyō to reside in alternate years between the han and the court in Edo. During their absences from Edo, it was required that they leave family as hostages until their return; the huge expenditure sankin-kōtai imposed on each han helped centralize aristocratic alliances and ensured loyalty to the shōgun as each representative doubled as a potential hostage. Tokugawa's descendants further ensured loyalty by maintaining a dogmatic insistence on loyalty to the shōgun. Fudai daimyō were hereditary vassals of Ieyasu, as well as of his descendants. Tozama became vassals of Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara. Shinpan were collaterals of Tokugawa Hidetada. Early in the Edo period, the shogunate viewed the tozama as the least to be loyal. In the end, it was the great tozama of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa, to a lesser extent Hizen, that brought down the shogunate.
These four states are called Satchotohi for short. The number of han fluctuated throughout the Edo period, they were ranked by size, measured as the number of koku of rice that the domain produced each year. One koku was the amount of rice necessary to feed one adult male for one year; the minimum number for a daimyō was ten thousand koku. Regardless of the political title of the Emperor, the shōguns of the Tokugawa family controlled Japan; the administration of Japan was a task given by the Imperial Court in Kyoto to the Tokugawa family, which returned to the court in the Meiji Restoration. While the Emperor had the prerogative of appointing the shōgun, he had no say in state affairs; the shogunate appointed a liaison, the Kyoto Shoshidai, to deal with the Emperor and nobility. Towards the end of the shogunate, after centuries of the Emperor having little say in state affairs and being secluded in his Kyoto palace, in the wake of the reigning shōgun, Tokugawa Iemochi, marrying the sister of Emperor Kōmei, in 1862, the Imperial Court in Kyoto
James Biddle, of the Biddle family, brother of financier Nicholas Biddle and nephew of Captain Nicholas Biddle, was an American commodore. His flagship was USS Columbus. Biddle was born in Philadelphia. After graduating, he entered service in the United States Navy as a midshipman in 1800. Retained in the navy reduction of 1801, Biddle served in the war against the Barbary pirates; the ship he was in, USS Philadelphia, struck rocks off Tripoli, along with his Commodore, William Bainbridge, he was kept imprisoned by the pirates for 19 months. During the War of 1812, Biddle was first lieutenant in USS Wasp, he was in command of the sloop USS Hornet in 1815. In 1817, he was sent to the Columbia River in the USS Ontario to formally take over the Oregon Country for the United States, completed in 1818. After the war, Biddle performed various duties in the Gulf of Mexico, the South Atlantic and the Mediterranean. In 1830, Biddle and US consul David Offly concluded a treaty with the Sublime Porte; the treaty was used by US diplomats to claim extraterritorial privileges for US citizens in the Ottoman Empire.
In December 1845, Biddle exchanged ratifications of the Treaty of Wanghia at Poon Tong, a village outside Guangzhou. The treaty was the first treaty between the United States. On July 20, 1846, he anchored with the two warships USS Columbus and USS Vincennes in Uraga Channel at the mouth to Edo Bay in an attempt to open up Japan to trade with the United States, but was unsuccessful. Biddle delivered his request that Japan agree to a similar treaty to that which had just been negotiated with China. A few days a Japanese junk approached Biddle's flagship and requested his presence on board their ship to receive the Tokugawa shogunate's official response. Biddle at first demurred but agreed; as Biddle attempted to board the Japanese ship he misunderstood the instructions of one of the samurai guards and was physically knocked back by the guard who drew his sword. Biddle retreated to his flagship; the Japanese officials apologized for the mishap. Biddle received the shogunate's response and was told that Japan forbade all commerce and communication with foreign nations besides that of the Dutch.
Seven years Commodore Matthew Perry did the task with four warships. Perry was well aware of Biddle's reception and strove to make sure that he would not be treated in the same manner. Biddle is buried at Christ Church Burial Ground in the family plot. Closed Japan Long, David F. Long.. Sailor-Diplomat: A Biography of Commodore James Biddle, 1783-1848 Boston: Northeastern University Press. ISBN 978-0-930350-39-0 Sakamaki Shunzo. Japan and the United States, 1790-1853. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1973. Sewall, John S.. The Logbook of the Captain's Clerk: Adventures in the China Seas, Maine: Chas H. Glass & Co. ISBN 0-548-20912-X Media related to James Biddle at Wikimedia Commons James Biddle at Find a Grave
Sakoku was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were limited, nearly all foreign nationals were barred from entering Japan and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years. The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633 to 1639, ended after 1853 when the American Black Ships commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to American trade through a series of unequal treaties, it was preceded by a period of unrestricted trade and widespread piracy when Japanese mariners travelled Asia and official embassies and envoys visited both Asian states, New Spain, Europe. This period was noted for the large number of foreign traders and pirates who were resident in Japan and active in Japanese waters; the term Sakoku originates from the manuscript work Sakoku-ron written by Japanese astronomer and translator Shizuki Tadao in 1801.
Shizuki invented the word while translating the works of the 17th-century German traveller Engelbert Kaempfer concerning Japan. Japan was not isolated under the sakoku policy, it was a system in which strict regulations were applied to commerce and foreign relations by the shogunate and by certain feudal domains. There was extensive trade with China through the port of Nagasaki, in the far west of Japan, with a residential area for the Chinese; the policy stated that the only European influence permitted was the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Western scientific and medical innovations did flow into Japan through Rangaku. Trade with Korea was limited to the Tsushima Domain. Trade with the Ainu people was limited to the Matsumae Domain in Hokkaidō, trade with the Ryūkyū Kingdom took place in Satsuma Domain. Apart from these direct commercial contacts in peripheral provinces, trading countries sent regular missions to the shōgun in Edo and Osaka Castle. Japan traded at this time with five entities, through four "gateways".
The largest was the private Chinese trade at Nagasaki, where the Dutch East India Company was permitted to operate. The Matsumae clan domain in Hokkaidō traded with the Ainu people. Through the Sō clan daimyō of Tsushima, there were relations with Joseon-dynasty Korea. Ryūkyū, a semi-independent kingdom for nearly all of the Edo period, was controlled by the Shimazu clan daimyō of Satsuma Domain. Tashiro Kazui has shown that trade between Japan and these entities was divided into two kinds: Group A in which he places China and the Dutch, "whose relations fell under the direct jurisdiction of the Bakufu at Nagasaki" and Group B, represented by the Korean Kingdom and the Ryūkyū Kingdom, "who dealt with Tsushima and Satsuma domains respectively". Many items traded from Japan to Korea and the Ryūkyū Kingdom were shipped on to China. In the Ryūkyū Islands and Korea, the clans in charge of trade built trading towns outside Japanese territory where commerce took place. Due to the necessity for Japanese subjects to travel to and from these trading posts, this resembled something of an outgoing trade, with Japanese subjects making regular contact with foreign traders in extraterritorial land.
Commerce with Chinese and Dutch traders in Nagasaki took place on an island called Dejima, separated from the city by a narrow strait. Trade in fact prospered during this period, though relations and trade were restricted to certain ports, the country was far from closed. In fact as the shogunate expelled the Portuguese, they engaged in discussions with Dutch and Korean representatives to ensure that the overall volume of trade did not suffer. Thus, it has become common in scholarship in recent decades to refer to the foreign relations policy of the period not as sakoku, implying a secluded, "closed" country, but by the term kaikin used in documents at the time, derived from the similar Chinese concept haijin, it is conventionally regarded that the shogunate imposed and enforced the sakoku policy in order to remove the colonial and religious influence of Spain and Portugal, which were perceived as posing a threat to the stability of the shogunate and to peace in the archipelago. The increasing number of Catholic converts in southern Japan was a significant element of that, seen as a threat.
Based on work conducted by Japanese historians in the 1970s, some scholars have challenged this view, believing it to be only a partial explanation of political reality. The motivations for the gradual strengthening of the maritime prohibitions during the early 17th century should be considered within the context of the Tokugawa bakufu's domestic agenda. One element of this agenda was to acquire sufficient control over Japan's foreign policy so as not only to guarantee social peace, but to maintain Tokugawa supremacy over the other powerful lords in the country the tozama daimyōs; these daimyōs had used East Asian trading linkages to profitable effect during the Sengoku period, which allowed them to build up their military strength as well. By restricting the daimyōs' ability to trade with foreign ships coming to Japan or pursue trade opportunities overseas, the Tokugawa bakufu could ensure none would become powerful enough to
The Qing dynasty the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, it was succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China, it was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In an unrelated development, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing, in 1644. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon.
He seized the capital. Resistance from the Southern Ming and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the Qing conquest of China proper by nearly four decades; the conquest was only completed in 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor reign. The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia; the early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs, while their title was Emperor, they used "Bogd khaan" when dealing with the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus, they adapted the ideals of the tributary system in dealing with neighboring territories. During the Qianlong Emperor reign the dynasty reached its apogee, but began its initial decline in prosperity and imperial control; the population rose to some 400 millions, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis.
Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, ruling elites failed to change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium Wars, European powers imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control; the Taiping Rebellion and the Dungan Revolt in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers; the initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi; when the Scramble for Concessions by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign "Boxers", the foreign powers invaded China, Cixi declared war on them, leading to defeat and the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.
After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform; the Wuchang Uprising on 11 October 1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912. Nurhaci declared himself the "Bright Khan" of the Later Jin state in honor both of the 12th–13th century Jurchen Jin dynasty and of his Aisin Gioro clan, his son Hong Taiji renamed the dynasty Great Qing in 1636. There are competing explanations on the meaning of Qīng; the name may have been selected in reaction to the name of the Ming dynasty, which consists of the Chinese characters for "sun" and "moon", both associated with the fire element of the Chinese zodiacal system.
The character Qīng is associated with the water element. This association would justify the Qing conquest as defeat of fire by water; the water imagery of the new name may have had Buddhist overtones of perspicacity and enlightenment and connections with the Bodhisattva Manjusri. The Manchu name daicing, which sounds like a phonetic rendering of Dà Qīng or Dai Ching, may in fact have been derived from a Mongolian word "ᠳᠠᠢᠢᠴᠢᠨ, дайчин" that means "warrior". Daicing gurun may therefore have meant "warrior state", a pun, only intelligible to Manchu and Mongol people. In the part of the dynasty, however the Manchus themselves had forgotten this possible meaning. After conquering "China proper", the Manchus identified their state as "China", referred to it as Dulimbai Gurun in Manchu; the emperors equated the lands of the Qing state as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, rejecting the idea that "China" only meant Han areas. The Qing emperors proclaimed that bo
A full-rigged ship or rigged ship is a sailing vessel's sail plan with three or more masts, all of them square-rigged. A full-rigged ship is said to be ship-rigged. Sometimes such a vessel will be called a ship in 18th- to early-19th-century and earlier usage, to distinguish it from other large three-masted blue-water working vessels such as barques, fluyts etc; this full or ship-rig sail plan thus is a term of art that differentiates such vessels as well from other working or cargo vessels with diverse alternative sail-plans such as galleons, sloops, schooners and carracks. The ship-rig sail plan differs drastically from the large panoply of one and two masted vessels found as working and recreational sailboats. Alternatively, a full-rigged ship may be referred to by its function instead, as in collier or frigate, rather than being called a ship. In many languages the word frigate or frigate rig refers to a full-rigged ship; the masts of a full-rigged ship, from bow to stern, are: Foremast, the second tallest mast Mainmast, the tallest Mizzenmast, the third tallest Jiggermast, which may not be present but will be fourth tallest if soThere is no standard name for a fifth mast on a ship-rigged vessel.
Only one five-masted full-rigged ship had been built until recent years, when a few modern five-masted cruise sailing ships have been launched. A fourth mast is rare for full-rigged ships. Ships with five and more masts are not fully rigged and their masts may be numbered rather than named in extreme cases. If the masts are of wood, each mast is in three or more pieces, they are: The lowest piece is called the mast or the lower. Topmast Topgallant mast Royal mast, if fittedOn steel-masted vessels, the corresponding sections of the mast are named after the traditional wooden sections; the lowest and largest sail on a mast is the course sail of that mast, is referred to by the mast name: Foresail, mizzen sail, jigger sail or more forecourse etc. Note that a full-rigged ship did not have a lateral course on the mizzen mast below the mizzen topmast. Instead, the lowest sail on the mizzen was a fore/aft sail—originally a lateen sail, but a gaff sail called a spanker or driver; the key distinction between a "ship" and "barque" is that a "ship" carries a square-rigged mizzen topsail whereas the mizzen mast of a barque has only fore-and-aft rigged sails.
The cross-jack yard was the lowest yard on a ship's mizzen mast. Unlike the corresponding yards on the fore and main mast it did not have fittings to hang a sail from: its purpose was to control the lower edge of the topsail. In the rare case that the cross-jack yard did carry a square sail, this sail would be called the cross-jack rather than the mizzen course. Above the course sail, in order, are: Topsail, or Lower topsail, if fitted. Upper topsail, if fitted. Topgallant sail, or Lower topgallant sail, if fitted. Upper topgallant sail, if fitted. Royal sail, if fitted. Skysail, if fitted. Moonraker, if fitted; the division of a sail into upper and lower sails was a matter of practicality, since undivided sails were larger and more difficult to handle. Larger sails necessitated hiring, paying, a larger crew. Additionally, the great size of some late-19th and 20th century vessels meant that their correspondingly large sails would have been impossible to handle had they not been divided. Jibs are carried forward of the foremast, are tacked down on the bowsprit or jib-boom and have varying naming conventions.
Staysails may be carried between any other mast and the one in front of it or from the foremast to the bowsprit. They are named after the mast from which they are hoisted, so for example a staysail hoisted to the top of the mizzen topgallant on a stay running to the top of the main topmast would be called the mizzen topgallant staysail. In light winds studding sails may be carried on either side of any or all of the square rigged sails except royals and skysails, they are named after the adjacent sail and the side of the vessel on which they are set, for example main topgallant starboard stu'nsail. One or more spritsails may be set on booms set athwart and below the bowsprit. One or two spankers are carried aft of the aftmost mast, if two they are called the upper spanker and lower spanker. A fore-and-aft topsail may be carried above the upper or only spanker, is called the gaff sail. To stop a full-rigged ship except when running directly down wind, the sails of the foremast are oriented in the direction perpendicular to those of the mainmast.
Thus, the masts cancel out of their push on the ship. This allows the crew to stop and restart the ship without retracting and lowering the sails, to dynamically compensate for the push of the wind on the masts themselves and the yards. Running downwind. Glossary of nautical terms Rigging Sail Sail-plan Types of sailing ships Yard Willaumez, Jean-Baptiste-Philibert. Dictionnaire de marine. Bachelier. Rousmaniere, John; the Illustrated Dictionary of Boating Terms: 2000 Essential Terms for Sailors and Powerboaters. W. W. Norton & Company. P. 174. ISBN 0393339181. ISBN 978-0393339185 The Development of the Full-Rigged Ship From the Carrack to the Full-Rigger Example of full-rigged ship: Stad Amsterdam Christian Radich
Is a municipality in the district of Martigny in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Is first mentioned in the 11th Century as Fuliacum. Has an area, as of 2011, of 37.8 square kilometers. Of this area, 30.5 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 5.7% is settled and 36.2% is unproductive land. It is well known for its wines. Is just the administrative name of a group of several villages of Vers-l'Eglise, Branson, Châtaignier and Randonnaz along with a number of hamlets; the natural reserve of Les Follatères, located on the south facing slopes above the Rhône elbow, has a variety of animal and plant species uncommon in Switzerland. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per fess, Gules two Grapes Or slipped Vert and Azure a Church Or doored and roofed Sable. Has a population of 8,737; as of 2008, 18.4% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 28.8%. It has changed at a rate of 5.3 % due to births and deaths.
Most of the population speaks French as their first language, Portuguese is the second most common and Albanian is the third. There are 47 people who speak Italian and 4 people who speak Romansh; as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 50.7 % female. The population was made up of 741 non-Swiss men. There were 616 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 3,207 or about 57.4% were born in Fully and lived there in 2000. There were 1,043 or 18.7% who were born in the same canton, while 412 or 7.4% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 798 or 14.3% were born outside of Switzerland. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 29.7% of the population, while adults make up 56.5% and seniors make up 13.8%. As of 2000, there were 2,372 people who never married in the municipality. There were 342 widows or widowers and 157 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 2,093 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.6 persons per household.
There were 610 households that consist of only one person and 262 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 1,979 apartments were permanently occupied, while 384 apartments were seasonally occupied and 107 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 12.8 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.73%. The historical population is given in the following chart: The entire hamlet of Branson is designated as part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP; the next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SVP and the SP. In the federal election, a total of 2,733 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 63.0%. In the 2009 Conseil d'Etat/Staatsrat election a total of 2,656 votes were cast, of which 154 or about 5.8% were invalid. The voter participation was 59.3%, similar to the cantonal average of 54.67%. In the 2007 Swiss Council of States election a total of 2,716 votes were cast, of which 211 or about 7.8% were invalid.
The voter participation was 63.2%, similar to the cantonal average of 59.88%. As of 2010, Fully had an unemployment rate of 5.9%. As of 2008, there were 741 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 200 businesses involved in this sector. 366 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 54 businesses in this sector. 812 people were employed with 150 businesses in this sector. There were 2,695 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 42.2% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 1,400; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 431, of which 427 were in agriculture and 4 were in forestry or lumber production. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 341 of which 53 or were in manufacturing and 288 were in construction; the number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 628. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 279 workers who commuted into the municipality and 1,548 workers who commuted away.
The municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 5.5 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering. Of the working population, 9.5% used public transportation to get to work, 71.4% used a private car. From the 2000 census, 4,765 or 85.3% were Roman Catholic, while 205 or 3.7% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 29 members of an Orthodox church, there was 1 individual who belongs to the Christian Catholic Church, there were 50 individuals who belonged to another Christian church. There were 168 (or about 3.01% of the po
Mito was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Hitachi Province in modern-day Ibaraki Prefecture. In the han system, Mito was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area; this was different from the feudalism of the West. The domain's capital was the city of Mito. Beginning with the appointment of Tokugawa Yorifusa by his father, Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu, in 1608, the Mito branch of the Tokugawa clan controlled the domain until the abolition of the han system in 1871. During the Edo period, Mito represented the center of nativism as a result of the Mitogaku, an influential school of Japanese thought, which advanced the political philosophy of sonnō jōi that had become a popular sentiment after 1854. Mito's sponsorship of the Dai Nihon-shi established the domain's tradition of intellectualism. Mito scholars and their ideology influenced many of the revolutionaries involved in the Meiji Restoration.
Following the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu appointed his eleventh son, Tokugawa Yorifusa, as daimyō in 1608. With his appointment, Yorifusa became the founding member of the Mito branch of the Tokugawa clan. Along with the Tokugawa branches in Kii and Owari, the Mito branch represented one of three Tokugawa houses known as the gosanke. Although the Mito branch held less land and wealth than either of the other two branches, they maintained considerable influence throughout the Edo period; the domain's promiximity to the de facto capital in Edo was a contributing factor to this power as well as the fact that many people unofficially considered the Mito daimyō to be "vice-shōgun". Tokugawa Mitsukuni, the third son of Tokugawa Yorifusa, became the second daimyō of Mito in 1661. Mitsukuni further established Mito's status as a respected han by sponsoring the Dai Nihon-shi in 1657; the endeavor would launch Mito's reputation as a center for intellectual thought.
The Mito School was an influential school of Japanese thought which advocated isolationism and reverence of the emperor. The origins of this Neo-Confucianist movement date to Mitsukuni's decision to establish a historiographical organization known as the Shōkōkan in 1657. Mitsukuni recruited educated scholars to the Shōkōkan to study the philosophy of Japan. Mitsukuni initiated the creation of the Dai Nihon-shi by the scholars in order to compile a history of Japan which would focus on the imperial line; each chapter of the "Annals" in the Dai Nihon-shi concentrated on the rule of a specific emperor. The project took more than two hundred and fifty years to finish, it was published in 1906. While scholars were compiling the Dai Nihon-shi, the Mito domain experienced agricultural and economic problems. Beginning as early as 1688, financial ruin plagued discontent grew in the domain. In addition to the financial issues and natural disasters were common occurrences. In 1709, dissatisfied peasants staged the largest rebellion in the history of the domain.
An increasing number of discontent citizens in Mito embraced the works of the early Mito scholars for their reverence of the emperor and their anti-foreign ideology. These works inspired waves of nationalism and loyalty to the imperial family during the 17th century. During these disorderly years, the Mito scholarship grew into a renowned school of thought in Japan. Under Mitsukuni's leadership, the Dai Nihon-shi expanded to seventy-three chapters of the "Annals" and one hundred and seventy chapters of "Biographies" by the time of his death in 1700. In 1720, the Mito scholars offered them to the bakufu; these events signalled the end of the early Mito school. For the next seven decades, the Shōkōkan made little progress with the Dai Nihon-shi without the guidance of Mitsukuni. in 1786, Tachihara Suiken took over leadership of the Shōkōkan and resumed work on the compilation. Fujita Yūkoku became the head of the institute after Tachihara, he pushed for more focus on the history of that period.
During the late 18th century, two factions within the Shōkōkan emerged. Fujita and the other opponents of Tachihara called for the removal of Asaka Tanpaku's "Appraisals" as well as the changing of the name Dai Nihon-shito "Nihon" or "Yamato"; the struggle between the two factions led to the house arrest of Fujita in 1797. By 1807, Fujita was once again in power and Tachihara had left the institute; as Mito thought developed during the 19th century, the scholars began to emphasize anti-Western sentiment and the importance of the emperor in Japanese society. In particular, Mito scholars embraced the political slogan "sonnō jōi" which means "Revere the Emperor and Expel the Barbarians"; the scholar Aizawa Seishisai was the first advocate of this philosophy in Japan. In 1825, he wrote New Proposals, which presented his ideas about the need to protect Japan from the Western'barbarians', he promoted nativism and opposition to Western force and belief systems. He was a fierce opponent of Christianity, which in his view undermined Japanese values.
Seishisai advocated support of the emperor as a method of confronting the Western threat from abroad. In the work, Seishisai advanced the idea of kokutai which combined Confucian morals, Shinto myths, other philosophies. According to Seishisai, the Japanese imperial family were direct descendants of Amaterasu, the Sun Goddess, so Japan was supposed to establish the proper standard for other nations to emulate. New Proposals served as an inspiratio